uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 27 of 27
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Caruso, Christina M.
    et al.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol..
    Martin, Ryan A.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Biol..
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Morrissey, Michael B.
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Biol..
    Wade, Michael J.
    Indiana Univ, Dept Biol..
    Augustine, Kate E.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Biol..
    Carlson, Stephanie M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Environm Sci Policy & Management..
    MacColl, Andrew D. C.
    Univ Nottingham, Sch Life Sci..
    Siepielski, Adam M.
    Univ Arkansas, Dept Biol Sci..
    Kingsolver, Joel G.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Biol..
    What Are the Environmental Determinants of Phenotypic Selection?: A Meta-analysis of Experimental Studies2017In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 190, no 3, p. 363-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many selection estimates have been published, the environmental factors that cause selection to vary in space and time have rarely been identified. One way to identify these factors is by experimentally manipulating the environment and measuring selection in each treatment. We compiled and analyzed selection estimates from experimental studies. First, we tested whether the effect of manipulating the environment on selection gradients depends on taxon, trait type, or fitness component. We found that the effect of manipulating the environment was larger when selection was measured on life-history traits or via survival. Second, we tested two predictions about the environmental factors that cause variation in selection. We found support for the prediction that variation in selection is more likely to be caused by environmental factors that have a large effect on mean fitness but not for the prediction that variation is more likely to be caused by biotic factors. Third, we compared selection gradients from experimental and observational studies. We found that selection varied more among treatments in experimental studies than among spatial and temporal replicates in observational studies, suggesting that experimental studies can detect relationships between environmental factors and selection that would not be apparent in observational studies.

  • 2.
    Chapurlat, Elodie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Anderson, Joseph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Friberg, Magne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Diel pattern of floral scent emission matches the relative importance of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in populations of Gymnadenia conopsea2018In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 121, p. 711-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims

    Floral scent is considered an integral component of pollination syndromes, and its composition and timing of emission are thus expected to match the main pollinator type and time of activity. While floral scent differences among plant species with different pollination systems can be striking, studies on intraspecific variation are sparse, which limits our understanding of the role of pollinators in driving scent divergence.

    Methods

    Here, we used dynamic headspace sampling to quantify floral scent emission and composition during the day and at night in the natural habitat of six Scandinavian populations of the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea. We tested whether diel scent emission and composition match pollinator type by comparing four populations in southern Sweden, where nocturnal pollinators are more important for plant reproductive success than are diurnal pollinators, with two populations in central Norway, where the opposite is true. To determine to what extent scent patterns quantified in the field reflected plasticity, we also measured scent emission in a common growth chamber environment.

    Key Results

    Both scent composition and emission rates differed markedly between day and night, but only the latter varied significantly among populations. The increase in scent emission rate at night was considerably stronger in the Swedish populations compared with the Norwegian populations. These patterns persisted when plants were transferred to a common environment, suggesting a genetic underpinning of the scent variation.

    Conclusions

    The results are consistent with a scenario where spatial variation in relative importance of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators has resulted in selection for different scent emission rhythms. Our study highlights the importance of adding a characterization of diel variation of scent emission rates to comparative studies of floral scent, which so far have often focused on scent composition only.

  • 3.
    Chapurlat, Elodie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Spatial variation in pollinator-mediated selection on phenology, floral display and spur length in the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea2015In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 208, no 4, p. 1264-1275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial variation in plant-pollinator interactions may cause variation in pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits, but to establish this link conclusively experimental studies are needed. We quantified pollinator-mediated selection on flowering phenology and morphology in four populations of the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, and compared selection mediated by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in two of the populations. Variation in pollinator-mediated selection explained most of the among-population variation in the strength of directional and correlational selection. Pollinators mediated correlational selection on pairs of display traits, and on one display trait and spur length, a trait affecting pollination efficiency. Only nocturnal pollinators selected for longer spurs, and mediated stronger selection on the number of flowers compared with diurnal pollinators in one population. The two types of pollinators caused correlational selection on different pairs of traits and selected for different combinations of spur length and number of flowers. The results demonstrate that spatial variation in interactions with pollinators may result in differences in directional and correlational selection on floral traits in a plant with a semi-generalized pollination system, and suggest that differences in the relative importance of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators can cause variation in selection.

  • 4.
    Dahlgren, Johan Petter
    et al.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Max Planck Odense Ctr Biodemog Aging, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.;Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Biol, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark..
    Colchero, Fernando
    Univ Southern Denmark, Max Planck Odense Ctr Biodemog Aging, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.;Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Math & Comp Sci, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark..
    Jones, Owen R.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Max Planck Odense Ctr Biodemog Aging, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.;Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Biol, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark..
    Oien, Dag-Inge
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Dept Nat Hist, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Moen, Asbjorn
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Dept Nat Hist, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing2016In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 283, no 1842, article id 20161217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence-an increase in death rate with advancing age-is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32 year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to test whether individuals of this tuberous orchid senesce. We performed a Bayesian survival trajectory analysis accounting for reproductive investment, for individuals under two types of land use, in two climatic regions. The mortality trajectory was best approximated by a Weibull model, showing clear actuarial senescence. Rates of senescence in this model declined with advancing age, but were slightly higher in mown plots and in the more benign climatic region. At older ages, senescence was evident only when accounting for a positive effect of reproductive investment on mortality. Our results demonstrate actuarial senescence as well as a survival-reproduction trade-off in plants, and indicate that environmental context may influence senescence rates. This knowledge is crucial for understanding the evolution of demographic senescence and for models of plant population dynamics.

  • 5.
    Menzel, Mandy
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Inbreeding Affects Gene Expression Differently in Two Self-Incompatible Arabidopsis lyrata Populations with Similar Levels of Inbreeding Depression2015In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 2036-2047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of which genes and pathways are affected by inbreeding may help understanding the genetic basis of inbreeding depression, the potential for purging (selection against deleterious recessive alleles), and the transition from outcrossing to selfing. Arabidopsis lyrata is a predominantly self-incompatible perennial plant, closely related to the selfing model species A. thaliana. To examine how inbreeding affects gene expression, we compared the transcriptome of experimentally selfed and outcrossed A. lyrata originating from two Scandinavian populations that express similar inbreeding depression for fitness ((partial derivative approximate to 0.80). The number of genes significantly differentially expressed between selfed and outcrossed individuals were 2.5 times higher in the Norwegian population (approximate to 500 genes) than in the Swedish population (approximate to 200 genes). In both populations, a majority of genes were upregulated on selfing (approximate to 80%). Functional annotation analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed that selfed offspring were characterized by 1) upregulation of stress-related genes in both populations and 2) upregulation of photosynthesis-related genes in Sweden but downregulation in Norway. Moreover, we found that reproduction-and pollination-related genes were affected by inbreeding only in Norway. We conclude that inbreeding causes both general and population-specific effects. The observed common effects suggest that inbreeding generally upregulates rather than downregulates gene expression and affects genes associated with stress response and general metabolic activity. Population differences in the number of affected genes and in effects on the expression of photosynthesis-related genes show that the genetic basis of inbreeding depression can differ between populations with very similar levels of inbreeding depression.

  • 6.
    Shefferson, Richard P.
    et al.
    Univ Tokyo, Org Programs Environm Sci, Meguro Ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kull, Tiiu
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hutchings, Michael J.
    Univ Sussex, Sch Life Sci, Brighton BN1 9QG, E Sussex, England.
    Selosse, Marc-Andre
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, Museum Natl Hist Nat, Inst Systemat Evolut Biodivers ISYEB,EPHE, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP39, F-75005 Paris, France;Univ Gdansk, Dept Plant Taxon & Nat Conservat, Gdansk, Poland.
    Jacquemyn, Hans
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Biol, Leuven, Belgium.
    Kellett, Kimberly M.
    Univ Georgia, Odum Sch Ecol, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
    Menges, Eric S.
    Archbold Biol Stn, Venus, FL USA.
    Primack, Richard B.
    Boston Univ, Dept Biol, 5 Cummington St, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Tuomi, Juha
    Univ Turku, Dept Biol, Turku, Finland.
    Alahuhta, Kirsi
    Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol & Genet, Oulu, Finland.
    Hurskainen, Sonja
    Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol & Genet, Oulu, Finland.
    Alexander, Helen M.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.
    Anderson, Derek S.
    Dept Nat Resources, St Paul, MN USA.
    Brys, Rein
    Res Inst Nat & Forest, Brussels, Belgium.
    Brzosko, Emilia
    Univ Bialystok, Inst Biol, Bialystok, Poland.
    Dostalik, Slavomir
    Gregg, Katharine
    West Virginia Wesleyan Coll, Dept Biol, Buckhannon, WV USA.
    Ipser, Zdenek
    Univ South Bohemia, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Ecosyst, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
    Jakalaniemi, Anne
    Univ Oulu, Dept Ecol & Genet, Oulu, Finland.
    Jersakova, Jana
    Univ South Bohemia, Fac Sci, Dept Biol Ecosyst, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
    Kettle, W. Dean
    Univ Kansas, Kansas Biol Survey, Lawrence, KS USA.
    McCormick, Melissa K.
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, POB 28, Edgewater, MD 21037 USA.
    Mendoza, Ana
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Ecol, Ciudad Univ, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Miller, Michael T.
    LGL Ltd, Sidney, BC, Canada.
    Moen, Asbjorn
    NTNU Univ Museum, Dept Nat Hist, Trondheim, Norway.
    Oien, Dag-Inge
    NTNU Univ Museum, Dept Nat Hist, Trondheim, Norway.
    Puttsepp, Ulle
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Roy, Melanie
    Univ Paul Sabatier, CNRS, Lab Evolut & Divers Biol, Toulouse, France.
    Sather, Nancy
    Dept Nat Resources, St Paul, MN USA.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stipkova, Zuzana
    Czech Acad Sci, Global Change Res Inst, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Tali, Kadri
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Warren, Robert J., II
    SUNY Buffalo State, Dept Biol, Buffalo, NY USA.
    Whigham, Dennis F.
    Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, POB 28, Edgewater, MD 21037 USA.
    Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species2018In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 724-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for 1year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life-history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short-lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long-lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage loss is associated with higher future dormancy levels, suggesting that carbon limitation promotes dormancy. Maximum dormancy duration is shorter under higher precipitation and at higher latitudes, the latter suggesting an important role for competition or herbivory. Study length affects estimates of some demographic parameters. Our results identify life historical and environmental drivers of dormancy. We also highlight the evolutionary importance of the little understood costs of sprouting and growth, latitudinal stress gradients and mixed nutritional modes.

  • 7.
    Siepielski, Adam M.
    et al.
    Univ Arkansas, Dept Biol Sci, Fayetteville, AR 72701 USA..
    Morrissey, Michael B.
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Biol, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland..
    Buoro, Mathieu
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Environm Sci Policy & Management, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Carlson, Stephanie M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Environm Sci Policy & Management, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Caruso, Christina M.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada..
    Clegg, Sonya M.
    Univ Oxford, Edward Grey Inst, Dept Zool, Oxford, England.;Griffith Univ, Environm Futures Res Inst, 170 Kessels Rd, Nathan, Qld, Australia..
    Coulson, Tim
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Oxford, England..
    DiBattista, Joseph
    Curtin Univ, Dept Environm & Agr, Perth, WA 6845, Australia..
    Gotanda, Kiyoko M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Oxford, England.;McGill Univ, Redpath Museum, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;McGill Univ, Dept Biol, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Francis, Clinton D.
    Calif Polytech State Univ San Luis Obispo, Dept Biol Sci, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 USA..
    Hereford, Joe
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Kingsolver, Joel G.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Biol, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Augustine, Kate E.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Biol, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Kruuk, Loeske E. B.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Biol, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Martin, Ryan A.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Biol, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Univ Oxford, Edward Grey Inst, Dept Zool, Oxford, England..
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Svensson, Erik I.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Lund, Sweden..
    Wade, Michael J.
    Indiana Univ, Dept Biol, Bloomington, IN USA..
    MacColl, Andrew D. C.
    Univ Nottingham, Sch Life Sci, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6328, p. 959-962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation-natural selection-are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation. By showing that selection was influenced by climate variation, our results indicate that climate change may cause widespread alterations in selection regimes, potentially shifting evolutionary trajectories at a global scale.

  • 8.
    Siepielski, Adam M.
    et al.
    Univ Arkansas, Dept Biol Sci, Fayetteville, AR 72701 USA..
    Morrissey, Michael B.
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Biol, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland..
    Buoro, Mathieu
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Environm Sci Policy & Management, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Pau & Pays Adour, Inst Natl Rech Agron, St Pee Sur Nivelle, France..
    Carlson, Stephanie M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Environm Sci Policy & Management, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Caruso, Christina M.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON, Canada..
    Clegg, Sonya M.
    Univ Oxford, Edward Grey Inst, Dept Zool, Oxford, England..
    Coulson, Tim
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, Cambridge, England..
    DiBattista, Joseph
    Curtin Univ, Dept Environm & Agr, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Gotanda, Kiyoko M.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, Cambridge, England.;McGill Univ, Redpath Museum, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;McGill Univ, Dept Biol, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Francis, Clinton D.
    Calif Polytech State Univ San Luis Obispo, Dept Biol Sci, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 USA..
    Hereford, Joe
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Evolut & Ecol, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Kingsolver, Joel G.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Biol, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Augustine, Kate E.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Biol, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Kruuk, Loeske E. B.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Biol, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Martin, Ryan A.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Biol, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Univ Oxford, Edward Grey Inst, Dept Zool, Oxford, England..
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Svensson, Erik I.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Lund, Sweden..
    Wade, Michael J.
    Indiana Univ, Dept Biol, Bloomington, IN USA..
    MacColl, Andrew D. C.
    Univ Nottingham, Sch Life Sci, Nottingham, England..
    Response to Comment on "Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection"2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 359, no 6374, article id eaan5760Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The comment by Myers-Smith and Myers focuses on three main points: (i) the lack of a mechanistic explanation for climate-selection relationships, (ii) the appropriateness of the climate data used in our analysis, and (iii) our focus on estimating climate-selection relationships across (rather than within) taxonomic groups. We address these critiques in our response.

  • 9.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Dahlgren, Johan P.
    Oien, Dag-Inge
    Moen, Asbjorn
    Ehrlen, Johan
    Climate warming alters effects of management on population viability of threatened species: results from a 30-year experimental study on a rare orchid2013In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 2729-2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to influence the viability of populations both directly and indirectly, via species interactions. The effects of large-scale climate change are also likely to interact with local habitat conditions. Management actions designed to preserve threatened species therefore need to adapt both to the prevailing climate and local conditions. Yet, few studies have separated the direct and indirect effects of climatic variables on the viability of local populations and discussed the implications for optimal management. We used 30years of demographic data to estimate the simultaneous effects of management practice and among-year variation in four climatic variables on individual survival, growth and fecundity in one coastal and one inland population of the perennial orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica in Norway. Current management, mowing, is expected to reduce competitive interactions. Statistical models of how climate and management practice influenced vital rates were incorporated into matrix population models to quantify effects on population growth rate. Effects of climate differed between mown and control plots in both populations. In particular, population growth rate increased more strongly with summer temperature in mown plots than in control plots. Population growth rate declined with spring temperature in the inland population, and with precipitation in the coastal population, and the decline was stronger in control plots in both populations. These results illustrate that both direct and indirect effects of climate change are important for population viability and that net effects depend both on local abiotic conditions and on biotic conditions in terms of management practice and intensity of competition. The results also show that effects of management practices influencing competitive interactions can strongly depend on climatic factors. We conclude that interactions between climate and management should be considered to reliably predict future population viability and optimize conservation actions.

  • 10. Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Grindeland, John M.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Pollinator-mediated selection on floral display, spur length and flowering phenology in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica2010In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 385-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonrewarding animal-pollinated plants commonly experience severe pollen limitation, which should result in strong selection on traits affecting the success of pollination. However, the importance of pollinators as selective agents on floral traits in deceptive species has not been quantified experimentally. Here, we quantified pollinator-mediated selection (Delta beta(poll)) on floral morphology and start of flowering in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica by subtracting estimates of selection gradients for plants receiving supplemental hand-pollination from estimates obtained for open-pollinated control plants. There was directional selection for taller plants with more flowers and longer spurs, but no statistically significant selection on corolla size or flowering start. Pollinator-mediated selection accounted for all observed selection on spur length (Delta beta(poll) = 0.32), 76% of the selection on plant height (Delta beta(poll) = 0.19) and 42% of the selection on number of flowers (Delta beta(poll) = 0.30). Sixteen per cent of developing fruits were consumed by insect herbivores, but fruit herbivory had only minor effects on the strength of pollinator-mediated selection. Our results demonstrate that pollinators mediate selection on floral traits likely to affect both pollinator attraction and pollination efficiency, and are consistent with the hypothesis that deceptive species experience strong selection for increased display and mechanical fit between flower and pollinator.

  • 11.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Grindeland, John Magne
    Zu, Pengjuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Strong inbreeding depression and local outbreeding depression in the rewarding orchid Gymnadenia conopsea2012In: Conservation Genetics, ISSN 1566-0621, E-ISSN 1572-9737, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 1305-1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation of species threatened by habitat fragmentation is a major global challenge, and determining the genetic and demographic processes associated with isolation and reductions in population size will be critical for an increasing number of species. We conducted controlled crosses and field germination experiments to quantify the effects of inbreeding and outbreeding in the declining orchid Gymnadenia conopsea in two Norwegian populations that differ in size. We further compared our results with published estimates of inbreeding depression in orchids. There was severe inbreeding depression for seed production (delta = 0.41-0.67) and germination (delta = 0.46-0.66) in both populations, with stronger inbreeding depression in the large population. Compared to outcrossing, selfing reduced female fitness (number of seeds per fruit x proportion of seeds germinating) by 76 and 54 % in the large and small population, respectively. The magnitude of inbreeding depression for seed production was higher than the average reported for orchids, while for germination it was similar to earlier estimates. The large population also experienced considerable outbreeding depression for seed production (delta = 0.23-0.27), germination (delta = 0.33) and female fitness (delta = 0.47) following crosses with a population 1.6 km away. The strong inbreeding depression indicates that both populations harbour a substantial genetic load, and suggests that fragmentation may reinforce population decline in G. conopsea via increased inbreeding. Moreover, the local outbreeding depression indicates substantial genetic differentiation at a moderate spatial scale. This has important implications for the use of crosses between populations or plant translocations as conservation approaches.

  • 12.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Grindeland, John Magne
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Vegetation context influences the strength and targets of pollinator-mediated selection in a deceptive orchid2013In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 94, no 6, p. 1236-1242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clarifying the relationship between environmental context and the adaptive significance of floral traits is fundamental for an understanding of spatial and temporal variation in pollinator-mediated selection. We manipulated vegetation height and pollination regime of the orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica in a factorial design to test whether pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits is stronger in tall than in short vegetation, and whether this difference is larger for visual traits affecting pollinator attraction than for traits affecting pollination efficiency. In tall vegetation, pollinators mediated strong selection for taller plants (change in selection gradient for pollination, Delta beta(poll) = 0.33), more flowers (Delta beta(poll) = 0.34), and longer spurs (Delta beta(poll) = 0.42). In short vegetation, there was no significant selection on plant height, and pollinator-mediated selection on number of flowers and spur length was reduced by 52% and 25%, respectively. The results demonstrate experimentally that vegetation context can markedly influence the strength of pollinator-mediated selection on visual display traits, and indicate that this effect is weaker for traits affecting pollination efficiency. The study illustrates how crossed manipulations of environmental factors can reveal the causal links between ecological context and selection on floral traits.

  • 13.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Moritz, Kim K.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Additive effects of pollinators and herbivores result in both conflicting and reinforcing selection on floral traits2015In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutualists and antagonists are known to respond to similar floral cues, and may thus cause opposing selection on floral traits. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of their independent and interactive effects. In a population of the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the intensity of pollination and herbivory in a factorial design to examine whether both interactions influence selection on flowering phenology, floral display, and morphology. Supplemental hand-pollination increased female fitness by 31% and one-quarter of all plants were damaged by herbivores. Both interactions contributed to selection. Pollinators mediated selection for later flowering and herbivores for earlier flowering, while both selected for longer spurs. The strength of selection was similar for both agents, and their effects were additive. As a consequence, there was no net selection on phenology, whereas selection on spur length was strong. The experimental results demonstrate that both pollinators and herbivores can markedly influence the strength of selection on flowering phenology and floral morphology, and cause both conflicting and reinforcing selection. They also indicate that the direction of selection on phenology will vary with the relative intensity of the mutualistic and antagonistic interaction, potentially resulting in both temporal and among-population variation in optimal flowering time.

  • 14.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Mousset, Mathilde
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Strong Inbreeding Depression In Two Scandinavian Populations Of The Self-Incompatible Perennial Herb Arabidopsis Lyrata2013In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, no 10, p. 2876-2888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inbreeding depression is a key factor influencing mating system evolution in plants, but current understanding of its relationship with selfing rate is limited by a sampling bias with few estimates for self-incompatible species. We quantified inbreeding depression () over two growing seasons in two populations of the self-incompatible perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea in Scandinavia. Inbreeding depression was strong and of similar magnitude in both populations. Inbreeding depression for overall fitness across two seasons (the product of number of seeds, offspring viability, and offspring biomass) was 81% and 78% in the two populations. Chlorophyll deficiency accounted for 81% of seedling mortality in the selfing treatment, and was not observed among offspring resulting from outcrossing. The strong reduction in both early viability and late quantitative traits suggests that inbreeding depression is due to deleterious alleles of both large and small effect, and that both populations experience strong selection against the loss of self-incompatibility. A review of available estimates suggested that inbreeding depression tends to be stronger in self-incompatible than in self-compatible highly outcrossing species, implying that undersampling of self-incompatible taxa may bias estimates of the relationship between mating system and inbreeding depression.

  • 15.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Trunschke, Judith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Smit, Mart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Verbeek, Jeffrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Strong pollinator-mediated selection for increased flower brightness and contrast in a deceptive orchid2016In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 716-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrasting flower color patterns that putatively attract or direct pollinators toward a reward are common among angiosperms. In the deceptive orchid Anacamptis morio, the lower petal, which makes up most of the floral display, has a light central patch with dark markings. Within populations, there is pronounced variation in petal brightness, patch size, amount of dark markings, and contrast between patch and petal margin. We tested whether pollinators mediate selection on these color traits and on morphology (plant height, number of flowers, corolla size, spur length), and whether selection is consistent with facilitated or negative frequency-dependent pollination. Pollinators mediated strong selection for increased petal brightness (Delta beta(poll) = 0.42) and contrast (Delta beta(poll) = 0.51). Pollinators also tended to mediate stabilizing selection on brightness (Delta gamma(poll) = -0.27, n.s.) favoring the most common phenotype in the population. Selection for reduced petal brightness among hand-pollinated plants indicated a fitness cost associated with brightness. The results demonstrate that flower color traits influence pollination success and seed production in A. morio, indicating that they affect attractiveness to pollinators, efficiency of pollen transfer, or both. The documented selection is consistent with facilitated pollination and selection for color convergence toward cooccurring rewarding species.

  • 16.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Trunschke, Judith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Wimmergren, Carolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Separating selection by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in Gymnadenia conopsea2012In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 93, no 8, p. 1880-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most plants attract multiple flower visitors that may vary widely in their effectiveness as pollinators. Floral evolution is expected to reflect interactions with the most important pollinators, but few studies have quantified the contribution of different pollinators to current selection on floral traits. To compare selection mediated by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in the rewarding orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the environment by conducting supplemental hand-pollinations and selective pollinator exclusions in two populations in central Norway. In both populations, the exclusion of diurnal pollinators significantly reduced seed production compared to open pollination, whereas the exclusion of nocturnal pollinators did not. There was significant selection on traits expected to influence pollinator attraction and pollination efficiency in both the diurnal and nocturnal pollination treatment. The relative strength of selection among plants exposed to diurnal and nocturnal visitors varied among traits and populations, but the direction of selection was consistent. The results suggest that diurnal pollinators are more important than nocturnal pollinators for seed production in the study populations, but that both categories contribute to selection on floral morphology. The study illustrates how experimental manipulations can link specific categories of pollinators to observed selection on floral traits, and thus improve our understanding of how species interactions shape patterns of selection.

  • 17.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Tye, Matthew R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Resource- and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits2017In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Female reproductive success is predicted to be simultaneously limited by the availability of pollen and resources. Selection on floral traits results from both factors, but their relative importance and interaction is poorly understood. 2. We increased nutrient and pollen availability of the orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica in a factorial experiment to quantify resource-and pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits. Hand-pollination increased female fitness (number of fruits 9 mean fruit mass) by 74% in both nutrient treatments, whereas nutrient addition did not significantly affect female fitness. 3. There was selection for more flowers and longer spurs, and selection on spur length was significantly pollinator-mediated and of similar strength across nutrient treatments (Delta beta(poll) = 0.54 and Delta beta(poll_NPK) = 0.59). There was no statistically significant resource-mediated selection. Nutrient addition increased flower size the following year, but did not affect flower or fruit production, or selection on any trait. 4. The results demonstrate that D. lapponica does not increase flower production in response to nutrient addition, that the increase in female fitness in response to hand-pollination is not resource limited, and suggest that natural resource variation does not influence selection on floral traits. The study illustrates that crossed manipulations of pollen and resources can clarify their relative importance for selection on floral traits.

  • 18.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Climate-dependent costs of reproduction: Survival and fecundity costs decline with length of the growing season and summer temperature2015In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 357-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Costs of reproduction are expected to vary with environmental conditions thus influencing selection on life-history traits. Yet, the effects of habitat conditions and climate on trade-offs among fitness components remain poorly understood. For 2-5years, we quantified costs of experimentally increased reproduction in two populations (coastal long-season vs. inland short-season) of two long-lived orchids that differ in natural reproductive effort (RE; 30 vs. 75% fruit set). In both species, survival costs were found only at the short-season site, whereas growth and fecundity costs were evident at both sites, and both survival and fecundity costs declined with increasing growing season length and/or summer temperature. The results suggest that the expression of costs of reproduction depend on the local climate, and that climate warming could result in selection favouring increased RE in both study species.

  • 19.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Museum of Natural History and Archaeology.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Nonadditive effects of floral display and spur length on reproductive success in a deceptive orchid2011In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 92, no 12, p. 2167-2174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollinators may mediate selection on traits affecting pollinator attraction and effectiveness, and while nonadditive effects of traits influencing the two components of pollination success are expected when seed production is pollen limited, they have been little studied. In a factorial design, we manipulated one putative attraction trait (number of flowers) and one putative efficiency trait (spur length) previously shown to be subject to pollinator-mediated selection in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica. Removal of half of the flowers reduced pollen removal, proportion of flowers receiving pollen, fruit set, and fruit mass compared to unmanipulated plants, while spur-tip removal increased fruit set and fruit mass but did not affect pollen removal or proportion of flowers receiving pollen. The effect of spur-tip removal on fruit mass was stronger among plants with intact number of flowers compared to plants with experimentally reduced number of flowers. The results demonstrate that number of flowers and spur length are direct targets of selection and may affect female fitness nonadditively. More generally, they show that the adaptive value of a given trait can depend on floral context and illustrate how experimental approaches can advance our understanding of the evolution of trait combinations.

  • 20.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala Univ, EBC, Dept Ecol & Genet, Plant Ecol & Evolut, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nonlinear costs of reproduction in a long-lived plant2015In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 103, no 5, p. 1205-1213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A trade-off between current reproduction and future performance is a key component of life-history theory, but the shape of this trade-off for any specific fitness component remains elusive. We induced three to five levels of reproductive effort (RE) by manipulating fruit set of a long-lived orchid in two populations that differed in the length of the growing season and local climate and examined survival, size and fecundity the following year. Natural fruit set was 72% higher in the long-season population, but was not associated with a significant survival cost in any population. Survival decreased linearly with experimentally increased RE in the short-season population. In both populations, natural RE incurred growth and fecundity costs, and growth costs increased nonlinearly with diminishing costs at high RE. Fecundity costs increased linearly with RE in the long-season population, but nonlinearly with diminishing costs at high RE in the other. The results demonstrate that the shape of the cost function may be nonlinear with context-dependent intercept, slope and curvature. They are consistent with the prediction that survival costs appear only when RE exceeds natural levels, while growth and fecundity costs are evident at natural RE.Synthesis. We suggest that studies inducing multiple levels of RE are required to understand life-history trade-offs and their context dependence. This kind of information is fundamental for an understanding of the link between environmental heterogeneity, adaptive differentiation and life-history evolution.

  • 21.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    There is More to Pollinator-Mediated Selection than Pollen Limitation2014In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 7, p. 1907-1918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial variation in pollinator-mediated selection (Delta beta(poll)) is a major driver of floral diversification, but we lack a quantitative understanding of its link to pollen limitation (PL) and net selection on floral traits. For 2-5 years, we quantified Delta beta(poll) on floral traits in two populations each of two orchid species differing in PL. In both species, spatiotemporal variation in Delta beta(poll) explained much of the variation in net selection. Selection was consistently stronger and the proportion that was pollinator-mediated was higher in the severely pollen-limited deceptive species than in the rewarding species. Within species, variation in PL could not explain variation in Delta beta(poll) for any trait, indicating that factors influencing the functional relationship between trait variation and pollination success govern a major part of the observed variation in Delta beta(poll). Separating the effects of variation in mean interaction intensity and in the functional significance of traits will be necessary to understand spatiotemporal variation in selection exerted by the biotic environment.

  • 22.
    Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Variation in tolerance to drought among Scandinavian populations of Arabidopsis lyrata2012In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 559-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to cope with water limitation influences plant distributions, and several plant traits have been interpreted as adaptations to drought stress. In Scandinavia, the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata occurs in open habitats that differ widely in climate and water availability in summer, suggesting differential selection on drought-related traits. We conducted two greenhouse experiments to examine differentiation in drought response traits among six Scandinavian populations, and to determine whether leaf trichomes confer protection against drought. We quantified tolerance to drought as fitness (survival and biomass of survivors) when exposed to drought relative to fitness under non-drought conditions. Two Swedish populations from shores along the Bothnian Bay had higher tolerance to drought than four riverbed populations from Norway. Under conditions of drought, the shore populations experienced less leaf damage compared to the riverbed populations, and their survival and biomass were less reduced relative to non-drought conditions. Across populations, tolerance to drought was positively related to leaf mass per area and negatively related to flowering propensity and proportion roots, but not related to plant size at the initiation of the drought treatment. In populations polymorphic for trichome production, trichome-producing plants were more tolerant to drought than glabrous plants. The results suggest that both leaf morphology and life-history traits contribute to differential drought response in natural populations of A. lyrata, and that this system offers excellent opportunities for examining the adaptive value and genetic basis of drought-related traits.

  • 23.
    Trunschke, Judith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Interaction intensity and pollinator-mediated selection2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 214, no 3, p. 1381-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In animal-pollinated plants, the opportunity for selection and the strength of pollinatormediated selection are expected to increase with the degree of pollen limitation. However, whether differences in pollen limitation can explain variation in pollinator-mediated and net selection among animal-pollinated species is poorly understood. In the present study, we quantified pollen limitation, variance in relative fitness and pollinator- mediated selection on five traits important for pollinator attraction (flowering start, plant height, flower number, flower size) and pollination efficiency (spur length) in natural populations of 12 orchid species. Pollinator-mediated selection was quantified by subtracting estimates of selection gradients for plants receiving supplemental hand-pollination from estimates obtained for open-pollinated control plants. Mean pollen limitation ranged from zero to 0.96. Opportunity for selection, pollinatormediated selection and net selection were all positively related to pollen limitation, whereas nonpollinator-mediated selection was not. Opportunity for selection varied five-fold, strength of pollinator-mediated selection varied three-fold and net selection varied 1.5-fold among species. Supplemental hand-pollination reduced both opportunity for selection and selection on floral traits. The results show that the intensity of biotic interactions is an important determinant of the selection regime, and indicate that the potential for pollinator-mediated selection and divergence in floral traits is particularly high in species that are strongly pollen-limited.

  • 24.
    Trunschke, Judith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    No evidence for adaptive population differentiation during seed germination between woodland and grassland populations of the orchid Platanthera bifoliaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Trunschke, Judith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Pollinator-mediated selection and the effect of spur length on pollination success in short-spurred and long-spurred populations of the orchid Platanthera bifoliaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Trunschke, Judith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    The independent and combined effects of floral traits distinguishing two pollination ecotypes of a moth-pollinated orchidManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Videvall, Elin
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Mol Ecol & Evolut Lab, Dept Biol, Lund, Sweden..
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linkoping Univ, IFM Biol, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund Univ, Mol Ecol & Evolut Lab, Dept Biol, Lund, Sweden..
    Strong Maternal Effects on Gene Expression in Arabidopsis lyrata Hybrids2016In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 984-994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybridization between populations or species can have pronounced fitness consequences. Yet little is known about how hybridization affects gene regulation. Three main models have been put forward to explain gene expression patterns in hybrids: additive, dominance, or parental effects. Here, we use high throughput RNA-sequencing to examine the extent to which hybrid gene expression follows predictions by each of the three models. We performed a reciprocal crossing experiment between two differentiated populations of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata and sequenced RNA in rosette leaves of 12-week-old plants grown in greenhouse conditions. The two parental populations had highly differentiated gene expression patterns. In hybrids, a majority of genes showed intermediate expression relative to that of their parental populations (i.e., additive effects), but expression was frequently more similar to the maternal than to their paternal population (i.e., maternal effects). Allele-specific expression analyses showed that in the vast majority of cases, genes with pronounced maternal effect expressed both the maternal and the paternal allele. Maternal effects on hybrid gene expression have rarely been documented previously and our study suggests it could be more common than previously assumed. Whether the maternal effect on gene expression persists to later life-stages, and whether the variation in gene expression is manifested in other aspects of the phenotype, remain to be elucidated. Our findings are relevant for understanding the consequences of outbreeding and hybridization and open up several questions for future studies.

1 - 27 of 27
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf