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  • 1. Dancygier, Rafaela
    et al.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Vernby, Kåre
    Representationsgapet2017In: Valdeltagande och representation: om invandring och politisk integration i Sverige / [ed] Bevelander, Pieter; Spång, Mikael, Delmi , 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2. Dancygier, Rafaela M.
    et al.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Vernby, Kåre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Why Are Immigrants Underrepresented in Politics?: Evidence from Sweden2015In: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 109, no 4, p. 703-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread and persistent political underrepresentation of immigrant-origin minorities poses deep challenges to democratic practice and norms. What accounts for this underrepresentation? Two types of competing explanations are prevalent in the literature: accounts that base minority underrepresentation on individual-level resources and accounts that emphasize political opportunity structures. However, due to the lack of data suitable for testing these explanations, existing research has not been able to adjudicate between these theories. Using registry-based microdata covering the entire Swedish adult population between 1991 and 2010 our study is the first to empirically evaluate these alternative explanations. We examine election outcomes to municipal councils over the course of six elections and find that variation in individual-level resources cannot explain immigrants' underrepresentation. Further, when comparing immigrants and natives who face comparable political opportunity structures a large representation gap remains. Instead, we argue that discrimination by party gatekeepers plays a more significant role in perpetuating the underrepresentation of immigrants than do individual resources or structural variables.

  • 3.
    Lee, James J.
    et al.
    Univ Minnesota Twin Cities, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Wedow, Robbee
    Univ Colorado, Dept Sociol, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Inst Behav Genet, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Inst Behav Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Okbay, Aysu
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Complex Trait Genet, Ctr Neurogen & Cognit Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Sch Business & Econ, Dept Econ, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Kong, Edward
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Maghzian, Omeed
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Zacher, Meghan
    Harvard Univ, Dept Sociol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Nguyen-Viet, Tuan Anh
    Bowers, Peter
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sidorenko, Julia
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia..
    Linner, Richard Karlsson
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Complex Trait Genet, Ctr Neurogen & Cognit Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Sch Business & Econ, Dept Econ, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Fontana, Mark Alan
    Hosp Special Surg, Ctr Adv Value Musculoskeletal Care, 535 E 70th St, New York, NY 10021 USA..
    Kundu, Tushar
    Univ Southern Calif, Ctr Econ & Social Res, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Lee, Chanwook
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Li, Hui
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Li, Ruoxi
    Univ Southern Calif, Ctr Econ & Social Res, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Royer, Rebecca
    Univ Southern Calif, Ctr Econ & Social Res, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Timshel, Pascal N.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Sect Metab Genet, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Statens Serum Inst, Dept Epidemiol Res, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Walters, Raymond K.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Analyt & Translat Genet Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;MIT & Harvard, Stanley Ctr Psychiat Res, Broad Inst, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Willoughby, Emily A.
    Univ Minnesota Twin Cities, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Yengo, Loic
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Alver, Maris
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia..
    Bao, Yanchun
    Univ Essex, Inst Social & Econ Res, Colchester, Essex, England..
    Clark, David W.
    Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Day, Felix R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Furlotte, Nicholas A.
    23&Me Inc, Mountain View, CA USA..
    Joshi, Peter K.
    Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Lausanne Hosp, Inst Social & Prevent Med, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Kemper, Kathryn E.
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Kleinman, Aaron
    23&Me Inc, Mountain View, CA USA..
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Magi, Reedik
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia..
    Trampush, Joey W.
    BrainWorkup LLC, Santa Monica, CA USA.;Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Verma, Shefali Setia
    Geisinger Hlth Syst, Dept Biomed & Translat Informat, Danville, PA USA..
    Wu, Yang
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Lam, Max
    Inst Mental Hlth, Singapore, Singapore.;Genome Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Zhao, Jing Hua
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Zheng, Zhili
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Wenzhou Med Univ, Sch Ophthalmol & Optometry, Eye Hosp, Wenzhou, Peoples R China..
    Boardman, Jason D.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Sociol, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Inst Behav Genet, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Inst Behav Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Campbell, Harry
    Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Freese, Jeremy
    Stanford Univ, Dept Sociol, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Harris, Kathleen Mullan
    Univ North Carolina Chapel Hill, Dept Sociol, Chapel Hill, NC USA.;Univ North Carolina Chapel Hill, Carolina Populat Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Hayward, Caroline
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Herd, Pamela
    Univ Essex, Inst Social & Econ Res, Colchester, Essex, England.;Univ Wisconsin, La Follette Sch Publ Affairs, Madison, WI USA..
    Kumari, Meena
    Univ Essex, Inst Social & Econ Res, Colchester, Essex, England..
    Lencz, Todd
    Hofstra Northwell Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Hempstead, NY USA.;Hofstra Northwell Sch Med, Dept Mol Med, Hempstead, NY USA.;Feinstein Inst Med Res, Ctr Psychiat Neurosci, Manhasset, NY USA.;Zucker Hillside Hosp, Psychiat Res, Glen Oaks, CA USA..
    Luan, Jian'an
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Malhotra, Anil K.
    Hofstra Northwell Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Hempstead, NY USA.;Hofstra Northwell Sch Med, Dept Mol Med, Hempstead, NY USA.;Feinstein Inst Med Res, Ctr Psychiat Neurosci, Manhasset, NY USA.;Zucker Hillside Hosp, Psychiat Res, Glen Oaks, CA USA..
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Tartu, Estonia..
    Milani, Lili
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia..
    Ong, Ken K.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Perry, John R. B.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Porteous, David J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Ritchie, Marylyn D.
    Smart, Melissa C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Smith, Blair H.
    Univ Dundee, Div Populat Hlth Sci, Ninewells Hosp, Dundee, Scotland.;Univ Dundee, Med Sch, Dundee, Scotland.;Univ Dundee, Med Res Inst, Dundee, Scotland..
    Tung, Joyce Y.
    23&Me Inc, Mountain View, CA USA..
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England..
    Wilson, James F.
    Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Beauchamp, Jonathan P.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Econ, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Conley, Dalton C.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Sociol, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Esko, Tonu
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Tartu, Estonia..
    Lehrer, Steven F.
    Queens Univ, Sch Policy Studies, Kingston, ON, Canada.;New York Univ Shanghai, Dept Econ, Shanghai, Peoples R China.;Natl Bur Econ Res, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Karolinska Inst, Depnt Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Pers, Tune H.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Sect Metab Genet, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Statens Serum Inst, Dept Epidemiol Res, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Robinson, Matthew R.
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Computat Biol, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Thom, Kevin
    NYU, Dept Econ, New York, NY 10003 USA..
    Watson, Chelsea
    Univ Southern Calif, Ctr Econ & Social Res, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Chabris, Christopher F.
    Geisinger Hlth Syst, Autism & Dev Med Inst, Lewisburg, PA USA..
    Meyer, Michelle N.
    Geisinger Hlth Syst, Ctr Translat Bioeth & Hlth Care Policy, Danville, PA USA..
    Laibson, David I.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Yang, Jian
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Econ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Koellinger, Philipp D.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Complex Trait Genet, Ctr Neurogen & Cognit Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Sch Business & Econ, Dept Econ, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Turley, Patrick
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Analyt & Translat Genet Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;MIT & Harvard, Stanley Ctr Psychiat Res, Broad Inst, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Visscher, Peter M.
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Benjamin, Daniel J.
    Univ Southern Calif, Ctr Econ & Social Res, Los Angeles, CA USA.;Natl Bur Econ Res, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.;Univ Southern Calif, Dept Econ, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Cesarini, David
    NYU, Ctr Expt Social Sci, New York, NY USA..
    Gene discovery and polygenic prediction from a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in 1.1 million individuals2018In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 1112-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development processes and neuron-to-neuron communication. In a separate analysis of the X chromosome, we identify 10 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs and estimate a SNP heritability of around 0.3% in both men and women, consistent with partial dosage compensation. A joint (multi-phenotype) analysis of educational attainment and three related cognitive phenotypes generates polygenic scores that explain 11-13% of the variance in educational attainment and 7-10% of the variance in cognitive performance. This prediction accuracy substantially increases the utility of polygenic scores as tools in research.

  • 4.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Arbetsplatsstorlek och sjukfrånvaro2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att studera hur in- och utflödet till sjukskrivning varierar med arbetsplatsstorlek. Mer precist undersöks om det positiva samband mellan arbetsplatsstorlek och sjukfrånvaro som har observerats både i Sverige och utomlands främst drivs av att sjukskrivningar är mer vanligt förekommande eller har längre varaktighet på stora arbetsplatser. Resultaten tyder på att sambandet helt förklaras av att anställda på stora arbetsplatser löper en större risk för att bli sjukskrivna än anställda på små arbetsplatser. Tidsperioden som studeras är 1994–2008.

  • 5.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Dyadic Regression in the Presence of Heteroscedasticity: An Assessment of Alternative Approaches2010In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 279-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the problem of heteroscedasticity has been the subject of much discussion in other areas of applied statistics the problem has received scant attention in the social network literature. This study attempts to remedy this situation by considering how traditional methods for significance testing in dyadic regression models, such as standard QAP tests, perform under conditions of heteroscedasticity. Moreover, the article presents two alternative methods to deal with heteroscedasticity that are both shown to perform rather well with typical social network data under conditions of both heteroscedasticity and homoscedasticity. Overall, the results of the study suggest that applied researchers using regression techniques to study dyadic data are well advised to correct for heteroscedasticity, by either of the two methods discussed here, whenever there is a reason to suspect heteroscedasticity.

  • 6.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    EU-medlemskapets inverkan på den svenska parlamentarismen2000In: Statsvetenskaplig tidskrift, no 3Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 7.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Explaining Wage Coordination2005In: Power and Institutions in Industrial Relation Regimes, Arbetslivsinstitutet, Stockholm , 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Kampen mot arbetslösheten: ett politiskt vägval2008In: Statsvetare ifrågasätter: Uppsalamiljön vid tiden för professorsskiftet den 31 mars 2008 / [ed] Gustavsson, Sverker, Jörgen Hermansson och Barry Holmström, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis,Universitetsbiblioteket [distributör] , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Leder demokrati till ekonomiskt välstånd2010In: Myt eller verklighet: om sambandet mellan demokrati och ekonomisk tillväxt / [ed] Sven Oskarsson och Sten Widmalm, Stockholm: Norstedts , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lägre arbetslöshet och ökad ojämlikhet2006In: Dagens Samhälle, no 28Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 11.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Nya villkor för socialförsäkringarna?2013In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 4, p. 18-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I sitt betänkande argumenterade Ekonomikommissionen för behovet av strukturella reformer på socialförsäkringsområdet. Bland annat menade kommissionen att socialförsäkringssystemet i större utsträckning borde inriktas mot att erbjuda ett basskydd som garanterar individernas grundläggande försörjningsnivå. I den här artikeln diskuteras de senaste decenniernas förändringar av arbetslöshetsförsäkringen i ljuset av kommissionens reformförslag. Genomgången visar att arbetslöshetsförsäkringen i flera avseenden har utvecklats i enlighet med kommissionens förslag. Något paradoxalt kan dock denna utveckling sägas ha stärkt de korporativa inslagen i arbetslöshetsförsäkringen vilket går på tvärs med en av Ekonomikommissionens centrala rekommendationer.

     

  • 12.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Skilda vägar till arbete2006In: Tiden, no 5Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 13.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The Variety of Capitalism in Sweden and Finland: Continuity Through Change2011In: The Changing Political Economies of Small West European Countries / [ed] Uwe Becker, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2011, p. 45-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Vägval arbete2006In: Socialpolitik, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 15.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Institutet för arbetsmarknads- och utbildningspolitisk utvärdering.
    Workplace size and sickness absence transitions2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how workplace size relates to transitions in- and out-of sickness absence. Overall, the study finds important differences in the long-term sickness absence behavior of individuals working in small and large workplaces. In particular, the results show that the sickness spells are of higher incidence, but somewhat shorter duration in large workplaces. However, the results also show that the strength of these relationships varies across different labor market groups. The analysis is based on rich administrative data from Sweden over the period 1994–2008.

  • 16.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Inkinen, Magdalena
    Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, Stockholm .
    Widmalm, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Who Knows Best What the People Want: Women or Men?: A Study of Political Representation in India2009In: Comparative Political Studies, ISSN 0010-4140, E-ISSN 1552-3829, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 31-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of representation lies at the heart of liberal democratic thinking, and over the years considerable effort has gone into defining and measuring the concept. The least common denominator in the voluminous literature is that in a representative political system there should be a certain amount of attitudinal congruence between masses and elites. One much-debated strategy for obtaining a better match between elite and mass policy opinion is that of increasing the representation of women in important decision-making positions in society. Using data on nearly 5,000 elite-mass dyads within 24 Indian villages, the authors find strong support for the view that a more equal representation of women increases opinion congruence between masses and elites. The results are challenging because they show that women are not only better equipped than men to politically represent women but also that they are better at representing men—and the results are shown to apply in a variety of socioeconomic contexts.

  • 17.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Dawes, Christopher
    NYU, Wilf Family Dept Polit, 19 W 4th St,2nd Floor, New York, NY 10012 USA.
    Can Political Inequalities Be Educated Away? Evidence from a Large-scale Reform2017In: American Journal of Political Science, ISSN 0092-5853, E-ISSN 1540-5907, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 222-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years, many suggestions have been made on how to reduce the importance of family background in political recruitment. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of one such proposal: the expansion of mass education. We utilize a difference-in-difference strategy to analyze how a large school reform launched in Sweden in the 1950s, which lengthened schooling and postponed tracking, affected the likelihood of individuals with different family backgrounds to run for public office. The data come from public registers and pertain to the entire Swedish population born between 1943 and 1955. The empirical analysis provides strong support for the view that improved educational opportunities for individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds can be an effective means to reduce the social bias of elected assemblies.

  • 18.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Dawes, Christopher
    Kan politisk ojämlikhet utbildas bort?2014Report (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mikael, Persson
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Access to education and political candidacy: Lessons from school openings in Sweden2019In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 69, p. 138-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does availability of education affect who becomes a political representative? Theorists have pointed out that access to education is a key to a well-functioning democracy, but few empirical studies have examined how changes in the access to education influence the chances of becoming a politician. In this paper, we analyze the effects of a large series of school openings in Sweden during the early 20th century, which provided adolescents with better access to secondary education. We use administrative data pertaining to the entire Swedish population born between 1916 and 1945. According to our empirical results, the opening of a new lower secondary school in a municipality increased the baseline probability of running for political office by 10–20%, and the probability of holding office by 20–30%.

  • 20.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Persson, Mikael
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Enhancing Electoral Equality: Can Education Compensate for Family Background Differences in Voting Participation?2019In: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 108-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well documented that voter turnout is lower among persons who grow up in families from a low socioeconomic status compared with persons from high-status families. This paper examines whether reforms in education can help reduce this gap. We establish causality by exploiting a pilot scheme preceding a large reform of Swedish upper secondary education in the early 1990s, which gave rise to exogenous variation in educational attainment between individuals living in different municipalities or born in different years. Similar to recent studies employing credible identification strategies, we fail to find a statistically significant average effect of education on political participation. We move past previous studies, however, and show that the reform nevertheless contributed to narrowing the voting gap between individuals of different social backgrounds by raising turnout among those from low socioeconomic status households. The results thus square well with other recent studies arguing that education is particularly important for uplifting politically marginalized groups.

  • 21.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Persson, Mikael
    Ledde förlängd gymnasieutbildning till ökat valdeltagande?2017Report (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Persson, Mikael
    Leder bättre tillgång till utbildning till ökat politiskt deltagande?2016Report (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Persson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Input and Output Legitimacy: Synergy or Trade-off?: Empirical Evidence from an EU Survey2010In: Journal of European Public Policy, ISSN 1350-1763, E-ISSN 1466-4429, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 449-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the breakdown of the 'permissive consensus' in the early 1990s we have witnessed an input turn in the debate on EU legitimacy. Many scholars have been arguing for enhancing the input legitimacy of the EU through promoting stakeholder participation and deliberation on important European issues. Yet, others warn that this strategy might not help in increasing overall legitimacy of the EU, since increased input legitimacy could be thought to undermine its output legitimacy by making decision-making less efficient. This article assesses, empirically, the relationship between input and output legitimacy within the context of the EU chemicals policy overhaul. Contrary to what some scholars suggest, we find evidence from a survey that measures aimed at increasing the input legitimacy of the EU also hold the promise of increasing its output legitimacy.

  • 24.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Persson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Participatory Governance in the EU: Enhancing or Endangering Democracy and Efficiency?2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is an empirical assessment of whether participatory governance reforms within the European Union enhance or endanger democracy. The alleged democratic deficit of the EU and its waning legitimacy have inspired scholars and practitioners to look for new ways of improving democracy and efficiency within it. Proponents of participatory governance, including the European Commission, argue that introducing new forums for interest-group participation and deliberation at the EU level will help create a more democratic and effective Union. This book examines the veracity of this claim. It looks at whether it is possible to enhance decision-making efficiency and democratic legitimacy by involving interest group representatives in the formulation and implementation of policy. In doing so, Participatory Governance in the EU employs data from a unique expert survey of stakeholders and EU officials.

  • 25.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Persson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Participatory governance in the European Union2018In: Handbook on Participatory Governance / [ed] Hubert Heinelt, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we provide an assessment of civil society involvement in EU policy-making. The aim is to delineate the theoretical debate on the participatory governance approach in the EU and to describe the instruments developed to implement it. Furthermore, we consider how well these mechanisms have functioned so far and the extent to which they can alleviate the Union’s alleged democratic deficit.

  • 26.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Persson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The structure of conflict over EU chemicals policy2008In: European Union Politics, ISSN 1465-1165, E-ISSN 1741-2757, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 31-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lively academic debate over whether political cleavages in the European Union ( EU) follow mainly territorial ( national) or non-territorial ( ideological) patterns. This article analyses the cleavages that structure the conflict over European chemicals policy, the so-called REACH system. Taking positions on this major policy as an empirical example, we test these competing theories on the nature of cleavages on environmental policy issues in the EU. We use data from an expert survey of more than 600 individuals to fulfil this aim. The results show that neither of the hypotheses is unequivocally supported. But the data indicate that cleavages based on non-territorial interests are much more important than territorial interests in explaining positions on REACH.

  • 27.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vernby, Kare
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Polit Sci, Stockholm & Uppsala Univ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The electoral impact of the financial crisis: Evidence using district-level data2016In: Electoral Studies, ISSN 0261-3794, E-ISSN 1873-6890, Vol. 44, p. 214-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do economic downturns increase voter support for left or right parties? In our empirical analysis, we combine fine-grained registry-data on the labor market impact of the crisis and how it varied across 5000 electoral districts, with district-level data on vote-shares for all major parties in Swedish parliamentary elections before and after the crisis. Because the impact was so diverse across districts, we can estimate the electoral impact of unemployment more efficiently than usual. Moreover, because the crisis was an external and unexpected shock to the Swedish economy, we argue that the selection bias that is usually inherent in estimating the electoral impact of unemployment is mitigated. We find that the electoral impact of crisis-induced unemployment was large, benefiting right parties.

  • 28.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Vernby, Kåre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Om kvinnorepresentation och rätten till heltid2007In: Kommunal ekonomi och politik, ISSN 1402-8700, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 7-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommunernas dubbla roll som arbetsgivare och kanal för det politiska förverkligandet av sina invånares intressen gör dem till en ypperlig arena för att studera kvinnorepresentationens betydelse för kvinnors livsvillkor. Vi studerar politiska beslut att erbjuda alla kommunalt deltidsanställda heltid; beslut som framförallt gynnar kvinnor som grupp och som fattats i flera kommuner under senare år. Till skillnad från tidigare kvantitativa studier analyserar vi om kvinnorepresentation får större effekt när den innebär att kvinnor återfinns på högre, snarare än lägre, politiska poster. Våra empiriska resultat bekräftar att skillnader i förekomsten av heltidsbeslut kan hänföras till skillnader i kvinnorepresentation, men att detta samband framförallt återfinns då man ser till kvinnorepresentation på högre politiska poster.

  • 29. Linner, Richard Karlsson
    et al.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Beauchamp, Jonathan P.
    Genome-wide association analyses of risk tolerance and risky behaviors in over 1 million individuals identify hundreds of loci and shared genetic influences2019In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 245-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated (vertical bar(r) over cap (g)vertical bar similar to 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.

  • 30.
    Okbay, Aysu
    et al.
    Erasmus Univ, Erasmus Sch Econ, Dept Appl Econ, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Beauchamp, Jonathan P.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Fontana, Mark Alan
    Univ So Calif, Ctr Econ & Social Res, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA..
    Lee, James J.
    Univ Minnesota Twin Cities, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Pers, Tune H.
    Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA USA.;Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, Sect Metab Genet, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Statens Serum Inst, Dept Epidemiol Res, DK-2300 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Rietveld, Cornelius A.
    Erasmus Univ, Erasmus Sch Econ, Dept Appl Econ, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Turley, Patrick
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Chen, Guo-Bo
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Emilsson, Valur
    Iceland Heart Assoc, IS-201 Kopavogur, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Pharmaceut Sci, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Meddens, S. Fleur W.
    Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Ctr Neurogen & Cognit Res, Dept Complex Trait Genet, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam Business Sch, NL-1018 TV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Pickrell, Joseph K.
    New York Genome Ctr, New York, NY 10013 USA..
    Thom, Kevin
    NYU, Dept Econ, New York, NY 10003 USA..
    Timshel, Pascal
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Tech Univ Denmark, Ctr Biol Sequence Anal, Dept Syst Biol, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    de Vlaming, Ronald
    Erasmus Univ, Erasmus Sch Econ, Dept Appl Econ, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Abdellaoui, Abdel
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, Sect Metab Genet, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Copenhagen Prospect Studies Asthma Childhood, COPSAC, DK-2820 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Steno Diabet Ctr, DK-2820 Gentofte, Denmark..
    Bacelis, Jonas
    Sahlgrens Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, S-41685 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Baumbach, Clemens
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Bjornsdottir, Gyda
    Brandsma, Johannes H.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Cell Biol, NL-3015 CN Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Concas, Maria Pina
    Natl Res Council Italy, UOS Sassari, Ist Ric Genet & Biomed, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..
    Derringer, Jaime
    Univ Illinois, Psychol, Champaign, IL 61820 USA..
    Furlotte, Nicholas A.
    23andMe Inc, Mountain View, CA 94041 USA..
    Galesloot, Tessel E.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Radboud Inst Hlth Sci, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Girotto, Giorgia
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, I-34100 Trieste, Italy..
    Gupta, Richa
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Hall, Leanne M.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England.;Glenfield Gen Hosp, NIHR Leicester Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England..
    Harris, Sarah E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Hofer, Edith
    Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, A-8036 Graz, Austria.;Med Univ Graz, A-8036 Graz, Austria.;Gen Hosp, Inst Med Informat Stat & Documentat, A-8036 Graz, Austria..
    Horikoshi, Momoko
    Univ Oxford, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England.;Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Huffman, Jennifer E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Kaasik, Kadri
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kalafati, Ioanna P.
    Harokopio Univ, Nutr & Dietet, Hlth Sci & Educ, Athens 17671, Greece..
    Karlsson, Robert
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kong, Augustine
    Lahti, Jari
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    van der Lee, Sven J.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    de Leeuw, Christiaan
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Ctr Neurogen & Cognit Res, Dept Complex Trait Genet, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Inst Comp & Informat Sci, NL-6525 EC Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Lind, Penelope A.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Quantitat Genet, Brisbane, Qld 4029, Australia..
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Liu, Tian
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Lifespan Psychol, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Mangino, Massimo
    Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London SE1 7EH, England.;Guys & St Thomas Fdn Trust, NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, London SE1 7EH, England..
    Marten, Jonathan
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mihailov, Evelin
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia..
    Miller, Michael B.
    Univ Minnesota Twin Cities, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    van der Most, Peter J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Oldmeadow, Christopher
    Hunter Med Res Inst, Publ Hlth Stream, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia.;Univ Newcastle, Fac Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia..
    Payton, Antony
    Univ Manchester, Inst Populat Hlth, Ctr Integrated Genom Med Res, Manchester M13 9PT, Lancs, England.;Univ Manchester, Sch Psychol Sci, Human Commun & Deafness, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Pervjakova, Natalia
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia.;THL Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki 00271, Finland..
    Peyrot, Wouter J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Psychiat, NL-1081 HL Amsterdam, Netherlands.;GGZ inGeest, NL-1081 HL Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Qian, Yong
    NIA, Genet Lab, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA..
    Raitakari, Olli
    Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku 20521, Finland..
    Rueedi, Rico
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Med Genet, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Salvi, Erika
    Univ Milan, Dept Hlth Sci, I-20142 Milan, Italy..
    Schmidt, Brge
    Univ Hosp Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, D-45147 Essen, Germany..
    Schraut, Katharina E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Shi, Jianxin
    NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Smith, Albert V.
    Iceland Heart Assoc, IS-201 Kopavogur, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Poot, Raymond A.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Cell Biol, NL-3015 CN Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    St Pourcain, Beate
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England.;Univ Bristol, Sch Oral & Dent Sci, Bristol BS1 2LY, Avon, England..
    Teumer, Alexander
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Thorleifsson, Gudmar
    Verweij, Niek
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Cardiol, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Vuckovic, Dragana
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, I-34100 Trieste, Italy..
    Wellmann, Juergen
    Univ Munster, Inst Epidemiol & Social Med, D-48149 Munster, Germany..
    Westra, Harm-Jan
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Genet,Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Rheumatol,Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Partners Ctr Personalized Genet Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Yang, Jingyun
    Rush Univ, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Zhao, Wei
    Univ Michigan, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Zhu, Zhihong
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Gastroenterol & Hepatol, NL-9713 GZ Groningen, Netherlands..
    Amin, Najaf
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Bakshi, Andrew
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Baumeister, Sebastian E.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Regensburg, Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Med, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany..
    Biino, Ginevra
    Natl Res Council Italy, Inst Mol Genet, I-27100 Pavia, Italy..
    Bonnelykke, Klaus
    Univ Bristol, Sch Oral & Dent Sci, Bristol BS1 2LY, Avon, England..
    Boyle, Patricia A.
    Rush Univ, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Behav Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Campbell, Harry
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Cappuccio, Francesco P.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England..
    Davies, Gail
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel
    Univ Oxford, Said Business Sch, Oxford OX1 1HP, England..
    Deloukas, Panos
    Queen Mary Univ London, William Harvey Res Inst, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;King Abdulaziz Univ, Princess Al Jawhara Al Brahim Ctr Excellence Res, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia..
    Demuth, Ilja
    Charite, Res Grp Geriatr, Berlin Aging Study 2, D-13347 Berlin, Germany.;Charite, Inst Med & Human Genet, D-13353 Berlin, Germany..
    Ding, Jun
    NIA, Genet Lab, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA..
    Eibich, Peter
    DIW Berlin, German Socioecon Panel Study, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Hlth Econ Res Ctr, Oxford OX3 7LF, England..
    Eisele, Lewin
    Univ Hosp Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, D-45147 Essen, Germany..
    Eklund, Niina
    THL Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki 00271, Finland..
    Evans, David M.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England.;Univ Queensland, Diamantina Inst, Translat Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4102, Australia..
    Faul, Jessica D.
    Univ Michigan, Inst Social Res, Survey Res Ctr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Div Stat Genom, Dept Genet, St Louis, MO 63018 USA..
    Forstner, Andreas J.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Human Genet, D-53127 Bonn, Germany.;Univ Bonn, Life & Brain Ctr, Dept Genom, D-53127 Bonn, Germany..
    Gandin, Ilaria
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, I-34100 Trieste, Italy..
    Gunnarsson, Bjarni
    Halldorsson, Bjarni V.
    Reykjavik Univ, Sch Sci & Engn, Inst Biomed & Neural Engn, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Harris, Tamara B.
    NIA, Lab Epidemiol, Demog, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Heath, Andrew C.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Hocking, Lynne J.
    Univ Aberdeen, Div Appl Hlth Sci, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland..
    Holliday, Elizabeth G.
    Hunter Med Res Inst, Publ Hlth Stream, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia.;Univ Newcastle, Fac Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia..
    Homuth, Georg
    Univ Med Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Genom, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Horan, Michael A.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester Med Sch, Manchester M13 9PT, Lancs, England..
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    de Jager, Philip L.
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Neurol, Program Translat NeuroPsychiat Genom, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Program Translat NeuroPsychiat Genom, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Joshi, Peter K.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Jugessur, Astanand
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Genes & Environm, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Kaakinen, Marika A.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Genom Common Dis, London W12 0NN, England..
    Kahonen, Mika
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere 33521, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Queen Mary Univ London, William Harvey Res Inst, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    Keltigangas-Jarvinen, Liisa
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Radboud Inst Hlth Sci, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Kolcic, Ivana
    Univ Split, Sch Med, Publ Hlth, Split 21000, Croatia..
    Koskinen, Seppo
    THL Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki 00271, Finland..
    Kraja, Aldi T.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Div Stat Genom, Dept Genet, St Louis, MO 63018 USA..
    Kroh, Martin
    DIW Berlin, German Socioecon Panel Study, D-10117 Berlin, Germany..
    Kutalik, Zoltan
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Med Genet, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Inst Social & Prevent Med, CH-1010 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Latvala, Antti
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Launer, Lenore J.
    NIA, Neuroepidemiol Sect, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Lebreton, Mael P.
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam Business Sch, NL-1018 TV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam Brain & Cognit Ctr, NL-1018 XA Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Levinson, Douglas F.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lichtner, Peter
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Human Genet, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Liewald, David C. M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Loukola, Anu
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Madden, Pamela A.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Magi, Reedik
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia..
    Maki-Opas, Tomi
    THL Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki 00271, Finland..
    Marioni, Riccardo E.
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Med Genet Sect, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Marques-Vidal, Pedro
    Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Dept Internal Med, Internal Med, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Meddens, Gerardus A.
    Tema BV, NL-2131 HE Hoofddorp, Netherlands..
    McMahon, George
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England..
    Meisinger, Christa
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol 2, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Meitinger, Thomas
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Human Genet, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Milaneschi, Yusplitri
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Psychiat, NL-1081 HL Amsterdam, Netherlands.;GGZ inGeest, NL-1081 HL Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Milani, Lili
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia..
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Mol Epidemiol, Brisbane, Qld 4029, Australia..
    Myhre, Ronny
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Genes & Environm, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Nelson, Christopher P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England.;Glenfield Gen Hosp, NIHR Leicester Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England..
    Nyholt, Dale R.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Mol Epidemiol, Brisbane, Qld 4029, Australia.;Queensland Inst Technol, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, Brisbane, Qld 4059, Australia..
    Ollier, William E. R.
    Univ Manchester, Inst Populat Hlth, Ctr Integrated Genom Med Res, Manchester M13 9PT, Lancs, England..
    Palotie, Aarno
    Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Med, Analyt & Translat Genet Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Stanley Ctr Psychiat Res, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Psychiat & Neurodev Genet Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Paternoster, Lavinia
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England..
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Petrovic, Katja E.
    Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, A-8036 Graz, Austria.;Med Univ Graz, A-8036 Graz, Austria..
    Porteous, David J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Raikkonen, Katri
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Ring, Susan M.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England..
    Robino, Antonietta
    Inst Maternal & Child Hlth IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Med Genet, I-34100 Trieste, Italy..
    Rostapshova, Olga
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.;Social Impact, Arlington, VA 22201 USA..
    Rudan, Igor
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Rustichini, Aldo
    Univ Minnesota Twin Cities, Dept Econ, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Salomaa, Veikko
    THL Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki 00271, Finland..
    Sanders, Alan R.
    NorthShore Univ HealthSyst, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Evanston, IL 60201 USA.;Univ Chicago, Dept Psychiat & Behav Neurosci, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Sarin, Antti-Pekka
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Publ Hlth Genom Unit, Helsinki 00300, Finland..
    Schmidt, Helena
    Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, A-8036 Graz, Austria.;Med Univ Graz, A-8036 Graz, Austria.;Gen Hosp, Ctr Mol Med, Inst Mol Biol & Biochem, Res Unit Genet Epidemiol, A-8010 Graz, Austria.;Med Univ, A-8010 Graz, Graz, Austria..
    Scott, Rodney J.
    Univ Newcastle, Fac Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW 2300, Australia.;Hunter Med Res Inst, Informat Based Med Stream, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia..
    Smith, Blair H.
    Univ Dundee, Res Inst, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland..
    Smith, Jennifer A.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Staessen, Jan A.
    Univ Leuven, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Res Unit Hypertens & Cardiovasc Epidemiol, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.;Maastricht Univ, R&D VitaK Grp, NL-6229 EV Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth
    Charite, Res Grp Geriatr, Berlin Aging Study 2, D-13347 Berlin, Germany..
    Strauch, Konstantin
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Genet Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.;Univ Munich, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Chair Genet Epidemiol, D-81377 Munich, Germany..
    Terracciano, Antonio
    Florida State Univ, Coll Med, Dept Geriatr, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA..
    Tobin, Martin D.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci & Genet, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Ulivi, Sheila
    Inst Maternal & Child Hlth IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Med Genet, I-34100 Trieste, Italy..
    Vaccargiu, Simona
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Quaye, Lydia
    Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London SE1 7EH, England..
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Venturini, Cristina
    Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London SE1 7EH, England.;Guys & St Thomas Fdn Trust, NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, London SE1 7EH, England..
    Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Volker, Uwe
    Univ Med Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Genom, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Volzke, Henry
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Vonk, Judith M.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Vozzi, Diego
    Social Impact, Arlington, VA 22201 USA..
    Waage, Johannes
    Univ Copenhagen, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Copenhagen Prospect Studies Asthma Childhood, COPSAC, DK-2820 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Steno Diabet Ctr, DK-2820 Gentofte, Denmark..
    Ware, Erin B.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Inst Social Res, Res Ctr Grp Dynam, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 USA..
    Willemsen, Gonneke
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Attia, John R.
    Hunter Med Res Inst, Publ Hlth Stream, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia.;Univ Manchester, Inst Populat Hlth, Ctr Integrated Genom Med Res, Manchester M13 9PT, Lancs, England..
    Bennett, David A.
    Rush Univ, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA..
    Berger, Klaus
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Cardiol, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Bertram, Lars
    Univ Lubeck, Inst Neurogenet & Integrat & Expt Genom, Platform Genome Analyt, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Neuroepidemiol & Ageing Res Unit, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Med, London SW7 2AZ, England..
    Bisgaard, Hans
    Univ Copenhagen, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Copenhagen Prospect Studies Asthma Childhood, COPSAC, DK-2820 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Boomsma, Dorret I.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, NL-1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Borecki, Ingrid B.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Div Stat Genom, Dept Genet, St Louis, MO 63018 USA..
    Bultmann, Ute
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Hlth Sci Community & Occupat Med, NL-9713 AV Groningen, Netherlands..
    Chabris, Christopher F.
    Union Coll, Dept Psychol, Schenectady, NY 12308 USA..
    Cucca, Francesco
    Cittadella Univ Monserrato, CNR, IRGB, I-9042 Cagliari, Italy..
    Cusi, Daniele
    Univ Milan, Dept Hlth Sci, I-20142 Milan, Italy.;Italian Natl Res Council, Inst Biomed Technol, I-20090 Milan, Italy..
    Deary, Ian J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Dedoussis, George V.
    Harokopio Univ, Nutr & Dietet, Hlth Sci & Educ, Athens 17671, Greece..
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Eriksson, Johan G.
    Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Gen Practice & Primary Hlth Care, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Franke, Barbara
    Donders Ctr Neurosci, Dept Human Genet, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Donders Ctr Neurosci, Dept Psychiat, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Franke, Lude
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Genet, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Gasparini, Paolo
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, I-34100 Trieste, Italy.;Inst Maternal & Child Hlth IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Med Genet, I-34100 Trieste, Italy.;Sidra, Expt Genet Div, Doha 26999, Qatar..
    Gejman, Pablo V.
    NorthShore Univ HealthSyst, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Evanston, IL 60201 USA.;Univ Chicago, Dept Psychiat & Behav Neurosci, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Gieger, Christian
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Grabe, Hans-Jorgen
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.;HELIOS Hosp Stralsund, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, D-18437 Stralsund, Germany..
    Gratten, Jacob
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Groenen, Patrick J. F.
    Erasmus Univ, Erasmus Sch Econ, Econometr Inst, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Iceland Heart Assoc, IS-201 Kopavogur, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    van der Harst, Pim
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Cardiol, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Genet, NL-9700 RB Groningen, Netherlands.;ICIN Netherlands Heart Inst, Durrer Ctr Cardiogenet Res, NL-1105 AZ Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Hayward, Caroline
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Generat Scotland, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Hinds, David A.
    23andMe Inc, Mountain View, CA 94041 USA..
    Hoffmann, Wolfgang
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Hyppnen, Elina
    Univ S Australia, Sch Hlth Sci, Ctr Populat Hlth Res, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.;Univ S Australia, Sansom Inst, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.;UCL Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London WC1N 1EH, England..
    Iacono, William G.
    Univ Minnesota Twin Cities, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Jacobsson, Bo
    Sahlgrens Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, S-41685 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Genes & Environm, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England.;Univ Oulu, Fac Med, Ctr Life Course Epidemiol, Oulu 90014, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Unit Primary Care, Oulu 90029, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Jockel, Karl-Heinz
    Univ Hosp Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, D-45147 Essen, Germany..
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;THL Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki 00271, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kardia, Sharon L. R.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Fimlab Labs, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Lehrer, Steven F.
    NYU Shanghai, Econ, Pudong 200122, Peoples R China.;Queens Univ, Policy Studies, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada..
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Genet Epidemiol, Brisbane, Qld 4029, Australia..
    McGue, Matt
    Univ Minnesota Twin Cities, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Inst Mol & Cell Biol, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia..
    Pendleton, Neil
    Salford Royal Hosp, Inst Brain Behav & Mental Hlth, Ctr Clin & Cognit Neurosci, Manchester M6 8HD, Lancs, England.;Univ Manchester, Manchester Inst Collaborat Res Ageing, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Psychiat, NL-1081 HL Amsterdam, Netherlands.;GGZ inGeest, NL-1081 HL Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Perola, Markus
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia.;THL Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki 00271, Finland..
    Pirastu, Nicola
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, I-34100 Trieste, Italy..
    Pirastu, Mario
    Natl Res Council Italy, UOS Sassari, Ist Ric Genet & Biomed, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..
    Polasek, Ozren
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Split, Fac Med, Split 21000, Croatia..
    Posthuma, Danielle
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Ctr Neurogen & Cognit Res, Dept Complex Trait Genet, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Clin Genet, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Power, Christine
    UCL Inst Child Hlth, Populat Policy & Practice, London WC1N 1EH, England..
    Province, Michael A.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Div Stat Genom, Dept Genet, St Louis, MO 63018 USA..
    Samani, Nilesh J.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England.;Glenfield Gen Hosp, NIHR Leicester Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England..
    Schlessinger, David
    NIA, Genet Lab, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA..
    Schmidt, Reinhold
    Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, A-8036 Graz, Austria.;Med Univ Graz, A-8036 Graz, Austria..
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, Sect Metab Genet, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England.;Bispebjerg Hosp, Inst Prevent Med, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark.;Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Inst Prevent Med, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark..
    Spector, Tim D.
    Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London SE1 7EH, England..
    Stefansson, Kari
    Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
    Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Thurik, A. Roy
    Erasmus Univ, Erasmus Sch Econ, Dept Appl Econ, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Montpellier Business Sch, F-34080 Montpellier, France.;Panteia, NL-2715 CA Zoetermeer, Netherlands..
    Timpson, Nicholas J.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England..
    Tiemeier, Henning
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Psychiat, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Tung, Joyce Y.
    23andMe Inc, Mountain View, CA 94041 USA..
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Vitart, Veronique
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Dept Internal Med, Internal Med, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Weir, David R.
    Univ Michigan, Inst Social Res, Survey Res Ctr, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Wilson, James F.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Wright, Alan F.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRC Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Conley, Dalton C.
    NYU, Dept Sociol, 550 1St Ave, New York, NY 10012 USA.;NYU, Sch Med, 550 1St Ave, New York, NY 10016 USA..
    Krueger, Robert F.
    Univ Minnesota Twin Cities, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Smith, George Davey
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England..
    Hofman, Albert
    Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA USA..
    Laibson, David I.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Medland, Sarah E.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Quantitat Genet, Brisbane, Qld 4029, Australia..
    Meyer, Michelle N.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Grad Coll, Bioeth Program, Schenectady, NY 12308 USA..
    Yang, Jian
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Diamantina Inst, Translat Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4102, Australia..
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Econ, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Visscher, Peter M.
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Diamantina Inst, Translat Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4102, Australia..
    Esko, Tonu
    Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA USA.;Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia.;Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Koellinger, Philipp D.
    Erasmus Univ, Inst Behav & Biol, NL-3062 PA Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Ctr Neurogen & Cognit Res, Dept Complex Trait Genet, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam Business Sch, NL-1018 TV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Cesarini, David
    NYU, Dept Econ, New York, NY 10003 USA.;Res Inst Ind Econ, S-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Benjamin, Daniel J.
    Univ So Calif, Ctr Econ & Social Res, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA..
    Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment2016In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 533, no 7604, p. 539-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals(1). Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample(1,2) of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.

  • 31.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. UCLS, Box 514, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dawes, Christopher
    NYU, Wilf Family Dept Polit, 19 W 4th St,2nd Floor, New York, NY 10012 USA.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. UCLS, Box 514, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    It Runs in the Family: A Study of Political Candidacy Among Swedish Adoptees2018In: Political Behavior, ISSN 0190-9320, E-ISSN 1573-6687, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 883-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What motivates citizens to run for office? Recent work has shown that early life parental socialization is strongly associated with a desire to run for office. However, parents not only shape their children's political environment, they also pass along their genes to those same children. A growing area of research has shown that individual differences in a wide range of political behaviors and attitudes are linked to genetic differences. As a result, genetic factors may confound the observed political similarities among parents and their children. This study analyzes Swedish register data containing information on all nominated and elected candidates in the ten parliamentary, county council, and municipal elections from 1982 to 2014 for a large sample of adoptees and their adoptive and biological parents. By studying the similarity in political ambition within both adoptive and biological families, our research design allows us to disentangle so-called pre-birth factors, such as genes and pre-natal environment, and post-birth factors like parental socialization. We find that the likelihood of standing as a political candidate is twice as high if one's parent has been a candidate. We also find that the effects of pre-birth and post-birth factors are approximately equal in size. In addition, we test a number of potential pre- and post-birth transmission mechanisms. First, disconfirming our expectations, the pre-birth effects do not seem to be mediated by cognitive ability or leadership skills. Second, consistent with a role modeling mechanism, we find evidence of a strong transmission in candidacy status between rearing mothers and their daughters.

  • 32.
    Oskarsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Thisted Dinesen, Peter
    Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Dawes, Christopher T.
    NYU, New York, NY 10003 USA..
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Education and Social Trust: Testing a Causal Hypothesis Using the Discordant Twin Design2017In: Political Psychology, ISSN 0162-895X, E-ISSN 1467-9221, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 515-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the clearest results in previous studies on social trust is the robust positive relationship with educational attainment. The most common interpretation is that education has a causal effect on social trust. The theoretical argument and empirical results in this article suggest a different interpretation. We argue that common preadult factors such as cognitive abilities and personality traits rooted in genes and early-life family environment may confound the relationship between educational attainment and social trust. We provide new evidence on this question by utilizing the quasi-experiment of twinning. By looking at the relationship between education and social trust within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs, we are able to avoid potential confounders rooted in genetic factors and common environmental influences because the monozygotic twins share both. The results suggest that when controlling for such familial factors the estimated effects of education on social trust are close to zero and far from reaching statistical significance. Further analyses show that the relationship between education and social trust largely is driven by common genetic factors.

  • 33.
    Persson, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Lindgren, Karl-Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Organiserade intressen i Europeiska unionen: Bidrar de till att hämma eller främja unionens demokrati och effektivitet2011Report (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Turley, Patrick
    et al.
    Broad Inst, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Analyt & Translat Genet Unit, Cambridge, MA 02114 USA..
    Walters, Raymond K.
    Broad Inst, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Analyt & Translat Genet Unit, Cambridge, MA 02114 USA..
    Maghzian, Omeed
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Okbay, Aysu
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Complex Trait Genet, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Lee, James J.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Psychol, Minneapolis, MN USA..
    Fontana, Mark Alan
    Hosp Special Surg, 535 E 70th St, New York, NY 10021 USA..
    Nguyen-Viet, Tuan Anh
    Wedow, Robbee
    Univ Colorado, Inst Behav Genet, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Inst Behav Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Univ Colorado, Dept Sociol, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Zacher, Meghan
    Harvard Univ, Dept Sociol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Furlotte, Nicholas A.
    23&Me Inc, Mountain View, CA USA..
    Magnusson, Patrik
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Oskarsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Econ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Visscher, Peter M.
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Laibson, David
    Harvard Univ, Dept Econ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.;Natl Bur Econ Res, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Cesarini, David
    Natl Bur Econ Res, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.;NYU, Dept Econ, New York, NY 10003 USA.;NYU, Ctr Expt Social Sci, New York, NY 10003 USA.;Inst Naringslivsforskning, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Neale, Benjamin M.
    Broad Inst, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Analyt & Translat Genet Unit, Cambridge, MA 02114 USA..
    Benjamin, Daniel J.
    Univ Southern Calif, Ctr Econ & Social Res, Los Angeles, CA 90007 USA.;Natl Bur Econ Res, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.;Univ Southern Calif, Dept Econ, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA..
    Multi-trait analysis of genome-wide association summary statistics using MTAG2018In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce multi-trait analysis of GWAS (MTAG), a method for joint analysis of summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of different traits, possibly from overlapping samples. We apply MTAG to summary statistics for depressive symptoms (N-eff = 354,862), neuroticism (N = 168,105), and subjective well-being (N = 388,538). As compared to the 32, 9, and 13 genome-wide significant loci identified in the single-trait GWAS (most of which are themselves novel), MTAG increases the number of associated loci to 64, 37, and 49, respectively. Moreover, association statistics from MTAG yield more informative bioinformatics analyses and increase the variance explained by polygenic scores by approximately 25%, matching theoretical expectations.

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