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  • 1.
    Ahsan, Muhammad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Ek, Weronica E
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Karlsson, Torgny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lind-Thomsen, Allan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Enroth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    The relative contribution of DNA methylation and genetic variants on protein biomarkers for human diseases.2017In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e1007005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations between epigenetic alterations and disease status have been identified for many diseases. However, there is no strong evidence that epigenetic alterations are directly causal for disease pathogenesis. In this study, we combined SNP and DNA methylation data with measurements of protein biomarkers for cancer, inflammation or cardiovascular disease, to investigate the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic variation on biomarker levels. A total of 121 protein biomarkers were measured and analyzed in relation to DNA methylation at 470,000 genomic positions and to over 10 million SNPs. We performed epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) and genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses, and integrated biomarker, DNA methylation and SNP data using between 698 and 1033 samples depending on data availability for the different analyses. We identified 124 and 45 loci (Bonferroni adjusted P < 0.05) with effect sizes up to 0.22 standard units' change per 1% change in DNA methylation levels and up to four standard units' change per copy of the effective allele in the EWAS and GWAS respectively. Most GWAS loci were cis-regulatory whereas most EWAS loci were located in trans. Eleven EWAS loci were associated with multiple biomarkers, including one in NLRC5 associated with CXCL11, CXCL9, IL-12, and IL-18 levels. All EWAS signals that overlapped with a GWAS locus were driven by underlying genetic variants and three EWAS signals were confounded by smoking. While some cis-regulatory SNPs for biomarkers appeared to have an effect also on DNA methylation levels, cis-regulatory SNPs for DNA methylation were not observed to affect biomarker levels. We present associations between protein biomarker and DNA methylation levels at numerous loci in the genome. The associations are likely to reflect the underlying pattern of genetic variants, specific environmental exposures, or represent secondary effects to the pathogenesis of disease.

  • 2.
    Alsiö, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Chavan, Rohit A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Olszewski, Pawel K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Levine, Allen S.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet causes strong up-regulation of proopiomelanocortin and differentially affects dopamine D1 and D2 receptor gene expression in the brainstem of rats2014In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 559, p. 18-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strong link between obesity and dopamine (DA) has been established by studies associating body weight status to variants of genes related to DA signalling. Human and animal studies investigating this relationship have so far focused mainly on the role of DA within the mesolimbic pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate potential DA receptor dysregulation in the brainstem, where these receptors play a potential role in meal termination, during high-fat high-sugar diet (HFHS) exposure. Expression of other key genes, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC), was also analyzed. We randomized rats into three groups; ad libitum access to HFHS (n=24), restricted HFHS access (n=10), or controls (chow-fed, n=10). After 5 weeks, brainstem gene expression was investigated by qRT-PCR. We observed an increase in POMC expression in ad libitum HFHS-fed rats compared to chow-fed controls (p<0.05). Further, expression of DA D2 receptor mRNA was down-regulated in the brainstem of the HFHS ad libitum-fed rats (p<0.05), whereas expression of the DA D1 receptor was upregulated (p<0.05) in these animals compared to chow-fed rats. In control experiments, we observed no effect relative to chow-fed controls on DA-receptor or POMC gene expression in the hypothalamus of HFHS diet-exposed rats, or in the brainstem of acutely food deprived rats. The present findings suggest brainstem POMC to be responsive to palatable foods, and that DA dysregulation after access to energy-dense diets occurs not only in striatal regions, but also in the brainstem, which could be relevant for overeating and for the development and maintenance of obesity.

  • 3.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Swenne, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Aronsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Zarei, Sanaz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lundberg, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Salonen-Ros, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Rosling, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Obsessive-compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder2014In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 224, no 3, p. 246-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of rumination at the beginning of eating disorder (ED) is not well understood. We hypothesised that impulsivity, rumination and restriction could be associated with neural activity in response to food stimuli in young individuals with eating disorders (ED). We measured neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tested working memory (WM) and administered the eating disorders examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) and obsessive-compulsive inventory (OCI-R) in 15 adolescent females with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (mean age 15 years) and 20 age-matched healthy control females. We found that EDNOS subjects had significantly higher scores on the BIS 11, EDE-Q and OCI-R scales. Significantly increased neural responses to food images in the EDNOS group were observed in the prefrontal circuitry. OCI-R scores in the EDNOS group also significantly correlated with activity in the prefrontal circuitry and the cerebellum. Significantly slower WM responses negatively correlated with bilateral superior frontal gyrus activity in the EDNOS group. We conclude that ruminations, linked to WM, are present in adolescent females newly diagnosed with EDNOS. These may be risk factors for the development of an eating disorder and may be detectable before disease onset.

  • 4.
    Brooks, Samantha Jane
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi Birgir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    A debate on current eating disorder diagnoses in light of neurobiological findings: is it time for a spectrum model?2012In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 12, p. 76-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sixty percent of eating disorders do not meet criteria for anorexia- or bulimia nervosa, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version 4 (DSM-IV). Instead they are diagnosed as 'eating disorders not otherwise specified' (EDNOS). Discrepancies between criteria and clinical reality currently hampering eating disorder diagnoses in the DSM-IV will be addressed by the forthcoming DSM-V. However, future diagnoses for eating disorders will rely on current advances in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics for classification of symptoms that will ultimately improve treatment. Discussion: Here we debate the classification issues, and discuss how brain imaging and genetic discoveries might be interwoven into a model of eating disorders to provide better classification and treatment. The debate concerns: a) current issues in the classification of eating disorders in the DSM-IV, b) changes proposed for DSM-V, c) neuroimaging eating disorder research and d) genetic eating disorder research. Summary: We outline a novel evidence-based 'impulse control' spectrum model of eating disorders. A model of eating disorders is proposed that will aid future diagnosis of symptoms, coinciding with contemporary suggestions by clinicians and the proposed changes due to be published in the DSM-V.

  • 5.
    Ek, Weronica E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Ahsan, Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Liang, Liming
    Harvard Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Moffatt, Miriam F.
    Imperial Coll London, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, London SW3 6LY, England..
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Epigenome-wide DNA methylation study of IgE concentration in relation to self-reported allergies2017In: Epigenomics, ISSN 1750-1911, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 407-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Epigenetic mechanisms are critical for normal immune development and epigenetic alterations might therefore be possible contributors to immune diseases. To investigate if DNA methylation in whole blood is associated with total and allergen-specific IgE levels.

    METHODS: We performed an epigenome-wide association study to investigate the association between DNA methylation and IgE level, allergen-specific IgE and self-reported immune diseases and allergies in 728 individuals.

    RESULTS: We identified and replicated 15 CpG sites associated with IgE, mapping to biologically relevant genes, including ACOT7, ILR5A, KCNH2, PRG2 and EPX. A total of 331 loci were associated with allergen-specific IgE, but none of these CpG sites were associated with self-reported allergies and immune diseases.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that IgE levels are associated with DNA methylation levels at numerous CpG sites, which might provide new leads for investigating the links between IgE and allergic inflammation.

  • 6.
    Ek, Weronica E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Karlsson, Torgny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hernándes, Carlos Azuaje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Breast-feeding and risk of asthma, hay fever, and eczema2018In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 141, no 3, p. 1157-+Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Ek, Weronica E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    The role of DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of disease: what can epigenome-wide association studies tell?2016In: Epigenomics, ISSN 1750-1911, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ek, Weronica E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Karlsson, Torgny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Enroth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Genetic variants influencing phenotypic variance heterogeneity2018In: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 799-810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most genetic studies identify genetic variants associated with disease risk or with the mean value of a quantitative trait. More rarely, genetic variants associated with variance heterogeneity are considered. In this study, we have identified such variance single-nucleotide polymorphisms (vSNPs) and examined if these represent biological gene x gene or gene x environment interactions or statistical artifacts caused by multiple linked genetic variants influencing the same phenotype. We have performed a genome-wide study, to identify vSNPs associated with variance heterogeneity in DNA methylation levels. Genotype data from over 10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and DNA methylation levels at over 430 000 CpG sites, were analyzed in 729 individuals. We identified vSNPs for 7195 CpG sites (P < 9.4 x 10(-11)). This is a relatively low number compared to 52 335 CpG sites for which SNPs were associated with mean DNA methylation levels. We further showed that variance heterogeneity between genotypes mainly represents additional, often rare, SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the respective vSNP and for some vSNPs, multiple low frequency variants co-segregating with one of the vSNP alleles. Therefore, our results suggest that variance heterogeneity of DNA methylation mainly represents phenotypic effects by multiple SNPs, rather than biological interactions. Such effects may also be important for interpreting variance heterogeneity of more complex clinical phenotypes.

  • 9.
    Ek, Weronica E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tobi, Elmar W
    Ahsan, Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lampa, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Ponzi, Erica
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A
    Georgiadis, Panagiotis
    Lumey, L H
    Heijmans, Bastiaan T
    Botsivali, Maria
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Karlsson, Torgny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Palli, Domenico
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Stanford Univ, Dept Med, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Hedman, Åsa K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nilsson, Lena M
    Vineis, Paolo
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Flanagan, James M
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tea and coffee consumption in relation to DNA methylation in four European cohorts2017In: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 26, no 16, p. 3221-3231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifestyle factors, such as food choices and exposure to chemicals, can alter DNA methylation and lead to changes in gene activity. Two such exposures with pharmacologically active components are coffee and tea consumption. Both coffee and tea have been suggested to play an important role in modulating disease-risk in humans by suppressing tumour progression, decreasing inflammation and influencing estrogen metabolism. These mechanisms may be mediated by changes in DNA methylation. To investigate if DNA methylation in blood is associated with coffee and tea consumption, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study for coffee and tea consumption in four European cohorts (N = 3,096). DNA methylation was measured from whole blood at 421,695 CpG sites distributed throughout the genome and analysed in men and women both separately and together in each cohort. Meta-analyses of the results and additional regional-level analyses were performed. After adjusting for multiple testing, the meta-analysis revealed that two individual CpG-sites, mapping to DNAJC16 and TTC17, were differentially methylated in relation to tea consumption in women. No individual sites were associated with men or with the sex-combined analysis for tea or coffee. The regional analysis revealed that 28 regions were differentially methylated in relation to tea consumption in women. These regions contained genes known to interact with estradiol metabolism and cancer. No significant regions were found in the sex-combined and male-only analysis for either tea or coffee consumption.

  • 10. Hauser, Alexander S
    et al.
    Attwood, Misty M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Gloriam, David E
    Trends in GPCR drug discovery: new agents, targets and indications2017In: Nature reviews. Drug discovery, ISSN 1474-1776, E-ISSN 1474-1784, Vol. 16, no 12, p. 829-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most intensively studied drug targets, mostly due to their substantial involvement in human pathophysiology and their pharmacological tractability. Here, we report an up-to-date analysis of all GPCR drugs and agents in clinical trials, which reveals current trends across molecule types, drug targets and therapeutic indications, including showing that 475 drugs (~34% of all drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)) act at 108 unique GPCRs. Approximately 321 agents are currently in clinical trials, of which ~20% target 66 potentially novel GPCR targets without an approved drug, and the number of biological drugs, allosteric modulators and biased agonists has increased. The major disease indications for GPCR modulators show a shift towards diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer disease, although several central nervous system disorders are also highly represented. The 224 (56%) non-olfactory GPCRs that have not yet been explored in clinical trials have broad untapped therapeutic potential, particularly in genetic and immune system disorders. Finally, we provide an interactive online resource to analyse and infer trends in GPCR drug discovery.

  • 11.
    Jacobsson, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Moschonis, G
    Koumpitski, A
    Chrousos, G P
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Marcus, C
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Genetic variants near the MGAT1 gene are associated with body weight, BMI and fatty acid metabolism among adults and children2012In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Recently a genome-wide association analysis from five European populations identified a polymorphism located downstream of the mannosyl-(α-1,3)-glycoprotein-β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (MGAT1) gene that was associated with body-weight. In the present study, associations between MGAT1 variants combined with obesity and insulin measurements were investigated in three cohorts. Levels of fatty acids and estimated measures of Δ desaturases were also investigated among adult men.

    Design: Six polymorphisms downstream of MGAT1 were genotyped in a cross-sectional cohort of 1152 Swedish men. Three polymorphisms were further analyzed in a case-control study of 1076 Swedish children and in a cross-sectional study of 2249 Greek children.

    Results: Three polymorphisms, rs12186500 (odds ratio (OR): 1.892, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.237-2.895, P=0.003), rs1021001 (OR: 2.102, 95% CI: 1.280-3.455, P=0.003) and rs4285184 (OR: 1.587, 95% CI: 1.024-2.459, P=0.038) were associated with a higher prevalence of obesity among the adult men and a trend for obesity was observed for rs4285184 among the Swedish (OR: 1.205, 95% CI: 0.987-1.471, P=0.067) and Greek children (OR: 1.192, 95%CI: 0.978-1.454, P=0.081). Association with body weight was observed for rs12186500 (P=0.017) and rs4285184 (P=0.024) among the men. The rs1021001 and rs4285184 were also associated with body mass index (BMI) in the two Swedish cohorts and similar trends were observed among the Greek children. The combined effect size for rs1021001 and rs4285184 on BMI z-score from a meta-analysis was 0.233 (95% CI:0.093-0.373, P=0.001) and 0.147 (95% CI:0.057-0.236, P=0.001), respectively. We further observed associations between the genetic variants and fatty acids (P<0.039) and estimated measures of Δ desaturases (P<0.040), as well as interactions for rs12186500 (P<0.019) with an effect on BMI. No association was found with homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance in any cohort but increased insulin levels, insulin response and decreased insulin sensitivity were observed among the children (P<0.038).

    Conclusion: Genetic variants downstream MGAT1 seem to influence susceptibility to obesity. Moreover, these genetic variants affect the levels of serum unsaturated fatty acids and Δ desaturase indices, variables previously shown to correlate with obesity.

  • 12.
    Paola Carlini, Valeria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Belen Poretti, Maria
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Chavan, Rohit A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ponzio, Marina F.
    Sawant, Rahul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rubiales de Barioglio, Susana
    Schiöth, Helgi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fiol de Cuneo, Marta
    Differential effects of fluoxetine and venlafaxine on memory recognition: Possible mechanisms of action2012In: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0278-5846, E-ISSN 1878-4216, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) are antidepressant drugs commonly used to treat a wide spectrum of mood disorders (Wong and Licinio, 2001). Although they have been clinically used for more than 50 years, the molecular and cellular basis for the action of SSRIs and SNRIs is not clear. Considering that the changes in gene expression involved in the action of antidepressant drugs on memory have not been identified, in this study we investigated the impact of chronic treatment with a SSRI (fluoxetine) and a SNRI (venlafaxine) on the mRNA expression of genes related to memory cascade in the mouse hippocampus, namely, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1), neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (TrKB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK/ERK) and serotonin transporter (SERT). Animals treated with fluoxetine 10 mg/Kg/day for 28 days showed a significant decrease in the percentage of time spent in the novel object recognition test (p <= 0.005) and induced MAPK1/ERK2 down-regulation (p = 0.005). Our results suggest that the effect on cognition could probably be explained by fluoxetine interference in the MAPK/ERK memory pathway. In contrast, chronic treatment with venlafaxine did not reduce MAPK1/ERK2 expression, suggesting that MAPK1/ERK2 down-regulation is not a common effect of all antidepressant drugs. Further studies are needed to examine the effect of chronic fluoxetine treatment on the ERK-CREB system, and to determine whether there is a causal relationship between the disruption of the ERK-CREB system and the effect of this antidepressant on memory performance. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Poretti, María Belén
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Kumar, Praveen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rubiales de Barioglio, Susana
    Fiol de Cuneo, Marta
    Schiöth, Helgi Birgir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Carlini, Valeria Paola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ghrelin effects expression of several genes associated with depression-like behavior2015In: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0278-5846, E-ISSN 1878-4216, Vol. 56, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghrelin (Ghr) is an orexigenic peptide that is being investigated for its potential role in development of anxiety-like behavior and modulation of depressive-like symptoms induced by bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OB) in rodents. Olfactory bulbectomy is an animal model useful to study of depression and Ghr could be an alternative therapeutic tool in depression therapy. We studied the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) Ghr administration on the expression of hypothalamic genes related to depression and mood (delta opioid receptor (DOR), mu opioid receptor (MOR) and kappa opioid receptor (KOR), lutropin-choriogonadotropic hormone receptor (LHCGR), serotonin transporter (SERT), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1b), vasopressin (AVP) and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH)) in OB animals, as well as changes in plasma levels of AVP, CRH and adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We found that acute Ghr 0.3nmol/μl administration increases gene expression of DOR, SERT and LHCGR in OB mice and decreased expression of IL-1b, suggesting that these genes could be involved in the antidepressant-like effects of Ghr. In addition, OB animals exhibit high AVP gene expression and elevated plasma concentrations of AVP and ACTH and acute Ghr 0.3nmol/μl administration reduces AVP gene expression and the concentration of these hormones, suggesting that peptide-effects on depressive-like behavior could be mediated at least in part via AVP. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence about genes, receptors and hormones involved in the antidepressant mechanism/s induced by Ghr in OB animals.

  • 14.
    Poretti, María Belén
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Instituto de Fisiología, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA, UNC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, CONICET and Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina .
    Sawant, Rahul S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    de Cuneo, Marta Fiol
    Instituto de Fisiología, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA, UNC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, CONICET and Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina .
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Farmakologi 3.
    Perez, Mariela F
    Departamento de Farmacología, Instituto de Farmacología Experimental de Córdoba (IFEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina .
    Carlini, Valeria Paola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Instituto de Fisiología, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA, UNC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, CONICET and Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina .
    Reduced vasopressin receptors activation mediates the anti-depressant effects of fluoxetine and venlafaxine in bulbectomy model of depression2016In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 233, no 6, p. 1077-1086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RATIONALE: In response to stress, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) are released from the hypothalamus, activate their receptors (CRHR1, CRHR2 or AVPr1b), and synergistically act to induce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary. Overstimulation of this system has been frequently associated with major depression states.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to assess the role of AVP and CRH receptors in fluoxetine and venlafaxine effects on the expression of depression-related behavior.

    METHODS: In an animal model of depression (olfactory bulbectomy in mice, OB), we evaluated the effects of fluoxetine or venlafaxine (both 10 mg/kg/day) chronic administration on depression-related behavior in the tail suspension test. Plasma levels of AVP, CRH, and ACTH were determined as well as participation of their receptors in the expression of depression related-behavior and gene expression of AVP and CRH receptors (AVPr1b, CRHR1, and CRHR2) in the pituitary gland.

    RESULTS: The expression of depressive-like behavior in OB animals was reversed by treatment with both antidepressants. Surprisingly, OB-saline mice exhibited increased AVP and ACTH plasma levels, with no alterations in CRH levels when compared to sham mice. Chronic fluoxetine or venlafaxine reversed these effects. In addition, a significant increase only in AVPr1b gene expression was found in OB-saline.

    CONCLUSION: The antidepressant therapy used seems to be more likely related to a reduced activation of AVP rather than CRH receptors, since a positive correlation between AVP levels and depressive-like behavior was observed in OB animals. Furthermore, a full restoration of depressive behavior was observed in OB-fluoxetine- or venlafaxine-treated mice only when AVP was centrally administered but not CRH.

  • 15.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Obesity Genetics: Functional Aspects of Four Genetic Loci Associated with Obesity and Body Mass2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is a complex disorder which has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the world. Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability for obesity. The subsequent appli-cation of genome wide association studies (GWAS) in the last decade have identified at least 32 genetic loci associated with body mass and obesity. Despite these great advances, these loci are almost exclusively completely naïve in a functional context. Genetic variations within the gene encoding the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) are the strongest and most consistently observed genetic variants associated with obesity and body mass throughout various studied populations from all parts of the world. The identification of association of FTO with obesity has spurred immense interest in the function of the FTO protein and the functional consequences of its variants. However, the implications of genetic variants at other genetic loci on protein molecular function and body mass development remain undetermined. This thesis aims to examine more closely four of the genetic loci associated with obesity; in proximity of, or associated with: FTO, TMEM18, MAP2K5 and STK33, in two cohorts of children of European descent: a case-control of clinically obese children and normal weight controls from the Stockholm area; and a cross sectional cohort of Greek children. These smaller cohorts allow for studies of more specific effects of genetic variants as individuals in these cohorts can be more carefully studied. TMEM18 gene expression was also studied in the rat-brain where a positive correlation was observed between the body weight of the animal and TMEM18 expression. We also employed next generation sequencing to more carefully study obesity-associated genetic loci related to FTO and TMEM18. We utilized a novel strategy in this project to study genetic variation in the entire FTO- and TMEM18 genes, as well as in the GWAS-identified BMI-associated loci located downstream from TMEM18. This analysis was performed on a case-control cohort of Swedish children (n = ~1000). Through this analysis, we were able to observe genetic variants within intron 1 of the FTO gene to be the main genetic variants asso-ciated with obesity at this locus. We also observed, for the first time, obesity-associated genetic variants within the gene encoding TMEM18. To analyze the potential functional context of FTO we used an in silico approach, utilizing public information databases on mRNA co-expression and protein-protein interaction. Based on our findings, we speculate on a wider functional role of FTO in extracellular ligand-induced neuronal plasticity, possibly via interaction or modulation of the BDNF/NTRK2 signaling pathway.

    List of papers
    1. Association of TMEM18 variants with BMI and waist circumference in children and correlation of mRNA expression in the PFC with body weight in rats
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of TMEM18 variants with BMI and waist circumference in children and correlation of mRNA expression in the PFC with body weight in rats
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 192-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Genome-wide association studies have shown a strong association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the near vicinity of the TMEM18 gene. The effects of the TMEM18-associated variants are more readily observed in children. TMEM18 encodes a 3TM protein, which locates to the nuclear membrane. The functional context of TMEM18 and the effects of its associated variants are as of yet undetermined. To further explore the effects of near-TMEM18 variants, we have genotyped two TMEM18-associated SNPs, rs6548238 and rs4854344, in a cohort of 2352 Greek children (Healthy Growth Study). Included in this study are data on anthropomorphic traits body weight, BMI z-score and waist circumference. Also included are dietary energy and macronutrient intake as measured via 24-h recall interviews. Major alleles of rs6548238 and rs4854344 were significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity (odds ratio=1.489 (1.161-1.910) and 1.494 (1.165-1.917), respectively), and positively correlated to body weight (P=0.017, P=0.010) and waist circumference (P=0.003, P=0.003). An association to energy and macronutrient intake was not observed in this cohort. We also correlated food intake and body weight in a food choice model in rats to Tmem18 expression in central regions involved in feeding behavior. We observed a strong positive correlation between TMEM18 expression and body weight in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (r=0.5694, P=0.0003) indicating a potential role for TMEM18 in higher functions related to feeding involving the PFC.

    Keywords
    obesity, TMEM18, FTO
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-169102 (URN)10.1038/ejhg.2011.176 (DOI)000299323000019 ()
    Available from: 2012-02-27 Created: 2012-02-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. The MAP2K5-linked SNP rs2241423 is associated with BMI and obesity in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The MAP2K5-linked SNP rs2241423 is associated with BMI and obesity in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 13, p. 36-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism within the last intron of MAP2K5 associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) in adults. MAP2K5 is a component of the MAPK-family intracellular signaling pathways, responding to extracellular growth factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). In this study, we examined the association of this variant in two cohorts of children from Sweden and Greece.

    Methods

    We examine the association of rs2241423 to BMI in a cohort of 474 Swedish children admitted for treatment of childhood obesity and 519 children matched for gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic background from the Stockholm area, as well as a cross-sectional cohort of 2308 Greek school children (Healthy Growth Study). Children were genotyped using a predesigned TaqMan polymorphism assay. Logistic regression was used to test for an association of rs2241423 to obesity in the cohort of Swedish children. Linear regression was used to test for an association of rs2241423 to BMI z-score and phenotypic measurements of body adiposity in the cohort of Greek children. Models were adjusted for age and gender. In the cohort of Greek children the model was also adjusted for stage of pubertal development.

    Results

    The minor allele of rs2241423, allele A, was associated with a protective effect against obesity in the cohort of Swedish children (p = 0.029, OR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.64-0.98)), and with a lower BMI z-score in the cohort of Greek children (p = 0.028, beta = -0.092). No association to phenotypic measurements of body fat distribution could be observed in our study.

    Conclusions

    rs2241423 was associated with BMI and obesity in two independent European cohorts suggesting a role for MAP2K5 in early weight regulation.

    Keywords
    Obesity, MAP2K5, Childhood obesity, Genetics, rs2241423
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Research subject
    Neuroscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-184485 (URN)10.1186/1471-2350-13-36 (DOI)000309423300002 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2012-11-08 Created: 2012-11-07 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. The STK33-linked SNP rs4929949 is associated with obesity and BMI in two independent cohorts of Swedish and Greek children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The STK33-linked SNP rs4929949 is associated with obesity and BMI in two independent cohorts of Swedish and Greek children
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8, p. e71353-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a locus on chromosome 11p15.5, closely associated with serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33), to be associated with body mass. STK33, a relatively understudied protein, has been linked to KRAS mutation-driven cancers and explored as a potential antineoplastic drug target. The strongest association with body mass observed at this loci in GWAS was rs4929949, a single nucleotide polymorphism located within intron 1 of the gene encoding STK33. The functional implications of rs4929949 or related variants have not been explored as of yet. We have genotyped rs4929949 in two cohorts, an obesity case-control cohort of 991 Swedish children, and a cross-sectional cohort of 2308 Greek school children. We found that the minor allele of rs4929949 was associated with obesity in the cohort of Swedish children and adolescents (OR=1.199 (95%CI: 1.002 – 1.434), p= 0.047), and with body mass in the cross-sectional cohort of Greek children (β = 0.08147 (95% CI: 0.1345-0.1618), p = 0.021). We observe the effects of rs4929949 on body mass to be detectable already at adolescence. Subsequent analysis did not detect any association of rs4929949 to phenotypic measurements describing body adiposity or to metabolic factors such as insulin levels, triglycerides and insulin resistance (HOMA).

    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204438 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0071353 (DOI)000323378000046 ()
    Available from: 2013-08-05 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Determination of the obesity-associated gene variants within the entire FTO gene by ultra-deep targeted sequencing in obese and lean children.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of the obesity-associated gene variants within the entire FTO gene by ultra-deep targeted sequencing in obese and lean children.
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 424-431Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background:The Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) was the first gene reliably associated with body mass index in genome-wide association studies on a population level. At present, the genetic variations within the FTO gene are still the common variants that have the largest influence on body mass index.Methods:In the current study, we amplified the entire FTO gene, in total 412 Kbp, in over 200 long-range PCR fragments from each individual, from 524 severely obese and 527 lean Swedish children, and sequenced the products as two DNA pools using massive parallel sequencing (SOLiD).Results:The sequencing achieved very high coverage (median 18 000 reads) and we detected and estimated allele frequencies for 705 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (19 novel) and 40 indels (24 novel) using a sophisticated statistical approach to remove false-positive SNPs. We identified 19 obesity-associated SNPs within intron one of the FTO gene, and validated our findings with genotyping. Ten of the validated obesity-associated SNPs have a stronger obesity association (P<0.007) than the commonly studied rs9939609 SNP (P<0.012).Conclusions:This study provides a comprehensive obesity-associated variation map of FTO, identifies novel lead SNPs and evaluates putative causative variants. We conclude that intron one is the only region within the FTO gene associated with obesity, and finally, we establish next generation sequencing of pooled DNA as a powerful method to investigate genetic association with complex diseases and traits.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-190114 (URN)10.1038/ijo.2012.57 (DOI)000316931400015 ()22531089 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Paid Open Access

    Available from: 2013-01-07 Created: 2013-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    5. Ultra-deep targeted re-sequencing of TMEM18 in two cohorts of European children detects new genetic variants associated with obesity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultra-deep targeted re-sequencing of TMEM18 in two cohorts of European children detects new genetic variants associated with obesity
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204441 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-08-05 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    6.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
  • 16.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Almén, Markus Sallman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Scrutinizing the FTO locus: compelling evidence for a complex, long-range regulatory context2015In: Human Genetics, ISSN 0340-6717, E-ISSN 1432-1203, Vol. 134, no 11-12, p. 1183-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a genetic region including the first two introns of the gene encoding FTO have consistently been shown to be the strongest genetic factors influencing body mass index (BMI). However, this same also contains several regulatory DNA elements that affect the expression of IRX3 and IRX5, which respectively, are located approximately 500 kb and 1.2 Mbp downstream from the BMI-associated FTO locus. Through these affected regulatory elements, genetic variation at the FTO locus influences adipocyte development leading to decreased thermogenesis and increased lipid storage. These findings provide a genomic model for the functional implications of genetic variations at this locus, and also demonstrate the importance of accounting for chromatin-chromatin interactions when constructing hypotheses for the mechanisms of trait and disease-associated common genetic variants. Several consortia have generated genome-wide datasets describing different aspects of chromatin biology which can be utilized to predict functionality and propose biologically relevant descriptions of specific DNA regions. Here, we review some of the publically available data resources on genome function and organization that can be used to gain an overview of genetic regions of interest and to generate testable hypotheses for future studies. We use the BMI- and obesity-associated FTO locus as a subject as it poses an illustrative example on the value of these resources. We find that public databases strongly support long-range interactions between regulatory elements in the FTO locus with the IRXB cluster genes IRX3 and IRX5. Chromatin configuration capture data also support interactions across a large region stretching across from the RPGRIP1L gene, FTO and the IRXB gene cluster.

  • 17.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Almén, Markus Sällman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Association of the LINGO2-related SNP rs10968576 with body mass in a cohort of elderly Swedes2015In: Molecular Genetics and Genomics, ISSN 1617-4615, E-ISSN 1617-4623, Vol. 290, no 4, p. 1485-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic factors influencing body mass as well as body adiposity. The functional implications of these loci are currently under investigation. Intense scrutiny of the body mass-associated FTO locus revealed age-specific effects, or a weakened effect in elderly populations. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing 35 GWAS-identified body mass- and adiposity-associated genetic loci. In our analysis, 949 participants of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort were included. All participants were born between 1920 and 1924. Data were available for 474 male and 475 female participants at age 70 and 380 male and 390 female participants at age 75. Genetic associations with BMI and change in BMI from age 70 to 75 were analyzed. In our analysis, rs10968576, an intronic SNP within the LINGO2 (LERN3, LRRN6C) gene, was associated with body mass in a cross section of elderly Swedes at age 70. This is the first study to replicate the association of a LINGO2-related genetic variant with body mass in an independent cohort of elderly citizens.

  • 18.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Moschonis, George
    Chavan, Rohit A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sikder, Md Abu Noman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Allzén, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Alsiö, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Chrousos, George P.
    Manios, Yannis
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Association of TMEM18 variants with BMI and waist circumference in children and correlation of mRNA expression in the PFC with body weight in rats2012In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 192-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome-wide association studies have shown a strong association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the near vicinity of the TMEM18 gene. The effects of the TMEM18-associated variants are more readily observed in children. TMEM18 encodes a 3TM protein, which locates to the nuclear membrane. The functional context of TMEM18 and the effects of its associated variants are as of yet undetermined. To further explore the effects of near-TMEM18 variants, we have genotyped two TMEM18-associated SNPs, rs6548238 and rs4854344, in a cohort of 2352 Greek children (Healthy Growth Study). Included in this study are data on anthropomorphic traits body weight, BMI z-score and waist circumference. Also included are dietary energy and macronutrient intake as measured via 24-h recall interviews. Major alleles of rs6548238 and rs4854344 were significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity (odds ratio=1.489 (1.161-1.910) and 1.494 (1.165-1.917), respectively), and positively correlated to body weight (P=0.017, P=0.010) and waist circumference (P=0.003, P=0.003). An association to energy and macronutrient intake was not observed in this cohort. We also correlated food intake and body weight in a food choice model in rats to Tmem18 expression in central regions involved in feeding behavior. We observed a strong positive correlation between TMEM18 expression and body weight in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (r=0.5694, P=0.0003) indicating a potential role for TMEM18 in higher functions related to feeding involving the PFC.

  • 19.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Moschonis, George
    Ek, Anna E.
    Chrousos, George P.
    Marcus, Claude
    Manios, Yannis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The MAP2K5-linked SNP rs2241423 is associated with BMI and obesity in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children2012In: BMC Medical Genetics, ISSN 1471-2350, E-ISSN 1471-2350, Vol. 13, p. 36-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism within the last intron of MAP2K5 associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) in adults. MAP2K5 is a component of the MAPK-family intracellular signaling pathways, responding to extracellular growth factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). In this study, we examined the association of this variant in two cohorts of children from Sweden and Greece.

    Methods

    We examine the association of rs2241423 to BMI in a cohort of 474 Swedish children admitted for treatment of childhood obesity and 519 children matched for gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic background from the Stockholm area, as well as a cross-sectional cohort of 2308 Greek school children (Healthy Growth Study). Children were genotyped using a predesigned TaqMan polymorphism assay. Logistic regression was used to test for an association of rs2241423 to obesity in the cohort of Swedish children. Linear regression was used to test for an association of rs2241423 to BMI z-score and phenotypic measurements of body adiposity in the cohort of Greek children. Models were adjusted for age and gender. In the cohort of Greek children the model was also adjusted for stage of pubertal development.

    Results

    The minor allele of rs2241423, allele A, was associated with a protective effect against obesity in the cohort of Swedish children (p = 0.029, OR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.64-0.98)), and with a lower BMI z-score in the cohort of Greek children (p = 0.028, beta = -0.092). No association to phenotypic measurements of body fat distribution could be observed in our study.

    Conclusions

    rs2241423 was associated with BMI and obesity in two independent European cohorts suggesting a role for MAP2K5 in early weight regulation.

  • 20.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Karlsson, Torgny
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Ek, Weronica E
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gene-environment interaction study for BMI reveals interactions between genetic factors and physical activity, alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status.2017In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e1006977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of genetic loci to be associated with body mass index (BMI) and risk of obesity. Genetic effects can differ between individuals depending on lifestyle or environmental factors due to gene-environment interactions. In this study, we examine gene-environment interactions in 362,496 unrelated participants with Caucasian ancestry from the UK Biobank resource. A total of 94 BMI-associated SNPs, selected from a previous GWAS on BMI, were used to construct weighted genetic scores for BMI (GSBMI). Linear regression modeling was used to estimate the effect of gene-environment interactions on BMI for 131 lifestyle factors related to: dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, physical activity, socioeconomic status, mental health, sleeping patterns, as well as female-specific factors such as menopause and childbirth. In total, 15 lifestyle factors were observed to interact with GSBMI, of which alcohol intake frequency, usual walking pace, and Townsend deprivation index, a measure of socioeconomic status, were all highly significant (p = 1.45*10-29, p = 3.83*10-26, p = 4.66*10-11, respectively). Interestingly, the frequency of alcohol consumption, rather than the total weekly amount resulted in a significant interaction. The FTO locus was the strongest single locus interacting with any of the lifestyle factors. However, 13 significant interactions were also observed after omitting the FTO locus from the genetic score. Our analyses indicate that many lifestyle factors modify the genetic effects on BMI with some groups of individuals having more than double the effect of the genetic score. However, the underlying causal mechanisms of gene-environmental interactions are difficult to deduce from cross-sectional data alone and controlled experiments are required to fully characterise the causal factors.

  • 21.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Martinsson, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Ahsan, Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Enroth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Ek, Weronica E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Epigenome-wide association study reveals differential DNA methylation in individuals with a history of myocardial infarction2016In: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 25, no 21, p. 4739-4748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death worldwide and represent a substantial economic burden on public health care systems. Epigenetic markers have potential as diagnostic markers before clinical symptoms have emerged, and as prognostic markers to inform the choice of clinical intervention. In this study, we performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) for CVDs, to identify disease-specific alterations in DNA methylation. CpG methylation in blood samples from the northern Sweden population health study (NSPHS) (n = 729) was assayed on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Individuals with a history of a CVD were identified in the cohort. It included individuals with hypertension (N = 147), myocardial infarction (MI) (N = 48), stroke (N = 27), thrombosis (N = 22) and cardiac arrhythmia (N = 5). Differential DNA methylation was observed at 211 CpG-sites in individuals with a history of MI (q <0.05). These sites represent 196 genes, of which 42 have been described in the scientific literature to be related to cardiac function, cardiovascular disease, cardiogenesis and recovery after ischemic injury. We have shown that individuals with a history of MI have a deviating pattern of DNA methylation at many genomic loci of which a large fraction has previously been linked to CVD. Our results highlight genes that might be important in the pathogenesis of MI or in recovery. In addition, the sites pointed out in this study can serve as candidates for further evaluation as potential biomarkers for MI.

  • 22.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Masuram, Surendar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Solute carriers as drug targets: current use, clinical trials and prospective2013In: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, ISSN 0098-2997, E-ISSN 1872-9452, Vol. 34, no 2-3, p. 702-710Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solute carriers (SLCs) comprise a large family of membrane transporters responsible for the transmembrane transport of a wide variety of substrates such as inorganic ions, amino acids, neurotransmitters and sugars. Despite being the largest family of membrane transport proteins, SLCs have been relatively under-utilized as therapeutic drug targets by approved drugs. In this paper, we aim to catalogue therapeutic SLCs utilized by approved drugs or currently in clinical trials. By mining information on clinical trials from the Centerwatch.com "drugs in clinical trials database" we were able to identify potentially novel SLC drug targets currently under development. We also searched the literature for SLCs that have been discussed as future therapeutic drug targets. We find SLCs to be utilized as therapeutic targets in treatment of a wide variety of diseases and disorders, such as major depression, ADHD, osteoporosis and hypertension. Drugs targeting SLCs for treatment of diabetes, constipation and hypercholesterolaemia are currently in clinical trials. SLC drug targets have also been explored in clinical trials for cardioprotection after an ischemic event. SLCs are of particular interest as targets in antineoplastic treatment and for the targeted transport of cytotoxic drugs into tumors, e.g. via the glucose transporters GLUT1-5 and SGLT1-3.

  • 23.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Masuram, Surendar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The druggable genome: Evaluation of drug targets in clinical trials suggests major shifts in molecular class and indication2014In: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, ISSN 0362-1642, E-ISSN 1545-4304, Vol. 54, p. 9-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The largest innovations within pharmaceutical development come through new compounds that have unique and novel modes of action. These innovations commonly involve expanding the protein space targeted by pharmaceutical agents. At present, information about drugs and drug targets is available online via public databases such as DrugBank and the Therapeutic Targets Database. However, this information is biased, understandably so, toward established drugs and drug-target interactions. To gain a better overview of the drug-targeted portion of the human proteome and the directions of current drug development, we developed a data set of clinical trial drug-target interactions based on CenterWatch's Drugs in Clinical Trials Database, one of the largest databases of its kind. Our curation identified 475 potentially novel clinical trial drug targets. This review aims to identify trends in drug development based on the potentially novel targets currently being explored in clinical trials.

  • 24.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Moschonis, George
    Chrousos, George
    Marcus, Claude
    Dedoussis, George V.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The STK33-linked SNP rs4929949 is associated with obesity and BMI in two independent cohorts of Swedish and Greek children2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8, p. e71353-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a locus on chromosome 11p15.5, closely associated with serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33), to be associated with body mass. STK33, a relatively understudied protein, has been linked to KRAS mutation-driven cancers and explored as a potential antineoplastic drug target. The strongest association with body mass observed at this loci in GWAS was rs4929949, a single nucleotide polymorphism located within intron 1 of the gene encoding STK33. The functional implications of rs4929949 or related variants have not been explored as of yet. We have genotyped rs4929949 in two cohorts, an obesity case-control cohort of 991 Swedish children, and a cross-sectional cohort of 2308 Greek school children. We found that the minor allele of rs4929949 was associated with obesity in the cohort of Swedish children and adolescents (OR=1.199 (95%CI: 1.002 – 1.434), p= 0.047), and with body mass in the cross-sectional cohort of Greek children (β = 0.08147 (95% CI: 0.1345-0.1618), p = 0.021). We observe the effects of rs4929949 on body mass to be detectable already at adolescence. Subsequent analysis did not detect any association of rs4929949 to phenotypic measurements describing body adiposity or to metabolic factors such as insulin levels, triglycerides and insulin resistance (HOMA).

  • 25.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Philippot, Gaetan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Moschonis, George
    Dedoussis, George
    Manios, Yannis
    Marcus, Claude
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    CDKAL1-Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in a Cross-Sectional Cohort of Greek Children2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, p. e93193-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five novel loci recently found to be associated with body mass in two GWAS of East Asian populations were evaluated in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children and adolescents. These loci are located within, or in the proximity of: CDKAL1, PCSK1, GP2, PAX6 and KLF9. No association with body mass has previously been reported for these loci in GWAS performed on European populations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) with the strongest association at each loci in the East Asian GWAS were genotyped in two cohorts, one obesity case control cohort of Swedish children and adolescents consisting of 496 cases and 520 controls and one cross-sectional cohort of 2293 nine-to-thirteen year old Greek children and adolescents. SNPs were surveyed for association with body mass and other phenotypic traits commonly associated with obesity, including adipose tissue distribution, insulin resistance and daily caloric intake. No association with body mass was found in either cohort. However, among the Greek children, association with insulin resistance could be observed for the two CDKAL1-related SNPs: rs9356744 (beta = 0.018, p = 0.014) and rs2206734 (beta = 0.024, p = 0.001). CDKAL1-related variants have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin response. This study reports association of CDKAL1-related SNPs with insulin resistance, a clinical marker related to type 2 diabetes in a cross-sectional cohort of Greek children and adolescents of European descent.

  • 26.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Sällman Almén, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Ameur, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Moschonis, George
    Dedoussis, George
    Marcus, Claude
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Determination of obesity associated gene variants related to TMEM18 through ultra-deep targeted re-sequencing in a case-control cohort for pediatric obesity.2015In: Genetical Research, ISSN 0016-6723, E-ISSN 1469-5073, Vol. 97, article id e16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed association of a locus approximately 25b downstream of the TMEM18 gene with body mass and obesity. We utilized targeted re-sequencing of the body mass associated locus in proximity of TMEM18 in a case-control population of severely obese children and adolescents from the Stockholm area. We expanded our study to include the TMEM18 gene itself, with the aim of identifying body mass associated genetic variants. Sequencing was performed on the SOLiD platform, on long-range PCR fragments generated through targeted amplification of the regions of interest. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were validated by TaqMan genotyping. We were able to observe 131 SNPs across the re-sequenced regions. Chi squared tests comparing the allele frequencies between cases and controls revealed 57 SNPs as candidates for association with obesity. Validation and replication genotyping revealed robust associations for SNPs within the haplotype block region located downstream from the TMEM18 gene. This study provides a high resolution map of the genetic variation pattern in the TMEM18 gene, as well as the associated haplotype block, and further strengthens the association of variants within the proximal haplotype block with obesity and body mass.

  • 27.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sällman Almén, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ameur, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Moschonis, George
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Manios, Yannis
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Marcus, Claude
    Department for Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Division of Pediatrics, National Childhood Obesity Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ultra-deep targeted re-sequencing of TMEM18 in two cohorts of European children detects new genetic variants associated with obesity2013In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sällman Almén, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Olausen, Hans R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Olszewski, Pawel K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Chavan, Rohit A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Levine, Allen S.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Functional coupling analysis suggests link between the obesity gene FTO and the BDNF-NTRK2 signaling pathway2011In: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, E-ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 12, p. 117-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Fat mass and obesity gene (FTO) has been identified through genome wide association studies as an important genetic factor contributing to a higher body mass index (BMI). However, the molecular context in which this effect is mediated has yet to be determined. We investigated the potential molecular network for FTO by analyzing co-expression and protein-protein interaction databases, Coxpresdb and IntAct, as well as the functional coupling predicting multi-source database, FunCoup. Hypothalamic expression of FTO-linked genes defined with this bioinformatics approach was subsequently studied using quantitative real time-PCR in mouse feeding models known to affect FTO expression.

    Results: We identified several candidate genes for functional coupling to FTO through database studies and selected nine for further study in animal models. We observed hypothalamic expression of Profilin 2 (Pfn2), cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta (Prkacb), Brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 (Ntrk2), Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), and Btbd12 to be co-regulated in concert with Fto. Pfn2 and Prkacb have previously not been linked to feeding regulation.

    Conclusions: Gene expression studies validate several candidates generated through database studies of possible FTO-interactors. We speculate about a wider functional role for FTO in the context of current and recent findings, such as in extracellular ligand-induced neuronal plasticity via NTRK2/BDNF, possibly via interaction with the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP beta)

  • 29.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Zhang, Jin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Fabbro, Doriano
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Advances in kinase targeting: current clinical use and clinical trials2014In: TIPS - Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, ISSN 0165-6147, E-ISSN 1873-3735, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 604-620Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphotransferases, also known as kinases, are the most intensively studied protein drug target category in current pharmacological research, as evidenced by the vast number of kinase-targeting agents enrolled in active clinical trials. This development has emerged following the great success of small-molecule, orally available protein kinase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer, starting with the introduction of imatinib (Gleevec®) in 2003. The pharmacological utility of kinase-targeting has expanded to include treatment of inflammatory diseases, and rapid development is ongoing for kinase-targeted therapies in a broad array of indications in ophthalmology, analgesia, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and the complications of diabetes, osteoporosis, and otology. In this review we highlight specifically the kinase drug targets and kinase-targeting agents being explored in current clinical trials. This analysis is based on a recent estimate of all established and clinical trial drug mechanisms of action, utilizing private and public databases to create an extensive dataset detailing aspects of more than 3000 approved and experimental drugs.

  • 30.
    Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Wiemerslage, Lyle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Swenne, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Larsen, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Stark, Julia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Salonen-Ros, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Adolescents newly diagnosed with eating disorders have structural differences in brain regions linked with eating disorder symptoms2017In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 188-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adults with eating disorders (ED) show brain volume reductions in the frontal, insular, cingulate, and parietal cortices, as well as differences in subcortical regions associated with reward processing. However, little is known about the structural differences in adolescents with behavioural indications of early stage ED.

    AIM: This is the first study to investigate structural brain changes in adolescents newly diagnosed with ED compared to healthy controls (HC), and to study whether ED cognitions correlate with structural changes in adolescents with ED of short duration.

    METHODS: Fifteen adolescent females recently diagnosed with ED, and 28 age-matched HC individuals, were scanned with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses were conducted using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). ED cognitions were measured with self-report questionnaires and working memory performance was measured with a neuropsychological computerized test.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The left superior temporal gyrus had a smaller volume in adolescents with ED than in HC, which correlated with ED cognitions (concerns about eating, weight, and shape). Working memory reaction time correlated positively with insula volumes in ED participants, but not HC. In ED, measurements of restraint and obsession was negatively correlated with temporal gyrus volumes, and positively correlated with cerebellar and striatal volumes. Thus, adolescents with a recent diagnosis of ED had volumetric variations in brain areas linked to ED cognitions, obsessions, and working memory. The findings emphasize the importance of early identification of illness, before potential long-term effects on structure and behaviour occur.

  • 31.
    Sällman Almén, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ameur, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kalnina, I
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Moschonis, G
    Juhlin, S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Bringeland, Nathalie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Hedberg, Lidwig A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ignatovica, V
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Chrousos, G P
    Manios, Y
    Klovins, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Marcus, C
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Determination of the obesity-associated gene variants within the entire FTO gene by ultra-deep targeted sequencing in obese and lean children.2013In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 424-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:The Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) was the first gene reliably associated with body mass index in genome-wide association studies on a population level. At present, the genetic variations within the FTO gene are still the common variants that have the largest influence on body mass index.Methods:In the current study, we amplified the entire FTO gene, in total 412 Kbp, in over 200 long-range PCR fragments from each individual, from 524 severely obese and 527 lean Swedish children, and sequenced the products as two DNA pools using massive parallel sequencing (SOLiD).Results:The sequencing achieved very high coverage (median 18 000 reads) and we detected and estimated allele frequencies for 705 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (19 novel) and 40 indels (24 novel) using a sophisticated statistical approach to remove false-positive SNPs. We identified 19 obesity-associated SNPs within intron one of the FTO gene, and validated our findings with genotyping. Ten of the validated obesity-associated SNPs have a stronger obesity association (P<0.007) than the commonly studied rs9939609 SNP (P<0.012).Conclusions:This study provides a comprehensive obesity-associated variation map of FTO, identifies novel lead SNPs and evaluates putative causative variants. We conclude that intron one is the only region within the FTO gene associated with obesity, and finally, we establish next generation sequencing of pooled DNA as a powerful method to investigate genetic association with complex diseases and traits.

  • 32.
    Vastermark, Åke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sawant, Rahul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Reiter, Jill L.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Williams, Michael J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Insulin receptor-like ectodomain genes and splice variants are found in both arthropods and human brain cDNA2013In: Journal of Systematics and Evolution, ISSN 1674-4918, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 664-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Truncated receptor ectodomains have been described for several classes of cell surface receptors, including those that bind to growth factors, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and adhesion molecules. Soluble receptor isoforms are typically generated by proteolytic cleavage of the cell surface receptor or by alternative splicing of RNA transcripts arising from the same gene encoding the full-length receptor. Both the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the insulin receptor (INSR) families produce soluble receptor splice variants in vertebrates and truncated forms of insulin receptor-like sequences have previously been described in Drosophila. The EGFR and INSR ectodomains share significant sequence homology with each other suggestive of a common evolutionary origin. We discovered novel truncated insulin receptor-like variants in several arthropod species. We carried out a phylogenetic analysis of the conserved extracellular receptor L1 and L2 subdomains in invertebrate species. Although the segregation of insulin receptor-like L1 and L2 domains indicated that an internal domain duplication had occurred only once, the generation of truncated insulin receptor-like sequences has occurred multiple times. The significance of this work is the previously unknown and widespread occurrence of truncated isoforms in arthropods, signifying that these isoforms play an important functional role, potentially related to such isoforms in mammals.

  • 33.
    Voisin, Sarah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Almén, Markus Sällman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Zheleznyakova, Galina Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lundberg, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Zarei, Sanaz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Castillo, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Eriksson, Fia Ence
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Emil K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Blueher, Matthias
    Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, Fac Med, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Boettcher, Yvonne
    Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, Fac Med, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Kovacs, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, Fac Med, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Klovins, Janis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Latvian Biomed Res & Study Ctr, LV-1067 Riga, Latvia..
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Many obesity-associated SNPs strongly associate with DNA methylation changes at proximal promoters and enhancers2015In: Genome Medicine, ISSN 1756-994X, E-ISSN 1756-994X, Vol. 7, article id 103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The mechanisms by which genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified in genome-wide association studies act to influence body mass remain unknown for most of these SNPs, which continue to puzzle the scientific community. Recent evidence points to the epigenetic and chromatin states of the genome as having important roles. Methods: We genotyped 355 healthy young individuals for 52 known obesity-associated SNPs and obtained DNA methylation levels in their blood using the Illumina 450 K BeadChip. Associations between alleles and methylation at proximal cytosine residues were tested using a linear model adjusted for age, sex, weight category, and a proxy for blood cell type counts. For replication in other tissues, we used two open-access datasets (skin fibroblasts, n = 62; four brain regions, n = 121-133) and an additional dataset in subcutaneous and visceral fat (n = 149). Results: We found that alleles at 28 of these obesity-associated SNPs associate with methylation levels at 107 proximal CpG sites. Out of 107 CpG sites, 38 are located in gene promoters, including genes strongly implicated in obesity (MIR148A, BDNF, PTPMT1, NR1H3, MGAT1, SCGB3A1, HOXC12, PMAIP1, PSIP1, RPS10-NUDT3, RPS10, SKOR1, MAP2K5, SIX5, AGRN, IMMP1L, ELP4, ITIH4, SEMA3G, POMC, ADCY3, SSPN, LGR4, TUFM, MIR4721, SULT1A1, SULT1A2, APOBR, CLN3, SPNS1, SH2B1, ATXN2L, and IL27). Interestingly, the associated SNPs are in known eQTLs for some of these genes. We also found that the 107 CpGs are enriched in enhancers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Finally, our results indicate that some of these associations are not blood-specific as we successfully replicated four associations in skin fibroblasts. Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that many obesity-associated SNPs are associated with proximal gene regulation, which was reflected by association of obesity risk allele genotypes with differential DNA methylation. This study highlights the importance of DNA methylation and other chromatin marks as a way to understand the molecular basis of genetic variants associated with human diseases and traits.

  • 34.
    Wiemerslage, L
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Islam, R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    van der Kamp, C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Cao, H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Olivo, Gaia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ence-Eriksson, F
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Castillo, S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Larsen, A L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Bandstein, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Dahlberg, L S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Perland, E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Gustavsson, V
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Nilsson, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Vogel, H
    Schürmann, A
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    A DNA methylation site within the KLF13 gene is associated with orexigenic processes based on neural responses and ghrelin levels2017In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 990-994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated five methylation markers recently linked to body-mass index, for their role in the neuropathology of obesity. In neuroimaging experiments, our analysis involving 23 participants showed that methylation levels for the cg07814318 site, which lies within the KLF13 gene, correlated with brain activity in the claustrum, putamen, cingulate gyrus, and frontal gyri, some of which have been previously associated to food signaling, obesity, or reward. Methylation levels at cg07814318 also positively correlated with ghrelin levels. Moreover, expression of KLF13 was augmented in the brains of obese and starved mice. Our results suggest the cg07814318 site could be involved in orexigenic processes, and also implicate KLF13 in obesity. Our findings are the first to associate methylation levels in blood with brain activity in obesity-related regions, and further support previous findings between ghrelin, brain activity, and genetic differences.

1 - 34 of 34
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