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  • 1.
    Ahnfelt, Nils-Otto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Hagströmer Library, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reconstructing early modern pharmacy through "Elixir amarum Hiaernei" and its Theriac ancestor2016In: Planta Medica, ISSN 0032-0943, E-ISSN 1439-0221, Vol. 82Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fors, HjalmarUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.Houltz, Anders
    Taking place: the spatial contexts of science, technology, and business2006Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    Away, Away to Falun!: J. G. Gahn and the application of enlightenment chemistry to smelting2009In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 549-568Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Chemistry at the Swedish Board of Mines, 1700-17502006In: 5th international conference on history of chemistry: chemistry, technology and society: Proceedings, 2006, p. 150-156Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper sets out to cast new light on the relationship between mining and chemistry in Sweden during the first part of the eighteenth century.

    During the period, chemistry was mainly pursued by officials at the Board of Mines, the government agency for control of the mining industry. There, chemistry was to a large extent considered an auxilliary science to the industry, and was used to improve and control mining practices.

    The paper studies chemistry’s dependence on the Board of Mines as a support structure, and as a nurturing matrix in which it could evolve theoretically and define itself as a cluster of theories and methods independent from alchemy. For example, it was in their capacities as employees of the Swedish Board of Mines that Georg Brandt and Axel Fredrik Cronstedt conducted the mineralogical investigations that would lead to their discoveries of cobalt (discovered by Brandt in 1730) and nickel (discovered by Cronstedt in 1751).

    A central argument is that chemistry fulfilled not only scientific, but also social functions at the Board. It served to preserve the social status of the often high born officials. In order to advance at the Board, they had to learn and practice the skills of craftsmen such as assayers. While an eighteenth-century nobleman could be a learned man, he could not be a craftsman (or at least not admit that he was one). By making craft procedures a subordinated part of chemistry, an intellectual pursuit, an imagined or factual decline of social status could be avoided. Thus the hand was not elevated above the head, or rather the “heads” of the Board of Mines were not brought down to the level of the miners and other craftsmen they were meant to control.

    It is furthermore argued that chemistry became surprisingly “modern” in this context, and that important concepts that were later to be taken up by such chemists as Torbern Bergman and Antoine Laurent Lavoisier were originally developed in this setting.

  • 5.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    Elements in the Melting Pot: Merging chemistry, assaying and natural history, c. 1730-17602014In: Osiris, ISSN 0369-7827, E-ISSN 1933-8287, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 230-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines how the modern concept of the chemical element emerged during the eighteenth century. It traces this concept to a group of assayers, mineralogists, and chemists active at the Swedish Bureau of Mines (Bergskollegium). Driven by a deep ontological pragmatism, these “mining chemists” came to regard all inquiries into the component parts of metals as useless speculation. Instead, metals were treated as immutable species that made mineralogical taxonomy possible. Their work was a form of Enlightenment boundary work, which associated chrysopoeia and the pursuit of the components of metals with superstition and disreputable activities such as astrology.

  • 6.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    Hjälten utan ansikte: Om Carl Wilhelm Scheeles liv efter döden2014In: Svensk snillrikhet? : Nationella föreställningar om entreprenörer och teknisk begåvning 1800-2000 / [ed] Staffan Bergwik, Michael Godhe, Anders Houltz, Magnus Rodell, Lund: Nordic Academic Press , 2014, 1, p. 161-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    J. G. Wallerius and the laboratory of enlightenment2006In: Taking Place: The Spatial Contexts of Science, Technology and Business, Science history publications, Sagamore Beach , 2006, p. 3-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    Kemi, paracelsism och mekanisk filosofi: Bergskollegium och Uppsala cirka 1680-17702007In: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, p. 211-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    Matematiker mot linneaner: Konkurrerande vetenskapliga nätverk kring Torbern Bergman2008In: Vetenskapens sociala strukturer: Sju historiska fallstudier om konflikt, samverkan och makt / [ed] Sven Widmalm, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2008, p. 25-53Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    Occult Traditions and Enlightened Science: The Swedish Board of Mines as an Intellectual Environment 1680-17602007In: Chymists and chymistry: Studies in the history of alchemy and early modern chemistry / [ed] Lawrence M. Principe, Sagamore Beach: Science History Publications/USA , 2007, p. 239-252Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    Speaking about the other ones: Swedish chemists on alchemy, c. 1730-702008In: Neighbours and Territories: The Evolving Identity of Chemistry, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on the History of Chemistry / [ed] J. R. Bertomeu-Sánchez, D. T. Burns, B. Van Tiggelen, Leuven: Memosciences , 2008, p. 283-289Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    Stepping through science’s door: C. W. Scheele, from pharmacist’s apprentice to man of science2008In: Ambix, ISSN 0002-6980, E-ISSN 1745-8234, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 29-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    The knowledge and skill of foreigners: Projectors and experts at the early modern Swedish Board of Mines2013In: Staat, Bergbau und Bergakademie: Montanexperten im 18. und frühen 19. Jahrhundert / [ed] Hartmut Schleiff, Peter Konecny, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2013, 1, p. 53-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    The Limits of Matter: Chemistry, Mining and Enlightenment2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Europeans raised a number of questions about the nature of reality and found their answers to be different from those that had satisfied their forebears. They discounted tales of witches, trolls, magic, and miraculous transformations and instead began looking elsewhere to explain the world around them. In The Limits of Matter, Hjalmar Fors investigates how conceptions of matter changed during the Enlightenment and pins this important change in European culture to the formation of the modern discipline of chemistry. Fors reveals how, early in the eighteenth century, chemists began to view metals no longer as ingredients for chrysopoeia –or gold making– but as elemental substances, or basic building blocks of matter. At the center of this emerging idea, argues Fors, was the Bureau of Mines of the Swedish state, which saw the practical and profitable potential of these materials in the economies of mining and smelting. By studying the bureau's chemists and their networks, and integrating their practices into the wider European context, Fors illustrates how they and their successors played a significant role in the development of our modern notion of matter and made a major contribution to the modern European view of reality. 

  • 15.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    Vetenskap i alkemins gränsland: Om J. G. Wallerius Wattu-riket1998In: Svenska Linnésällskapets Årsskrift, ISSN 0375-2038, Vol. 1996-1997, p. 33-60Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    von Stockenström, Erik2010In: Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon: Stille-Strandell / [ed] Åsa Karlsson, Stockholm: Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon , 2010, p. 548-553Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ways of Making and Knowing. The Material Culture of Empirical Knowledge2015In: Ambix, ISSN 0002-6980, E-ISSN 1745-8234, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 395-396Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science. Karolinska Inst, Hagstromer Lib, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Principe, Lawrence M.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Hist Sci & Technol, 3400 N Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Sibum, H. Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    From the Library to the Laboratory and Back Again: Experiment as a Tool for Historians of Science2016In: Ambix, ISSN 0002-6980, E-ISSN 1745-8234, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 85-97Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Widmalm, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Beckman, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas, History of Science.
    Bergwik, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Tunlid, Anna
    Holmberg, Gustav
    Wormbs, Nina
    Inledning2008In: Vetenskapens sociala strukturer: Sju historiska fallstudier om konflikt, samverkan och makt / [ed] Sven Widmalm, Lund: Nordic Academic Press , 2008, p. 9-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract
1 - 19 of 19
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