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  • 1.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    et al.
    Environmental & water resources engineering Ltd (EWRE), Haifa, Israel.
    Kitron-Belinkov, Myra
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Deptartment of Civil, Environmental and Water Resources engineering, Haifa, Israel.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bear, Jacob
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Water Resources engineering, Haifa, Israel.
    Model for the dependence of conditions at the injection well head and the reservoir during CO2 injection2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly controlled field injection experiments are necessary for demonstration, for scientific understanding and for quantification of the relevant processes of CO2 geological storage.

    The preparation of such an experiment requires reliable information on both the hydraulic, thermal and chemical properties of the target layer and the formation fluid as well as on the injection discharges and their associated pressure build-up in the reservoir. For this, there is a need to determine the state variables of CO2 in the injection tube near the well head, which can produce the desired mass flow rates given the condition at the reservoir, while respecting pressure buildup constraints.

     

    A model connecting the multiphase flow and transport processes in the target layer (based on the well-known TOUGH2/ECO2N model) at the vicinity of the injection well with those occurring in the injection tube (solving the one dimensional equations mass, momentum and energy conservation) has been developed. To this model the injection tube is a boundary condition. Once the reservoir pressure build-up resulting from the injection discharge is known, there is a need to determine the necessary injection conditions at the wellhead. For this purpose we apply the 1-D tube model, which provides the solution of the conditions in the injection pipe, given the injection rate and the pressure at the reservoir.

     

    These two linked models, the porous medium model and the pipe model, are applied to the planning of the Heletz injection experiment to be carried out in the frame of the EU-FP7 funded MUSTANG project. Sensitivity analyses are carried out with regard to uncertainty in the target layer permeability and the temperature of the injected CO2, which depends on the thermal heat transfer coefficient in the injection tube.

  • 2.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tian, Liang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Licha, Tobias
    Applied Geology, University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Design and Analysis of Field Experiments for the Investigation of In-Situ CO2 Trapping2010In: 2010 Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union (AGU): Abstract H13C-0981, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Niemi, Auli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sauter, Martin
    Ghergut, Julia
    Licha, Tobias
    Fierz, Thomas
    Wiegand, Gabriele
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    Gendler, Michael
    Small-Scale CO2 Injection into a Deep Geological Formation at Heletz, Israel2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 23, p. 504-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the experimental plans and designs as well as examples of predictive modeling of a pilot-scale CO2 injection experiment at the Heletz site (Israel). The overall objective of the experiment is to find optimal ways to characterize CO2 -relevant in-situ medium properties, including field-scale residual and dissolution trapping, to explore ways of characterizing heterogeneity through joint analysis of different types of data, and to detect leakage. The experiment will involve two wells, an injection well and a monitoring well. Prior to the actual CO2 injection, hydraulic, thermal and tracer tests will be carried out for standard site characterization. The actual CO2 injection experiments will include (i) a single well injection-withdrawal experiment, with the main objective to estimate in-situ residual trapping and (ii) a two-well injection-withdrawal test with injection of CO2 in a dipole mode (injection of CO2 in one well with simultaneous withdrawal of water in the monitoring well), with the objective to understand the CO2 transport in heterogeneous geology as well as the associated dissolution and residual trapping. Tracers will be introduced in both experiments to further aid in detecting the development of the phase composition during CO2 transport. Geophysical monitoring will also be implemented. By means of modeling, different experimental sequences and injection/withdrawal patterns have been analyzed, as have parameter uncertainties. The objectives have been to (i) evaluate key aspects of the experimental design, (ii) to identify key parameters affecting the fate of the CO2 and (iii) to evaluate the relationships between measurable quantities and parameters of interest.

  • 4.
    Niemi, Auli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Environm & Water Resources Engn EWRE Ltd, POB 6770, IL-31067 Haifa, Israel..
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    Geophys Inst Israel, POB 182, IL-71100 Lod, Israel..
    Edlmann, Katriona
    Univ Edinburgh, Grant Inst, Sch Geosci, Kings Bldg,James Hutton Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3FE, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Gouze, Philippe
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS Geosci Montpellier, Campus Triolet CC060,Pl Eugene Batalluon, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Luquot, Linda
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS Geosci Montpellier, Campus Triolet CC060,Pl Eugene Batalluon, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.;IDAEA, CSIC, Pascual Vila Bldg,Off 625 C Jordi Girona,18-26, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Hingerl, Ferdinand
    Stanford Univ, Global Climate & Energy Project, Jerry Yang & Akiko Yamazaki Environm & Energy Bld, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Benson, Sally M.
    Stanford Univ, Global Climate & Energy Project, Jerry Yang & Akiko Yamazaki Environm & Energy Bld, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Pezard, Philippe A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS Geosci Montpellier, Campus Triolet CC060,Pl Eugene Batalluon, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Villavagen 16B, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Tian, Liang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Gendler, Michael
    Geophys Inst Israel, POB 182, IL-71100 Lod, Israel..
    Goldberg, Igor
    Geophys Inst Israel, POB 182, IL-71100 Lod, Israel..
    Tatomir, Alexandru
    Univ Gottingen, Angew Geol, Goldschmidtstr 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Lange, Torsten
    Univ Gottingen, Angew Geol, Goldschmidtstr 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Sauter, Martin
    Univ Gottingen, Angew Geol, Goldschmidtstr 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Freifeld, Barry
    Class VI Solut Inc, 711 Jean St, Oakland, CA 94610 USA..
    Heletz experimental site overview, characterization and data analysis for CO2 injection and geological storage2016In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 48, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of the site characterization work at the Heletz site, in preparation to scientifically motivated CO2 injection experiments. The outcomes are geological and hydrogeological models with associated medium properties and baseline conditions. The work has consisted on first re-analyzing the existing data base from similar to 40 wells from the previous oil exploration studies, based on which a 3-dimensional structural model was constructed along with first estimates of the properties. The CO2 injection site is located on the saline edges of the Heletz depleted oil field. Two new deep (> 1600 m) wells were drilled within the injection site and from these wells a detailed characterization program was carried out, including coring, core analyses, fluid sampling, geophysical logging, seismic survey, in situ hydraulic testing and measurement of the baseline pressure and temperature. The results are presented and discussed in terms of characteristics of the reservoir and cap-rock, the mineralogy, water composition and other baseline conditions, porosity, permeability, capillary pressure and relative permeability. Special emphasis is given to petrophysical properties of the reservoir and the seal, such as comparing the estimates determined by different methods, looking at their geostatistical distributions as well as changes in them when exposed to CO2.

  • 5.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Modeling of geohydrological processes in geological CO2 storage – with focus on residual trapping2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep saline aquifers is one approach to mitigate release from large point sources to the atmosphere. Understanding of in-situ processes providing trapping is important to the development of realistic models and the planning of future storage projects. This thesis covers both field- and pore-scale numerical modeling studies of such geohydrological processes, with focus on residual trapping. The setting is a CO2-injection experiment at the Heletz test site, conducted within the frame of the EU FP7 MUSTANG and TRUST projects.

    The objectives of the thesis are to develop and analyze alternative experimental characterization test sequences for determining in-situ residual CO2 saturation (Sgr), as well as to analyze the impact of the injection strategy on trapping, the effect of model assumptions (coupled wellbore-reservoir flow, geological heterogeneity, trapping model) on the predicted trapping, and to develop a pore-network model (PNM) for simulating and analyzing pore-scale mechanisms.

    The results include a comparison of alternative characterization test sequences for estimating Sgr. The estimates were retrieved through parameter estimation. The effect on the estimate of including various data sets was determined. A new method, using withdrawal and an indicator-tracer, for obtaining a residual zone in-situ was also introduced.

    Simulations were made of the CO2 partitioning between layers in a multi-layered formation, and parameters influencing this were identified. The results showed the importance of accounting for coupled wellbore-reservoir flow in simulations of such scenarios.

    Simulations also showed that adding chase-fluid stages after a conventional CO2 injection enhances the (residual and dissolution) trapping. Including geological heterogeneity generally decreased the estimated trapping. The choice of trapping model may largely effect the quantity of the predicted residual trapping (although most of them produced similar results). The use of an appropriate trapping model and description of geological heterogeneity for a site when simulating CO2 sequestration is vital, as different assumptions may give significant discrepancies in predicted trapping.

    The result also includes a PNM code, for multiphase quasi-static flow and trapping in porous materials. It was used to investigate trapping and obtain an estimated trapping (IR) curve for Heletz sandstone.

    List of papers
    1. Analysis of alternative push-pull-test-designs for determining in situ residual trapping of carbon dioxide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of alternative push-pull-test-designs for determining in situ residual trapping of carbon dioxide
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 27, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide storage in deep saline aquifers is a promising technique to reduce direct emissions of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. To ensure safe storage the in situ trapping mechanisms, residual trapping being one of them, need to be characterized. This study aims to compare three alternative single-well carbon dioxide push-pull test sequences for their ability to quantify residual gas trapping. The three tests are based on the proposed test sequence by Zhang et al. (2011) for estimating residual gas saturation. A new alternative way to create residual gas conditions in situ incorporating withdrawal and a novel indicator-tracer approach has been investigated. Further the value of additional pressure measurements from a nearby passive observation well was evaluated. The iTOUGH2 simulator with the EOS7C module was used for sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation. Results show that the indicator-tracer approach could be used to create residual conditions without increasing estimation uncertainty of S-gr. Additional pressure measurements from a passive observation well would reduce the uncertainty in the S-gr estimate. The findings of the study can be used to develop field experiments for site characterization.

    Keywords
    CO2, CCS, Site characterization, Field test, Residual saturation, Single-well test
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232013 (URN)10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.05.008 (DOI)000340319600012 ()
    Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2018-03-03Bibliographically approved
    2. Distribution of injected CO2 in a stratified saline reservoir accounting for coupled wellbore-reservoir flow
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution of injected CO2 in a stratified saline reservoir accounting for coupled wellbore-reservoir flow
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2152-3878, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 419-436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Geological storage in sedimentary basins is considered a viable technology in mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. Alternating high and low permeability strata are common in these basins. The distribution of injected CO2 among such layers affects e.g. CO2 storage efficiency, capacity and plume footprint. A numerical study on the distribution of injected CO2 into a multi-layered reservoir, accounting for coupled wellbore-reservoir flow, was carried out using the T2Well/ECO2N code. A site-specific case as well as a more general case were considered. Properties and processes governing the distribution of sequestrated CO2 were identified and the potential to operationally modify the distribution was investigated. The distribution of CO2 was seen to differ from that of injected water, i.e. it was not proportional to the transmissivity of the layers. The results indicate that caution should be taken when performing numerical simulations of CO2 injection into layered formations. Ignoring coupled wellbore-reservoir flow and instead adopting a simple boundary condition at the injection well, such as an inflow rate proportional to the transmissivity of each layer, may result in significant underestimation of the proportion of CO2 ending up in the shallower layers, as not all relevant processes are accounted for. This discrepancy has been thoroughly investigated and quantified for several CO2 sequestration scenarios.

    Keywords
    CCS, flow distribution, geological storage, layered formation, wellbore model
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-263036 (URN)10.1002/ghg.1477 (DOI)000360356800007 ()
    Funder
    EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 227286EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 309067
    Available from: 2015-09-30 Created: 2015-09-24 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. A simulation study of the effect of trapping model, geological heterogeneity and injection strategies on CO2 trapping
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A simulation study of the effect of trapping model, geological heterogeneity and injection strategies on CO2 trapping
    2016 (English)In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 52, p. 52-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial CO2 emissions to the atmosphere can be reduced through geological storage, where the gas is injected into the subsurface and trapped by several mechanisms. Residual and solubility trapping are two important processes providing trapping, and their effectiveness ultimately determines the feasibility of geological storage. By means of numerical modeling, a systematic analysis was made concerning the factors potentially affecting trapping, to guide the planned injection experiments at the Heletz test injection site. The effect of enhanced-trapping injection strategies along with the role of geological heterogeneity and the choice of trapping model (TM) were evaluated. The results showed that adding chase-fluid stages to a conventional CO2 injection enhanced the trapping. Taking into account the geological heterogeneity decreased trapping, as this retarded the buoyant migration, resulting in less imbibition and residual trapping. The choice of TM was significant, with the simplified Land TM producing the highest trapping, and the Aissaoui TM the lowest. The results stress the importance of using an appropriate TM as well as heterogeneity model for the site in question for any predictive modeling of CO2 sequestration, as different assumptions may lead to significant discrepancies in the predicted trapping.

    Keywords
    CCS, Capillary trapping, Hysteresis, Injection strategies, Residual trapping, Solubility trapping
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303260 (URN)10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.06.020 (DOI)000381728300006 ()
    Funder
    EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 227286; 309067
    Available from: 2016-09-16 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Residual trapping of carbon dioxide during geological storage: insight gained through a pore-network modeling approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residual trapping of carbon dioxide during geological storage: insight gained through a pore-network modeling approach
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 74, p. 62-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2 to the atmosphere, sequestration in deep saline aquifers is a viable strategy. Residual trapping is a key containment process important to the success of CO2 storage operations. While residual trapping affects CO2 migration over large scales, it is inherently a pore-scale process. Pore-network models (PNMs), capturing such processes, are useful for our understanding of residual trapping, and for upscaling trapping parameters for larger scale models. A PNM for simulation of quasi-static two-phase flow; CO2 intrusion (drainage) followed by water flooding (imbibition) was developed. It accounts for pore-scale displacement mechanisms, and was used to investigate residual CO2 trapping. The sensitivity of the residual CO2 saturation to several parameters was studied, to validate a trapping behavior in agreement with earlier studies. Then the PNM was calibrated to core sample data and used to simulate drainage-imbibition scenarios with different turning point saturations. From these the initial-residual saturation curves of CO2 in Heletz sandstone were estimated, essential for future macroscopic-scale simulations. Further, the occurrence of different pore-scale mechanisms were quantified and the size distribution of the residual clusters was shown to exhibit a bimodal appearance. The findings improve the understanding of residual trapping in Heletz sandstone.

    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327991 (URN)10.1016/j.ijggc.2018.04.021 (DOI)000434428100007 ()
    Funder
    EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 309067Swedish Energy Agency, 43526-1
    Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Erlström, Mikael
    Sveriges geologiska undersökning (SGU).
    Subsurface characterisation and modeling of a CO2 test site in south Scania, Sweden, with special emphasis on the treatment of hydrogeological heterogeneity2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The south Scania site is one of the five test sites included in the MUSTANG project (EU FP7 programme) with an objective to understand - by means of experimental and simulation studies - the spreading and trapping of injected CO2 in different type saline formations. The geological setting of the site is an example of a typical multilayered sequence commonly found in sedimentary basins all over the world. It is analyzed here as an example of such sequence of primary and secondary traps and seal units. Particular emphasis is given for the characterization and quantification of the geological heterogeneity, in terms of what can be described in deterministic terms and where a stochastic representation is needed.

    For constructing the conceptual model, detailed hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical data is available in one deep well originally drilled for geothermal investigations, including an extensive hydrogeological testing programme. In addition, comprehensive data sets and analyses exist in 15 adjacent wells, allow definition of the characteristics of different lithological units and boundary layers with some confidence. The geology is dominated by a relatively thick (1200–1600 m) sequence of Upper Cretaceous strata, overlying a 400–600 m thick Lower Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic sequence of claystone and sandstone layers. Eight lithologic units have been mapped and characterised, the primary trap aquifer for this study being about 10 m thick sandstone and secondary traps having thicknesses between 10 and 50 metres, with lower overall permeabilities than the primary target. The primary seal consist of a several hundred meters thick limestone and the intermediate seals of claystone and mudstone. The lateral correlations of the layers between wells are based on lithological descriptions of cuttings, biostratigraphical analyses and geophysical well log correlation.

    One of the challenges for modeling the spreading of injected CO2 is to understand and to be able to quantify the characteristics of the horizontal heterogeneity and continuity of the layers between the boreholes. For this purpose, both a deterministic and a probabilistic/stochastic approach are used here to describe 1) the distribution of the depositional settings and 2) the properties (heterogeneity) within the units, in particular in terms of the distribution of the permeability values. Importance of the choice of the approach is discussed based on preliminary model simulations of CO2 injection using the various assumptions.

  • 7.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, J.
    Tsang, Y.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Analysis of alternative push-pull-test-designs for determining in situ residual trapping of carbon dioxide2014In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 27, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide storage in deep saline aquifers is a promising technique to reduce direct emissions of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. To ensure safe storage the in situ trapping mechanisms, residual trapping being one of them, need to be characterized. This study aims to compare three alternative single-well carbon dioxide push-pull test sequences for their ability to quantify residual gas trapping. The three tests are based on the proposed test sequence by Zhang et al. (2011) for estimating residual gas saturation. A new alternative way to create residual gas conditions in situ incorporating withdrawal and a novel indicator-tracer approach has been investigated. Further the value of additional pressure measurements from a nearby passive observation well was evaluated. The iTOUGH2 simulator with the EOS7C module was used for sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation. Results show that the indicator-tracer approach could be used to create residual conditions without increasing estimation uncertainty of S-gr. Additional pressure measurements from a passive observation well would reduce the uncertainty in the S-gr estimate. The findings of the study can be used to develop field experiments for site characterization.

  • 8.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California, USA.
    Benson, Sally
    Stanford University, USA.
    Hingerl, Ferdinand
    StreamSim Technologies Inc, Canada.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Residual trapping of carbon dioxide during geological storage: insight gained through a pore-network modeling approach2018In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 74, p. 62-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2 to the atmosphere, sequestration in deep saline aquifers is a viable strategy. Residual trapping is a key containment process important to the success of CO2 storage operations. While residual trapping affects CO2 migration over large scales, it is inherently a pore-scale process. Pore-network models (PNMs), capturing such processes, are useful for our understanding of residual trapping, and for upscaling trapping parameters for larger scale models. A PNM for simulation of quasi-static two-phase flow; CO2 intrusion (drainage) followed by water flooding (imbibition) was developed. It accounts for pore-scale displacement mechanisms, and was used to investigate residual CO2 trapping. The sensitivity of the residual CO2 saturation to several parameters was studied, to validate a trapping behavior in agreement with earlier studies. Then the PNM was calibrated to core sample data and used to simulate drainage-imbibition scenarios with different turning point saturations. From these the initial-residual saturation curves of CO2 in Heletz sandstone were estimated, essential for future macroscopic-scale simulations. Further, the occurrence of different pore-scale mechanisms were quantified and the size distribution of the residual clusters was shown to exhibit a bimodal appearance. The findings improve the understanding of residual trapping in Heletz sandstone.

  • 9.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Chin-Fu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pan, Lehua
    Univ Calif Berkeley, USA.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE, Environm & Water Resources Engn Ltd, Haifa, Israel.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Distribution of injected CO2 in a stratified saline reservoir accounting for coupled wellbore-reservoir flow2015In: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2152-3878, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 419-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geological storage in sedimentary basins is considered a viable technology in mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. Alternating high and low permeability strata are common in these basins. The distribution of injected CO2 among such layers affects e.g. CO2 storage efficiency, capacity and plume footprint. A numerical study on the distribution of injected CO2 into a multi-layered reservoir, accounting for coupled wellbore-reservoir flow, was carried out using the T2Well/ECO2N code. A site-specific case as well as a more general case were considered. Properties and processes governing the distribution of sequestrated CO2 were identified and the potential to operationally modify the distribution was investigated. The distribution of CO2 was seen to differ from that of injected water, i.e. it was not proportional to the transmissivity of the layers. The results indicate that caution should be taken when performing numerical simulations of CO2 injection into layered formations. Ignoring coupled wellbore-reservoir flow and instead adopting a simple boundary condition at the injection well, such as an inflow rate proportional to the transmissivity of each layer, may result in significant underestimation of the proportion of CO2 ending up in the shallower layers, as not all relevant processes are accounted for. This discrepancy has been thoroughly investigated and quantified for several CO2 sequestration scenarios.

  • 10.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Y.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Niemi, Antti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Refractive-Light-Transmission Technique Applied to Density-Driven Convective Mixing in Porous Media With Implications for Geological CO2 Storage2017In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 53, no 11, p. 8760-8780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density-driven convection has been identified to accelerate the rate of CO2 solubility trapping during geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. In this paper, we present an experimental method using the refractive properties of fluids (their impact on light transmission), and an analogous system design, which enables the study of transport mechanisms in saturated porous media. The method is used to investigate solutally induced density-driven convective mixing under conditions relevant to geological CO2 storage. The analogous system design allows us by choice of initial solute concentration and bead size to duplicate a wide range of conditions (Ra-values), making it possible to study the convective process in general, and as a laboratory analogue for systems found in the field. We show that the method accurately determines the solute concentration in the system with high spatial and temporal resolution. The onset time of convection (t(c)), mass flux (F), and flow dynamics are quantified and compared with experimental and numerical findings in the literature. Our data yield a scaling law for tc which gives new insight into its dependence on Ra, indicating t(c) to be more sensitive to large Ra than previously thought. Furthermore, our data show and explain why F is described equally well by a Ra-dependent or a Ra-independent scaling law. These findings improve the understanding of the physical process of convective mixing in saturated porous media in general and help to assess the CO2 solubility trapping rate under certain field conditions.

  • 11.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Div Earth Sci, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Prerequisites for density-driven instabilities and convective mixing under broad geological CO2 storage conditions2015In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 84, p. 136-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions can be greatly reduced by CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. One of the most secure and important mechanisms of CO2 trapping over large time scales is solubility trapping. In addition, the CO2 dissolution rate is greatly enhanced if density-driven convective mixing occurs. We present a systematic analysis of the prerequisites for density-driven instability and convective mixing over the broad temperature, pressure, salinity and permeability conditions that are found in geological CO2 storage. The onset of instability (Rayleigh-Darcy number, Ra), the onset time of instability and the steady convective flux are comprehensively calculated using a newly developed analysis tool that accounts for the thermodynamic and salinity dependence on solutally and thermally induced density change, viscosity, molecular and thermal diffusivity. Additionally, the relative influences of field characteristics are analysed through local and global sensitivity analyses. The results help to elucidate the trends of the Ra, onset time of instability and steady convective flux under field conditions. The impacts of storage depth and basin type (geothermal gradient) are also explored and the conditions that favour or hinder enhanced solubility trapping are identified. Contrary to previous studies, we conclude that the geothermal gradient has a non-negligible effect on density-driven instability and convective mixing when considering both direct and indirect thermal effects because cold basin conditions, for instance, render higher Ra compared to warm basin conditions. We also show that the largest Ra is obtained for conditions that correspond to relatively shallow depths, measuring approximately 800 m, indicating that CO2 storage at such depths favours the onset of density-driven instability and reduces onset times. However, shallow depths do not necessarily provide conditions that generate the largest steady convective fluxes; the salinity determines the storage depth at which the largest steady convective fluxes occur. Furthermore, we present a straight-forward and efficient procedure to estimate site-specific solutal Ra that accounts for thermodynamic and salinity dependence.

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