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  • 1.
    Falk, Martin
    et al.
    Austrian Inst Econ Res WIFO, Arsenal Objekt 20, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Figueira-de-Lemos, Francisco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Florida Int Univ, Dept Int Business, 11200 SW 8th St,Mango 423, Miami, FL 33199 USA.
    Complementarity of R&D and productivity in SME export behavior2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 96, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the link between export behavior, labor productivity and R&D activities in 17,168 small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) in Austria, during the period 1995-2011. The analysis covers six subgroups of SMEs: young, old, micro, born global, manufacturing, and services. Using a two-part model controlling for firm effects, the results show that both the export participation and the export share of SMEs depend significantly and positively on the level of labor productivity (relative to that of large firms in the same industry) and the R&D-sales ratio. Another important finding is that labor productivity strengthens the relationship between R&D activities and exports. Marginal effects show a large degree of heterogeneity in the relationships across the six subgroups of SMEs. The link between R&D and export behavior, for a given level of labor productivity, is relatively pronounced for manufacturing SMEs, larger and older SMEs, while the other sub-groups are less affected.

  • 2.
    Figueira de Lemos, Francisco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    A Political View on the Internationalization Process2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of governments in the internationalization of the firm had early recognition in prominent seminal studies in international business, such as Hymer’s thesis or the Uppsala Model, though the interaction between multinationals and governments has attracted scarce attention. As such, the main stream of economics and management studies have focused on internationalization essentially as an issue of the firm, wherein the multinationals’ interaction with the environment is limited to a business-industrial scope of suppliers, clients, and competitors.

    In a different direction, this thesis includes the political setting and studies the beneficial side of governments in the internationalization process of the firm. With this purpose, the present dissertation proposes a conceptual framework based on Johanson and Vahlne’s (1977) internationalization process model, complemented with Williamson’s (1975) Transaction Costs Economics, and encompassed by conceptual insights from institutional studies related to international business. Specifically, the role of governments in the internationalization process is examined through the variances of the relation between knowledge and commitment at the micro, meso, and macro level.

    The structure of the thesis reflects the multilevel approach, integrating one conceptual and three empirical papers, each of which dealing with a particular level of analysis. Through the aggregation of each paper’s intrinsic contribution, the dissertation’s summary offers a wide view on the internationalization phenomena, adding the political elements to the industrial-business elements of the environment. Overall, internationalization is conceptualized as a process of interaction with the business environment, whereas the public nature of political elements induces the compromise of combining activities between firms and governments. Evidence gives the ground to conclude that internationalization is not a game played just between firms, or, even, between firms and markets, but also with and within governments.

    List of papers
    1. Risk Management in the internationalization process of the firm: A note on the Uppsala model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk Management in the internationalization process of the firm: A note on the Uppsala model
    2011 (English)In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 143-153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analytically and graphically examines the Uppsala model's risk formula (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977) in its two variables: commitment and uncertainty. The graphical treatment of the variables demonstrates the internationalization mechanism's consistency with the risk formula. In particular, commitment manipulation develops a risk management perspective to the model, wherein contingent uncertainty is a central concept. The main contribution consists in the composition of a set of hypotheses on the effects of risk contingencies on a firm's commitment behavior in different internationalization phases. A pertinent remark that emerges from this analytical exercise is the Uppsala model's contingent nature, which explains the differences in the pattern and pace of the internationalization process, as well as potential leapfrogging and market-exit moves.

    Keywords
    Commitment, Contingency, Contingent uncertainty, Internationalization, Internationalization process, Knowledge, Risk, Risk management, Uncertainty, Uppsala model
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-141635 (URN)10.1016/j.jwb.2010.05.008 (DOI)000289012300002 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-12 Created: 2011-01-12 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Internationalization Processes in Stable and Unstable Market Conditions: Towards a model of commitment decisions in dynamic environments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internationalization Processes in Stable and Unstable Market Conditions: Towards a model of commitment decisions in dynamic environments
    2014 (English)In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 332-349Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a managerial decision framework to deal with internationalization whether in stable or dynamic environments. While displaying the effects of unstable and stable environmental settings on commitment decisions, the framework is the result of an inferential abductive approach that merges the risk management model with empirical data collected from a 32-year longitudinal case study on nine Swedish MNCs. The longitudinal analysis shows that when environmental changes are perceived as detrimental, firms tend to decrease their tangible assets and commit in a more intangible way. On the opposite, when changes to the environment are perceived as beneficial, firms follow an incremental path of commitment, preferably in tangible kind. The findings contribute new knowledge to understand such diversities in commitment decisions as divestment, wait-and-see, market-exit and re-entry.

    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196202 (URN)10.1016/j.jwb.2013.07.003 (DOI)000338613100005 ()
    Available from: 2013-03-05 Created: 2013-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Complexity and interdependency in firm's internationalisation: when the state becomes the partner
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complexity and interdependency in firm's internationalisation: when the state becomes the partner
    2009 (English)In: International Journal of Business Environment, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 485-504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196205 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-03-05 Created: 2013-03-05 Last updated: 2013-12-02
    4. The Control of Foreign Operations: Is it strategic, economic or politically driven?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Control of Foreign Operations: Is it strategic, economic or politically driven?
    (English)In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196203 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-03-05 Created: 2013-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06
  • 3.
    Figueira de Lemos, Francisco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Control of Foreign Operations: Is it strategic, economic or politically driven?In: Journal of International Business Studies, ISSN 0047-2506, E-ISSN 1478-6990Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Figueira de Lemos, Francisco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Freire de Sousa, Fernando
    Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia.
    Complexity and interdependency in firm's internationalisation: when the state becomes the partner2009In: International Journal of Business Environment, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 485-504Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Figueira de Lemos, Francisco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Internationalization Processes in Stable and Unstable Market Conditions: Towards a model of commitment decisions in dynamic environments2014In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 332-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a managerial decision framework to deal with internationalization whether in stable or dynamic environments. While displaying the effects of unstable and stable environmental settings on commitment decisions, the framework is the result of an inferential abductive approach that merges the risk management model with empirical data collected from a 32-year longitudinal case study on nine Swedish MNCs. The longitudinal analysis shows that when environmental changes are perceived as detrimental, firms tend to decrease their tangible assets and commit in a more intangible way. On the opposite, when changes to the environment are perceived as beneficial, firms follow an incremental path of commitment, preferably in tangible kind. The findings contribute new knowledge to understand such diversities in commitment decisions as divestment, wait-and-see, market-exit and re-entry.

  • 6.
    Figueira-de-Lemos, Francisco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Johanson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Vahlne, Jan-Erik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Risk Management in the internationalization process of the firm: A note on the Uppsala model2011In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 143-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analytically and graphically examines the Uppsala model's risk formula (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977) in its two variables: commitment and uncertainty. The graphical treatment of the variables demonstrates the internationalization mechanism's consistency with the risk formula. In particular, commitment manipulation develops a risk management perspective to the model, wherein contingent uncertainty is a central concept. The main contribution consists in the composition of a set of hypotheses on the effects of risk contingencies on a firm's commitment behavior in different internationalization phases. A pertinent remark that emerges from this analytical exercise is the Uppsala model's contingent nature, which explains the differences in the pattern and pace of the internationalization process, as well as potential leapfrogging and market-exit moves.

  • 7.
    Popli, Manish
    et al.
    Indian Inst Management, Strategy & Int Business, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India..
    Figueira-de-Lemos, Francisco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Reusing Uppsala lens in cross-border M&As of emerging markets2018In: Strategic Change, ISSN 1086-1718, E-ISSN 1099-1697, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk can be assessed and managed by acquirers from emerging markets in their international acquisitions by evoking the role of commitment as outlined in the original Uppsala model. It is proposed that commitment may be maneuvered depending on the motive, industry context, and the prior experience of the acquirer from incountry joint-ventures for incumbent firms.

1 - 7 of 7
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