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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Cronberg, Nils
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Mechanisms behind species-specific water economy responses to water level drawdown in peat mossesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Cronberg, Nils
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Mechanisms behind species-specific water economy responses to water level drawdown in peat mossesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in mires across the Holarctic regionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Campbell, Charles
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Structural traits of Sphagnum: Interrelationships and implications on water economyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Campbell, Charles
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Trait variation across species distribution boundaries in SphagnumManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Peatland Bryophytes in a Changing Environment: Ecophysiological Traits and Ecosystem Function2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands are peat forming ecosystems in which not fully decomposed plant material builds up the soil. The sequestration of carbon into peat is mainly associated with the bryophyte genus Sphagnum (peat mosses), which dominate and literally form most peatlands. The responses of Sphagnum to environmental change help us to understand peatland development and function and to predict future changes in a rapidly changing world. In this thesis, the overarching aim was to use ecophysiological traits to investigate mechanisms behind the response of Sphagnum to elevated N deposition, and, processes connected to ecosystem shift and ecosystem function of peatlands.

    Regarding elevated N deposition, three experiments were performed at different scales (country-wide to greenhouse). Independent of scale and species, apical tissue N concentration increased with increasing N input until N saturation was reached. Maximum photosynthetic rate, a trait evaluating photosynthetic capacity, increased with N input and could be well predicted by tissue N concentration. Thus, the physiological responses of Sphagnum to N deposition are often positive and I found no evidence of toxic effects. Production did, however, not increase with N input, and results of the N:P ratio suggested that P limitation, and possibly other elements, might hamper growth under high N input. The effect of P limitation was, in contrast to current view, most pronounced in fast growing species indicating species specific responses to nutrient imbalance.

    I explored the puzzling, but historically frequently occurring, rich fen to bog ecosystem shift; a shift from a species-rich ecosystem dominated by brown mosses, to a species-poor one with greater carbon storage that is Sphagnum-dominated. The bog-dwelling species of Sphagnum grew well, to our surprise, when in contact with rich fen water but was not a strong competitor compared to rich fen Sphagnum species. If submerged under rich fen water (high pH), the bog Sphagnum species died while rich fen species of Sphagnum were unaffected. These results show that differences in two physiological traits (growth rate and tolerance to flooding) among species, can explain when a peatland ecosystem shift might occur.

    In the last study, the function of peatlands was related to trade-offs between traits and allometric scaling in Sphagnum. Results suggested that growth strategies are determined by the distribution of Sphagnum relative to the water table in order to minimize periods with suboptimal hydration. Allometric analyses stressed the importance of resource allocation among and within shoots (apical part vs. stem), although the allocation patterns in Sphagnum were not always consistent with those of vascular plants. Interestingly, data indicated a trade-off between photosynthetic rate and decomposition rate among Sphagnum species.

    List of papers
    1. Photosynthetic performance in Sphagnum transplanted along a latitudinal nitrogen deposition gradient
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photosynthetic performance in Sphagnum transplanted along a latitudinal nitrogen deposition gradient
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 159, no 4, p. 705-715Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Increased N deposition in Europe has affected mire ecosystems. However, knowledge on the physiological responses is poor. We measured photosynthetic responses to increasing N deposition in two peatmoss species (Sphagnum balticum and Sphagnum fuscum) from a 3-year, north-south transplant experiment in northern Europe, covering a latitudinal N deposition gradient ranging from 0.28 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the north, to 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the south. The maximum photosynthetic rate (NPmax) increased southwards, and was mainly explained by tissue N concentration, secondly by allocation of N to the   photosynthesis, and to a lesser degree by modified photosystem II activity (variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence yield). Although climatic factors may have contributed, these results were most likely attributable to an increase in N deposition southwards. For S. fuscum, photosynthetic rate continued to increase up to a deposition level of 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1), but for S. balticum it seemed to level out at 1.14 g N m(-2) year(-1). The results for S. balticum suggested that transplants from different origin (with low or intermediate N   deposition) respond differently to high N deposition. This indicates that Sphagnum species may be able to adapt or physiologically adjust to high N deposition. Our results also suggest that S. balticum might be more sensitive to N deposition than S. fuscum. Surprisingly, NPmax was not (S. balticum), or only weakly (S. fuscum) correlated with biomass production, indicating that production is to a great extent is governed by factors other than the photosynthetic capacity.

    Keywords
    Chlorophyll fluorescence, Chlorophyll, Carbon dioxide exchange, Photosynthesis, Peatlands
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120352 (URN)10.1007/s00442-008-1261-1 (DOI)000264103800003 ()
    Available from: 2010-03-11 Created: 2010-03-11 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Physiological responses to nitrogen and sulphur addition and raised temperature in Sphagnum balticum
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physiological responses to nitrogen and sulphur addition and raised temperature in Sphagnum balticum
    2009 (English)In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 161, no 3, p. 481-490Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sphagnum, the main genus which forms boreal peat, is strongly affected by N and S deposition and raised temperature, but the physiological mechanisms behind the responses are largely unknown. We measured maximum photosynthetic rate (NPmax), maximum efficiency of photosystem II [variable fluorescence (F v)/maximum fluorescence yield (F m)] and concentrations of N, C, chlorophyll and carotenoids as responses to N and S addition and increased temperature in Sphagnum balticum (a widespread species in the northern peatlands) in a 12-year factorial experiment. NPmax did not differ between control (0.2 g N m−2 year−1) and high N (3.0 g N m−2 year−1), but was higher in the mid N treatment (1.5 g N m−2 year−1). N, C, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration increased in shoot apices after N addition. F v/F m did not differ between N treatments. Increased temperature (+3.6°C) had a small negative effect on N concentration, but had no significant effect on NPmax or F v/F m. Addition of 2 g S m−2 year−1 showed a weak negative effect on NPmax and F v/F m. Our results suggest a unimodal response of NPmax to N addition and tissue N concentration in S. balticum, with an optimum N concentration for photosynthetic rate of ~13 mg N g−1. In conclusion, high S deposition may reduce photosynthetic capacity in Sphagnum, but the negative effects may be relaxed under high N availability. We suggest that previously reported negative effects on Sphagnum productivity under high N deposition are not related to negative effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, but differences in optimum N concentration among Sphagnum species may affect their competitive ability under different N deposition regimes.

    Keywords
    Chlorophyll fluorescence, Nutrient deposition, Peatlands, Photosynthesis, Photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120447 (URN)10.1007/s00442-009-1406-x (DOI)000269010300004 ()19593588 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-03-12 Created: 2010-03-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Direct physiological effects of nitrogen on Sphagnum: a greenhouse experiment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct physiological effects of nitrogen on Sphagnum: a greenhouse experiment
    2012 (English)In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 353-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    1. Bogs are nutrient-poor peatland ecosystems that are sensitive to nitrogen (N) deposition. Production of peat mosses (i.e. the peat-forming genus Sphagnum) is known to decrease under elevated N deposition, but the causal mechanisms are poorly understood. 2. It is predicted that increased N deposition will cause changes in Sphagnum species composition, with fast-growing species benefiting from increased N availability in contrast to slow-growing species. Knowledge of species-specific responses to N availability can help us to understand interspecific competitive relationships. 3. We investigated the direct effects of N application on plant physiology in three Sphagnum species by exposing shoots to a range of N doses (corresponding to depositions of 0-5 6 g m) 2 year) 1), over 5 months, in a greenhouse experiment. The species investigated included one that grows high above the water-table (Sphagnum fuscum) and two that grow lower down (Sphagnum balticum and Sphagnum fallax). S. fuscum and S. balticum originate from ombrotrophic and S. fallax from minerotrophic environments. To estimate N responses, we measured the performance and light-capture kinetics of the photosynthetic apparatus (maximum photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm), biomass production, shoot formation, and N and phosphorus (P) concentrations in the tissue. 4. Tissue nitrogen concentration generally increased with N application rate, and photosynthetic rate increased with N concentration, although S. balticum exhibited a unimodal response. With respect to production, a negative response to N application rate was found in S. fallax and S. fuscum (weak), while production in S. balticum was unrelated to application rate. S. fallax was the fastest-growing species, producing two to three times more biomass per shoot compared with the other species. 5. The mismatch between photosynthetic capacity and production could partly be explained by an increased N : P ratio following N application. Phosphorus limitation may not negatively affect photosynthetic capacity, but may hamper production. 6. The fast-growing species S. fallax is considered to benefit from increased N deposition, but we found a negative physiological response, suggesting stoichiometric constraints. Thus, we conclude that responses to N deposition cannot be predicted in a simple way from physiological traits related to growth rate without considering local environmental factors. 

    National Category
    Ecology
    Research subject
    Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-165127 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2435.2011.01948.x (DOI)000302011400007 ()
    Available from: 2012-01-03 Created: 2012-01-03 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
    4. Rapid ecosystem shifts in peatlands: Linking plant physiology and succession
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid ecosystem shifts in peatlands: Linking plant physiology and succession
    2010 (English)In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 3047-3056Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Stratigraphic records from peatlands suggest that the shift from a rich fen (calcareous fen) to an ombrotrophic bog can occur rapidly. This shift constitutes a switch from a species-rich ecosystem to a species-poor one with greater carbon storage. In this process, the invasion and expansion of acidifying bog species of Sphagnum (peat mosses) play a key role. To test under what conditions an acidifying bog species could invade a rich fen, we conducted three experiments, contrasting the bog species S. fucsum with the rich-fen species S. warnstorfii and S. teres. We first tested the effect of calcareous water by growing the three species at different constant height above the water table (HWT; 2, 7, and 14 cm) in a rich-fen pool and measured maximum photosynthetic rate and production and difference in length growth as an indicator of competition. In none of the species was the photosynthetic capacity negatively affected when placed at low HWT, but S. fuscum was a weaker competitor at low HWT. In our second experiment we transplanted the three species into microhabitats with different and naturally varying HWT in a rich fen. Here, S. fuscum nearly ceased to photosynthesize when transplanted to low HWT (brown moss carpet), while it performed similarly to the two rich-fen species at the intermediate level (S. warnstorfii hummock level). In contrast to S. fuscum, the rich-fen sphagna performed equally well in both habitats. The brown moss carpet was seasonally flooded, and in our third experiment we found that S. fuscum, but not S. teres, was severely damaged when submerged in rich-fen water. Our results suggest two thresholds in HWT affecting the ecosystem switch: one level that reduces the risk of submergence and a higher one that makes bog sphagna competitive against the rich-fen species.

    Keywords
    Allogenic succession; Bog; Calcareous; Catastrophic shift; Competition; Drought, Flooding, Hällefjärd, Mire, Ombrotrophication, Photosynthesis, Sphagnum spp, Sweden
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Research subject
    Biology with specialization in Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-143269 (URN)10.1890/09-2267.1 (DOI)000282654700023 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-20 Created: 2011-01-20 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved
    5. Functional traits in Sphagnum, allometry, and their impacts on carbon cycling in peatlands
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional traits in Sphagnum, allometry, and their impacts on carbon cycling in peatlands
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Ecology
    Research subject
    Ecological Botany
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-165131 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-03 Created: 2012-01-03 Last updated: 2015-04-20
  • 7.
    Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kouki, Jari
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Johnson, Samuel
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Heikkala, Osmo
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Rodríguez, Antonio
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Strengbom, Joachim
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Trade-offs in berry production and biodiversity under prescribed burning and retention regimes in boreal forests2018In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 1658-1667Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Green tree retention and prescribed burning are the practices used to mitigate negative effects of boreal forestry. Beside their effects on biodiversity, these practices should also promote non-timber forest products (NTFPs). We assessed: (1) how prescribed burning and tree retention influence NTFPs by examining the production of bilberry, Vaccinium myrtillus and cowberry, Vaccinium vitis-idaea; (2) if there are synergies or trade-offs in the delivery of these NTFPs in relation to the delivery of species richness, focusing on five groups of forest-dwelling species. We used a long-term experiment located in eastern Finland, with three different harvesting treatments: clear-cut logging, logging with retention patches and unlogged, which were combined with or without prescribed burning. Eleven years after the treatment application, we scored plant cover and berry production in different microhabitats within these treatments, while species richness data for five species groups (ground layer lichens and bryophytes, vascular plants, saproxylic beetles, pollinators?here bees and hoverflies) were collected at the stand level. Logging favoured cowberry production, particularly for plants growing in the vicinity of stumps. Logging was detrimental for cover and berry production of bilberry. Retention mitigated these negative effects slightly, but cover and berry production were still substantially lower compared to unlogged forests. Prescribed burning increased the cowberry production in retention patches and in unlogged forest. Bilberry production decreased with burning, except in unlogged forest where the effect was neutral. No single management treatment simultaneously favoured all values?NTFPs and richness?and trade-offs among values were common. Only bilberry production and beetle diversity were higher under retention forestry, or in unlogged stands, compared to logged stands. Prescribed burning favoured many values when performed in combination with retention forestry, or in unlogged stands, but different treatment combinations favoured different species groups. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that widely applied conservation practices in managed boreal forests are unlikely to benefit all ecosystem values everywhere. If high multifunctionality is desired, managing at a landscape scale, countering the local trade-offs among values, may be more appropriate than the stand-scale conservation practices commonly practiced today.

  • 8.
    Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Baltzer, Jennifer L.
    Biology Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Boncek, Nicholas
    Department of Biological Sciences, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Department of Life Science and Biotechnologies, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, WSL Site Lausanne, Station 2, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering ENAC, Laboratory of ecological systems ECOS, Station 2, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    Institute for Peat and Mire Research, Northeast Normal University, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecological Processes and Environmental Change in the Changbai Mountains, Changchun, China.
    Caporn, Simon J. M.
    School of Science and the Environment, Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Galanina, Olga
    Institute of Earth Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Komarov Botanical Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Galka, Mariusz
    Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Monitoring & Department of Biogeography and Paleoecology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poznan, Polen.
    Ganeva, Anna
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Gillikin, David P.
    Department of Geology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA.
    Goia, Irina
    Babe ̧s-Bolyai University, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Department of Taxonomy and Ecology, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Goncharova, Nadezhda
    Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Syktyvkar, Russia.
    Hajek, Michal
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Bot & Zool, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Haraguchi, Akira
    Univ Kitakyushu, Dept Biol, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Harris, Lorna I.
    McGill Univ, Dept Geog, Montreal, Canada.
    Humphreys, Elyn
    Carleton Univ, Dept Geog & Environm Studies, Ottawa, Canada.
    Jirousek, Martin
    Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Bot & Zool, Brno, Czech Republic; Mendel Univ Brno, Fac AgriSci, Dept Plant Biol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kajukalo, Katarzyna
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Karofeld, Edgar
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Koronatova, Natalia G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Kosykh, Natalia P.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Lapshina, Elena
    Yugra State Univ, Khanty Mansiysk, Russia.
    Limpens, Juul
    Wageningen Univ, Plant Ecol & Nat Conservat Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Linkosalmi, Maiju
    Finnish Meteorol Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ma, Jin-Ze
    Northeast Normal Univ, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Inst Peat & Mire Res, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China; Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China.
    Mauritz, Marguerite
    No Arizona Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Ctr Ecosyst Sci & Soc Ecoss, Flagstaff, USA.
    Munir, Tariq M.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Geog, Calgary, Canada; St Marys Univ, Dept Geol, Calgary, Canada.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Woods Hole Res Ctr, Falmouth, USA.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Biodivers & Ecosyst Res, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Noskova, Maria
    Russian Acad Sci, Komarov Bot Inst, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Payne, Richard J.
    Univ York, Environm, York, N Yorkshire, England; Penza State Univ, Penza, Russia.
    Pilkington, Kyle
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Robinson, Sean
    SUNY Coll Oneonta, Dept Biol, Oneonta, NY USA.
    Robroek, Bjorn J. M.
    Univ Southampton, Biol Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Rochefort, Line
    Laval Univ, Dept Plant Sci, Quebec City, PQ, Canada; Laval Univ, Ctr Northern Studies, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Singer, David
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland; Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biosci, Dept Zool, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Trondheim, Norway.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Peatland & Soil Ecol Grp, Joensuu, Finland.
    Vellak, Kai
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Verheyden, Anouk
    Union Coll, Dept Geol, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Waddington, James Michael
    McMaster Univ, Sch Geog & Earth Sci, Hamilton, Canada.
    Rice, Steven K.
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Environmental and taxonomic controls of carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition in Sphagnum across broad climatic and geographic ranges2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 5189-5202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rain-fed peatlands are dominated by peat mosses (Sphagnum sp.), which for their growth depend on nutrients, water and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. As the isotopic composition of carbon (C-12(,)13) and oxygen (O-16(,)18) of these Sphagnum mosses are affected by environmental conditions, Sphagnum tissue accumulated in peat constitutes a potential long-term archive that can be used for climate reconstruction. However, there is inadequate understanding of how isotope values are influenced by environmental conditions, which restricts their current use as environmental and palaeoenvironmental indicators. Here we tested (i) to what extent C and O isotopic variation in living tissue of Sphagnum is speciesspecific and associated with local hydrological gradients, climatic gradients (evapotranspiration, temperature, precipitation) and elevation; (ii) whether the C isotopic signature can be a proxy for net primary productivity (NPP) of Sphagnum; and (iii) to what extent Sphagnum tissue delta O-18 tracks the delta O-18 isotope signature of precipitation. In total, we analysed 337 samples from 93 sites across North America and Eurasia us ing two important peat-forming Sphagnum species (S. magellanicum, S. fuscum) common to the Holarctic realm. There were differences in delta C-13 values between species. For S. magellanicum delta C-13 decreased with increasing height above the water table (HWT, R-2 = 17 %) and was positively correlated to productivity (R-2 = 7 %). Together these two variables explained 46 % of the between-site variation in delta C-13 values. For S. fuscum, productivity was the only significant predictor of delta C-13 but had low explanatory power (total R-2 = 6 %). For delta O-18 values, approximately 90 % of the variation was found between sites. Globally modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation explained 69 % of the between-site variation in tissue delta O-18. S. magellanicum showed lower delta O-18 enrichment than S. fuscum (-0.83 %0 lower). Elevation and climatic variables were weak predictors of tissue delta O-18 values after controlling for delta O-18 values of the precipitation. To summarize, our study provides evidence for (a) good predictability of tissue delta O-18 values from modelled annual delta O-18 values in precipitation, and (b) the possibility of relating tissue delta C-13 values to HWT and NPP, but this appears to be species-dependent. These results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.

  • 9.
    Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Strengbom, Joachim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Direct physiological effects of nitrogen on Sphagnum: a greenhouse experiment2012In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 353-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Bogs are nutrient-poor peatland ecosystems that are sensitive to nitrogen (N) deposition. Production of peat mosses (i.e. the peat-forming genus Sphagnum) is known to decrease under elevated N deposition, but the causal mechanisms are poorly understood. 2. It is predicted that increased N deposition will cause changes in Sphagnum species composition, with fast-growing species benefiting from increased N availability in contrast to slow-growing species. Knowledge of species-specific responses to N availability can help us to understand interspecific competitive relationships. 3. We investigated the direct effects of N application on plant physiology in three Sphagnum species by exposing shoots to a range of N doses (corresponding to depositions of 0-5 6 g m) 2 year) 1), over 5 months, in a greenhouse experiment. The species investigated included one that grows high above the water-table (Sphagnum fuscum) and two that grow lower down (Sphagnum balticum and Sphagnum fallax). S. fuscum and S. balticum originate from ombrotrophic and S. fallax from minerotrophic environments. To estimate N responses, we measured the performance and light-capture kinetics of the photosynthetic apparatus (maximum photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm), biomass production, shoot formation, and N and phosphorus (P) concentrations in the tissue. 4. Tissue nitrogen concentration generally increased with N application rate, and photosynthetic rate increased with N concentration, although S. balticum exhibited a unimodal response. With respect to production, a negative response to N application rate was found in S. fallax and S. fuscum (weak), while production in S. balticum was unrelated to application rate. S. fallax was the fastest-growing species, producing two to three times more biomass per shoot compared with the other species. 5. The mismatch between photosynthetic capacity and production could partly be explained by an increased N : P ratio following N application. Phosphorus limitation may not negatively affect photosynthetic capacity, but may hamper production. 6. The fast-growing species S. fallax is considered to benefit from increased N deposition, but we found a negative physiological response, suggesting stoichiometric constraints. Thus, we conclude that responses to N deposition cannot be predicted in a simple way from physiological traits related to growth rate without considering local environmental factors. 

  • 10.
    Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Strengbom, Joachim
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rapid ecosystem shifts in peatlands: Linking plant physiology and succession2010In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 3047-3056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stratigraphic records from peatlands suggest that the shift from a rich fen (calcareous fen) to an ombrotrophic bog can occur rapidly. This shift constitutes a switch from a species-rich ecosystem to a species-poor one with greater carbon storage. In this process, the invasion and expansion of acidifying bog species of Sphagnum (peat mosses) play a key role. To test under what conditions an acidifying bog species could invade a rich fen, we conducted three experiments, contrasting the bog species S. fucsum with the rich-fen species S. warnstorfii and S. teres. We first tested the effect of calcareous water by growing the three species at different constant height above the water table (HWT; 2, 7, and 14 cm) in a rich-fen pool and measured maximum photosynthetic rate and production and difference in length growth as an indicator of competition. In none of the species was the photosynthetic capacity negatively affected when placed at low HWT, but S. fuscum was a weaker competitor at low HWT. In our second experiment we transplanted the three species into microhabitats with different and naturally varying HWT in a rich fen. Here, S. fuscum nearly ceased to photosynthesize when transplanted to low HWT (brown moss carpet), while it performed similarly to the two rich-fen species at the intermediate level (S. warnstorfii hummock level). In contrast to S. fuscum, the rich-fen sphagna performed equally well in both habitats. The brown moss carpet was seasonally flooded, and in our third experiment we found that S. fuscum, but not S. teres, was severely damaged when submerged in rich-fen water. Our results suggest two thresholds in HWT affecting the ecosystem switch: one level that reduces the risk of submergence and a higher one that makes bog sphagna competitive against the rich-fen species.

  • 11.
    Granath, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Vicari, M.
    Bazely, Dawn R.
    Ball, John P.
    Puentes, Adriana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Rakocevic, T.
    Variation in the abundance of fungal endophytes in fescue grasses along altitudinal and grazing gradients2007In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 422-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epichloë festucae, a common fungal symbiont of the genus Festuca (family Poaceae), can provide its host plant with protection against herbivores. However, infection might also be associated with a cost to its host plant. We examined the distribution of Epichloë festucae infection in natural populations of three fescue grasses, Festuca rubra, F. ovina and F. vivipara, on mountains in northern Sweden to determine whether infection frequency varied with reindeer Rangifertarandus grazing pressure and altitude. Two differently-scaled approaches were used: 1) infection frequency was measured at a local scale along ten elevational transects within a ca 400 km2 area and 2) infection frequency was measured on a regional scale along elevational transects on 17 mountains classified as having a history of high or low reindeer grazing pressure. Mean infection frequencies in F. rubra were 10% (vegetative tillers at a local scale), and 23% (flowering culms at a regional scale), and in F. ovina they were 13% (local scale) and 15% (regional scale). Endophyte infection frequency in F. vivipara, was, on average, 12% (local scale) and 37% (regional scale). In F. rubra, infection decreased significantly with increasing altitude at both the local and regional scale, and was positively correlated with grazing pressure. In F. ovina, an opposite trend was found at the regional scale: infection frequency increased significantly with increasing altitude, while no discernible distribution pattern was observed at the local scale. No elevational trends were observed in infection of F. vivipara. These patterns in the distribution of endophyte-infected grasses in non-agricultural ecosystems may be explained by both biotic (grazing) and abiotic factors (altitude). Differences in ecology and life history of the studied grass species may also be of importance for the different results observed among species.

  • 12. Johnson, Matthew G.
    et al.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Tahvanainen, Teemu
    Pouliot, Remy
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Rochefort, Line
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Shaw, A. Jonathan
    Evolution of niche preference in Sphagnum peat mosses2015In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 90-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peat mosses (Sphagnum) are ecosystem engineersspecies in boreal peatlands simultaneously create and inhabit narrow habitat preferences along two microhabitat gradients: an ionic gradient and a hydrological hummock-hollow gradient. In this article, we demonstrate the connections between microhabitat preference and phylogeny in Sphagnum. Using a dataset of 39 species of Sphagnum, with an 18-locus DNA alignment and an ecological dataset encompassing three large published studies, we tested for phylogenetic signal and within-genus changes in evolutionary rate of eight niche descriptors and two multivariate niche gradients. We find little to no evidence for phylogenetic signal in most component descriptors of the ionic gradient, but interspecific variation along the hummock-hollow gradient shows considerable phylogenetic signal. We find support for a change in the rate of niche evolution within the genusthe hummock-forming subgenus Acutifolia has evolved along the multivariate hummock-hollow gradient faster than the hollow-inhabiting subgenus Cuspidata. Because peat mosses themselves create some of the ecological gradients constituting their own habitats, the classic microtopography of Sphagnum-dominated peatlands is maintained by evolutionary constraints and the biological properties of related Sphagnum species. The patterns of phylogenetic signal observed here will instruct future study on the role of functional traits in peatland growth and reconstruction.

  • 13.
    Mazziotta, Adriano
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Bengtsson, Fia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Norberg, Jon
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm Resilience Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Scaling functional traits to ecosystem processes: Towards a mechanistic understanding in peat mosses2019In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 843-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of trait trade-offs and environmental filtering in explaining the variability in functional traits and ecosystem processes has received considerable attention for vascular plants but less so for bryophytes. Thus, we do not know whether the same forces also shape the phenotypic variability of bryophytes. Here, we assess how environmental gradients and trade-offs shape functional traits and subsequently ecosystem processes for peat mosses (Sphagnum), a globally important plant genus for carbon accumulation. We used piecewise Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to understand how environmental gradients influence vital processes across levels of biological organization. We gathered data on functional traits for 15 globally important Sphagnum species covering a wide range of ecological preferences. Phenotypes lie along well-established axes of the plant economic spectrum characterizing trade-offs between vital physiological functions. Using SEM, we clarified the mechanisms of trait covariation and scaling to ecosystem processes. We tested whether peat mosses, like vascular plants, constrain trait variability between a fast turnover strategy based on resource acquisition via fast traits and processes, and a strategy of resource conservation, via slow traits and processes. We parameterized a process-based model estimating ecosystem processes linking environmental drivers with architectural and functional traits. In our SEM approach the amount of variance explained varied substantially (0.29 <= R-2 <= 0.82) among traits and processes in Sphagnum, and the model could predict some of them with high to intermediate accuracy for an independent dataset. R-2 variability was mainly explained by traits and species identity, and poorly by environmental filtering. Some Sphagnum species avoid the stress caused by periodic desiccation in hollows via resource acquisition based on fast photosynthesis and growth, while other species are adapted to grow high above the water-table on hummocks by slow physiological traits and processes to conserve resources. Synthesis.We contribute to a unified theory generating individual fitness, canopy dynamics and ecosystem processes from trait variation. As for vascular plants, the functional traits in the Sphagnum economic spectrum are linked into an integrated phenotypic network partly filtered by the environment and shaped by trade-offs in resource acquisition and conservation.

  • 14.
    Moore, Paul A.
    et al.
    McMaster Univ, Sch Geog & Earth Sci, 1280 Main St West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada.
    Lukenbach, Maxwell C.
    McMaster Univ, Sch Geog & Earth Sci, 1280 Main St West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada;Univ Alberta, Dept Earth & Atmospher Sci, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3, Canada.
    Thompson, Dan K.
    Nat Resources Canada, Northern Forestry Ctr, Canadian Forest Serv, Edmonton, AB T6H 3S5, Canada.
    Kettridge, Nick
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Waddington, James M.
    McMaster Univ, Sch Geog & Earth Sci, 1280 Main St West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada.
    Assessing the peatland hummock-hollow classification framework using high-resolution elevation models: implications for appropriate complexity ecosystem modeling2019In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 16, no 18, p. 3491-3506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hummock-hollow classification framework used to categorize peatland ecosystem microtopography is pervasive throughout peatland experimental designs and current peatland ecosystem modeling approaches. However, identifying what constitutes a representative hummock-hollow pair within a site and characterizing hummock-hollow variability within or between peatlands remains largely unassessed. Using structure from motion (SfM), high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of hummock-hollow microtopography were used to (1) examine how much area needs to be sampled to characterize site-level microtopographic variation; and (2) examine the potential role of microtopographic shape/structure on biogeochemical fluxes using plot-level data from nine northern peatlands. To capture 95% of site-level microtopographic variability, on average, an aggregate sampling area of 32 m(2) composed of 10 randomly located plots was required. Both site(i.e. transect data) and plot-level (i.e. SfM-derived DEM) results show that microtopographic variability can be described as a fractal at the submeter scale, where contributions to total variance are very small below a 0.5 m length scale. Microtopography at the plot level was often found to be non-bimodal, as assessed using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). Our findings suggest that the non-bimodal distribution of microtopography at the plot level may result in an undersampling of intermediate topographic positions. Extended to the modeling domain, an underrepresentation of intermediate microtopographic positions is shown to lead to potentially large flux biases over a wide range of water table positions for ecosystem processes which are non-linearly related to water and energy availability at the moss surface. Moreover, our simple modeling results suggest that much of the bias can be eliminated by representing microtopography with several classes rather than the traditional two (i.e. hummock/hollow). A range of tools examined herein can be used to easily parameterize peatland models, from GMMs used as simple transfer functions to spatially explicit fractal landscapes based on simple power-law relations between microtopographic variability and scale.

  • 15.
    Pedrotti, E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ingmar, T.
    Hytteborn, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Turunen, P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Fine-scale dynamics and community stability in boreal peatlands: revisiting a fen and a bog in Sweden after 50 years2014In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 133-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-decadal studies of community and ecosystemdynamics are rare; however, this time frame is most relevant for assessing the impact of anthropogenic influences and climate change on ecosystems. For this reason, we investigated changes in vegetation and microtopography over 52 years in two contrasting mire ecosystems, one ombrotrophic (bog) and one minerotrophic (fen), representing different successional stages and contrasting hydrological settings. In both peatlands, floristic composition was recorded in the same permanent plots (n = 55-56, 0.25 m(2)) in both 1960 and 2012 and microtopography was mapped over a large area (ca. 2500 m(2)) that encompassed these same plots. We quantified and compared the community-level changes and internal spatial dynamics, tested associations between pH/microtopography and community/species change, and examined how the area and location of hummock microforms had changed over time. The bog exhibited little site level change in vegetation, where few species changed significantly in cover and plot frequency. However, detailed analyses revealed some large within-plot changes over time in the bog, illustrating that bogs can be highly dynamic systems at a fine scale. In contrast, the rich fen experienced a clear directional change; specifically, bryophyte abundance decreased by 70% and brown mosses were almost extinct. Although pH had decreased over time at the rich fen, this decrease at the plot-level was not associated with the decline of brown moss abundance. The microtopographic structure did not change substantially at the bog where similar to 70% was covered by lawn/hummocks; however, in the rich fen hummocks expanded (from 10% to 16% cover) and moved or expanded down slope. Our study suggests, that at the site-level, the bog ecosystem was more resistant to environmental changes over time compared to the rich fen, as evidenced by shifts in vegetation and microtopography. The contrasting scales of vegetation dynamics observed within a bog (i.e., within-plot changes vs. site-level) indicate that plant-environment feedbacks contribute to the peatland level stability. While in rich fens, internal feedbacks may be weaker and the ecosystem's vegetation and microtopographic structure are vulnerable to shifting hydrological fluxes.

  • 16.
    Puentes, Adriana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Similarity in G matrix structure among natural populations of Arabidopsis lyrata2016In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 2370-2386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the stability of the G matrix in natural populations is fundamental for predicting evolutionary trajectories; yet, the extent of its spatial variation and how this impacts responses to selection remain open questions. With a nested paternal half-sib crossing design and plants grown in a field experiment, we examined differences in the genetic architecture of flowering time, floral display, and plant size among four Scandinavian populations of Arabidopsis lyrata. Using a multivariate Bayesian framework, we compared the size, shape, and orientation of G matrices and assessed their potential to facilitate or constrain trait evolution. Flowering time, floral display and rosette size varied among populations and significant additive genetic variation within populations indicated potential to evolve in response to selection. Yet, some characters, including flowering start and number of flowers, may not evolve independently because of genetic correlations. Using a multivariate framework, we found few differences in the genetic architecture of traits among populations. G matrices varied mostly in size rather than shape or orientation. Differences in multivariate responses to selection predicted from differences in G were small, suggesting overall matrix similarity and shared constraints to trait evolution among populations.

  • 17.
    Ramberg, Ellinor
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Strengbom, Joachim
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Coordination through databases can improve prescribed burning as a conservation tool to promote forest biodiversity2018In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 298-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prescribed fires are a common nature conservation practice. They are executed by several parties with limited coordination among them, and little consideration for wildfire occurrences and habitat requirements of fire-dependent species. Here, we gathered data on prescribed fires and wildfires in Sweden during 2011-2015 to (i) evaluate the importance and spatial extent of prescribed fires compared to wildfires and (ii) illustrate how a database can be used as a management tool for prescribed fires. We found that on average only 0.006% (prescribed 65%, wildfires 35%) of the Swedish forest burns per year, with 58% of the prescribed fires occurring on clearcuts. Also, both wildfires and prescribed fires seem to be important for the survival of fire-dependent species. A national fire database would simplify coordination and make planning and evaluation of prescribed fires more efficient. We propose an adaptive management strategy to improve the outcome of prescribed fires.

  • 18. Seufert, Verena
    et al.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Müller, Christoph
    A meta-analysis of crop response patterns to nitrogen limitation for improved model representation2019In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 10, p. e0223508-e0223508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The representation of carbon-nitrogen (N) interactions in global models of the natural or managed land surface remains an important knowledge gap. To improve global process-based models we require a better understanding of how N limitation affects photosynthesis and plant growth. Here we present the findings of a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the impact of N limitation on source (photosynthate production) versus sink (photosynthate use) activity, based on 77 highly controlled experimental N availability studies on 11 crop species. Using meta-regressions, we find that it can be insufficient to represent N limitation in models merely as inhibiting carbon assimilation, because in crops complete N limitation more strongly influences leaf area expansion (-50%) than photosynthesis (-34%), while leaf starch is accumulating (+83%). Our analysis thus offers support for the hypothesis of sink limitation of photosynthesis and encourages the exploration of more sink-driven crop modelling approaches. We also show that leaf N concentration changes with N availability and that the allocation of N to Rubisco is reduced more strongly compared to other photosynthetic proteins at low N availability. Furthermore, our results suggest that different crop species show generally similar response patterns to N limitation, with the exception of leguminous crops, which respond differently. Our meta-analysis offers lessons for the improved depiction of N limitation in global terrestrial ecosystem models, as well as highlights knowledge gaps that need to be filled by future experimental studies on crop N limitation response.

  • 19.
    Singer, David
    et al.
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland;Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Biosci, Dept Zool, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Mitchell, Edward A. D.
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland;Jardin Bot Neuchatel, Neuchatel, Switzerland.
    Payne, Richard J.
    Univ York, Environm, York, N Yorkshire, England.
    Blandenier, Quentin
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland;CSIC, Real Jardin Bot, Madrid, Spain.
    Duckert, Clement
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland.
    Fernandez, Leonardo D.
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland;Univ Bernardo OHiggins, Ctr Invest Recursos Nat & Sustentabilidad CIRENYS, Santiago, Chile.
    Fournier, Bertrand
    Concordia Univ, Dept Biol, Community & Quantitat Ecol Lab, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Hernandez, Cristian E.
    Barrio Univ Concepcion, Univ Concepcion, Dept Zool, Fac Ciencias Nat & Oceanog, Concepcion, Chile.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Bragazza, Luca
    WSL Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res, Lausanne, Switzerland;Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Sch Architecture Civil & Environm Engn ENAC, Lab Ecol Syst ECOS, Lausanne, Switzerland;Univ Ferrara, Dept Life Sci & Biotechnol, Ferrara, Italy.
    Koronatova, Natalia G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Goia, Irina
    Babes Bolyai Univ, Fac Biol & Geol, Dept Taxon & Ecol, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Harris, Lorna I.
    McMaster Univ, Sch Geog & Earth Sci, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Kajukalo, Katarzyna
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Geog & Geol Sci, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Kosakyan, Anush
    Czech Acad Sci, Biol Ctr, Inst Parasitol, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
    Lamentowicz, Mariusz
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Geog & Geol Sci, Lab Wetland Ecol & Monitoring, Poznan, Poland;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Dept Biogeog & Paleoecol, Poznan, Poland.
    Kosykh, Natalia P.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Soil Sci & Agrochem, Lab Biogeocenol, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Vellak, Kai
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Lara, Enrique
    Univ Neuchatel, Inst Biol, Lab Soil Biodivers, Neuchatel, Switzerland;CSIC, Real Jardin Bot, Madrid, Spain.
    Dispersal limitations and historical factors determine the biogeography of specialized terrestrial protists2019In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 3089-3100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies show that soil eukaryotic diversity is immense and dominated by micro-organisms. However, it is unclear to what extent the processes that shape the distribution of diversity in plants and animals also apply to micro-organisms. Major diversification events in multicellular organisms have often been attributed to long-term climatic and geological processes, but the impact of such processes on protist diversity has received much less attention as their distribution has often been believed to be largely cosmopolitan. Here, we quantified phylogeographical patterns in Hyalosphenia papilio, a large testate amoeba restricted to Holarctic Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, to test if the current distribution of its genetic diversity can be explained by historical factors or by the current distribution of suitable habitats. Phylogenetic diversity was higher in Western North America, corresponding to the inferred geographical origin of the H. papilio complex, and was lower in Eurasia despite extensive suitable habitats. These results suggest that patterns of phylogenetic diversity and distribution can be explained by the history of Holarctic Sphagnum peatland range expansions and contractions in response to Quaternary glaciations that promoted cladogenetic range evolution, rather than the contemporary distribution of suitable habitats. Species distributions were positively correlated with climatic niche breadth, suggesting that climatic tolerance is key to dispersal ability in H. papilio. This implies that, at least for large and specialized terrestrial micro-organisms, propagule dispersal is slow enough that historical processes may contribute to their diversification and phylogeographical patterns and may partly explain their very high overall diversity.

  • 20.
    Vicari, Mark
    et al.
    York Univ, Dept Biol, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Puentes, Adriana
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Georgeff, Jennifer
    York Univ, Dept Biol, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Strathdee, Fiona
    York Univ, Dept Biol, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Bazely, Dawn R.
    York Univ, Dept Biol, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Unpacking multi-trophic herbivore-grass-endophyte interactions: feedbacks across different scales in vegetation responses to Soay sheep herbivory2018In: The Science of Nature: Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 105, no 11-12, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grazing can induce changes in both plant productivity and nutritional quality, which may subsequently influence herbivore carrying capacity. While research on Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) dynamics on Hirta Island in the St. Kilda archipelago has elucidated the complexity of population drivers, including parasites, the role of herbivore-generated feedbacks as an intrinsic regulating factor remains unclear. The sheep lack large predators and every 3-9years undergo population crashes (overcompensatory mortality). We investigated the effects of grazing on (1) sward productivity and (2) quality (toxicity) of the primary forage species, red fescue (Festuca rubra L.), which is highly infected by an alkaloid-synthesizing fungal endophyte. Grazing had a negative impact on both forage quantity and quality. At higher sheep densities, impacts on sward growth were magnified, resulting in a nonlinear relationship with plant productivity. Simultaneously, endophyte hyphal load (and by inference, toxicity) peaked close to the time of a crash. A greenhouse experiment showed that alkaloid concentration in F. rubra increased in response to artificial defoliation. We conclude that at high sheep densities, grazing-mediated reductions in productivity, together with sustained alkaloid production, are likely to influence sheep dynamics. Future research should consider the interactive effects of forage toxicity, quantity, and nutritional content.

  • 21.
    Weston, David J.
    et al.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA; Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Climate Change Sci Inst, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    Johnson, Matthew G.
    Texas Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Lubbock, TX USA.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lindo, Zoe
    Univ Western Ontario, Dept Biol, London, ON, Canada.
    Belyea, Lisa R.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Sch Geog, London, England.
    Rice, Steven K.
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Hanson, David T.
    Univ New Mexico, Dept Biol, Albuquerque, NM USA.
    Engelhardt, Katharina A. M.
    Univ Maryland, Appalachian Lab, Ctr Environm Sci, Frostburg, MD USA.
    Schmutz, Jeremy
    HudsonAlpha Inst Biotechnol, Huntsville, AL USA; Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA USA.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Ume Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, Abisko, Sweden.
    Euskirchen, Eugenie S.
    Univ Alaska, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Trondheim, Norway.
    Szovenyi, Peter
    Univ Zurich, Dept Systemat & Evolutionary Bot, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jackson, Michelle
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA.
    Piatkowski, Bryan T.
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA.
    Muchero, Wellington
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Norby, Richard J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Climate Change Sci Inst, Oak Ridge, TN USA ;Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Environm Sci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Kostka, Joel E.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Biol, Atlanta, GA USA; Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Earth & Atmospher Sci, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Glass, Jennifer B.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Biol, Atlanta, GA USA; Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Earth & Atmospher Sci, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Limpens, Juul
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Plant Ecol & Nat Conservat Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Peatland & Soil Ecol Grp, Joensuu, Finland.
    Ullrich, Kristian K.
    Max Planck Inst Evolutionary Biol, Plon, Germany.
    Carrell, Alyssa
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Davie, FL USA.
    Chen, Jin-Gui
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Oke, Tobi A.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ranjan, Priya
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Plant Sci, Knoxville, TN USA.
    Jacobson, Daniel
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Lilleskov, Erik A.
    US Forest Serv, Res Stn, Houghton, MI USA.
    Clymo, R. S.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Sch Biol & Chem Sci, London, England.
    Shaw, A. Jonathan
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA.
    The Sphagnome Project: enabling ecological and evolutionary insights through a genus-level sequencing project2018In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 217, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable progress has been made in ecological and evolutionary genetics with studies demonstrating how genes underlying plant and microbial traits can influence adaptation and even 'extend' to influence community structure and ecosystem level processes. Progress in this area is limited to model systems with deep genetic and genomic resources that often have negligible ecological impact or interest. Thus, important linkages between genetic adaptations and their consequences at organismal and ecological scales are often lacking. Here we introduce the Sphagnome Project, which incorporates genomics into a long-running history of Sphagnum research that has documented unparalleled contributions to peatland ecology, carbon sequestration, biogeochemistry, microbiome research, niche construction, and ecosystem engineering. The Sphagnome Project encompasses a genus-level sequencing effort that represents a new type of model system driven not only by genetic tractability, but by ecologically relevant questions and hypotheses.

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