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  • 1.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    et al.
    Environmental & water resources engineering Ltd (EWRE), Haifa, Israel.
    Kitron-Belinkov, Myra
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Deptartment of Civil, Environmental and Water Resources engineering, Haifa, Israel.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bear, Jacob
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Water Resources engineering, Haifa, Israel.
    Model for the dependence of conditions at the injection well head and the reservoir during CO2 injection2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly controlled field injection experiments are necessary for demonstration, for scientific understanding and for quantification of the relevant processes of CO2 geological storage.

    The preparation of such an experiment requires reliable information on both the hydraulic, thermal and chemical properties of the target layer and the formation fluid as well as on the injection discharges and their associated pressure build-up in the reservoir. For this, there is a need to determine the state variables of CO2 in the injection tube near the well head, which can produce the desired mass flow rates given the condition at the reservoir, while respecting pressure buildup constraints.

     

    A model connecting the multiphase flow and transport processes in the target layer (based on the well-known TOUGH2/ECO2N model) at the vicinity of the injection well with those occurring in the injection tube (solving the one dimensional equations mass, momentum and energy conservation) has been developed. To this model the injection tube is a boundary condition. Once the reservoir pressure build-up resulting from the injection discharge is known, there is a need to determine the necessary injection conditions at the wellhead. For this purpose we apply the 1-D tube model, which provides the solution of the conditions in the injection pipe, given the injection rate and the pressure at the reservoir.

     

    These two linked models, the porous medium model and the pipe model, are applied to the planning of the Heletz injection experiment to be carried out in the frame of the EU-FP7 funded MUSTANG project. Sensitivity analyses are carried out with regard to uncertainty in the target layer permeability and the temperature of the injected CO2, which depends on the thermal heat transfer coefficient in the injection tube.

  • 2.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tian, Liang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Licha, Tobias
    Applied Geology, University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Design and Analysis of Field Experiments for the Investigation of In-Situ CO2 Trapping2010In: 2010 Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union (AGU): Abstract H13C-0981, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Niemi, Auli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sauter, Martin
    Ghergut, Julia
    Licha, Tobias
    Fierz, Thomas
    Wiegand, Gabriele
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    Gendler, Michael
    Small-Scale CO2 Injection into a Deep Geological Formation at Heletz, Israel2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 23, p. 504-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the experimental plans and designs as well as examples of predictive modeling of a pilot-scale CO2 injection experiment at the Heletz site (Israel). The overall objective of the experiment is to find optimal ways to characterize CO2 -relevant in-situ medium properties, including field-scale residual and dissolution trapping, to explore ways of characterizing heterogeneity through joint analysis of different types of data, and to detect leakage. The experiment will involve two wells, an injection well and a monitoring well. Prior to the actual CO2 injection, hydraulic, thermal and tracer tests will be carried out for standard site characterization. The actual CO2 injection experiments will include (i) a single well injection-withdrawal experiment, with the main objective to estimate in-situ residual trapping and (ii) a two-well injection-withdrawal test with injection of CO2 in a dipole mode (injection of CO2 in one well with simultaneous withdrawal of water in the monitoring well), with the objective to understand the CO2 transport in heterogeneous geology as well as the associated dissolution and residual trapping. Tracers will be introduced in both experiments to further aid in detecting the development of the phase composition during CO2 transport. Geophysical monitoring will also be implemented. By means of modeling, different experimental sequences and injection/withdrawal patterns have been analyzed, as have parameter uncertainties. The objectives have been to (i) evaluate key aspects of the experimental design, (ii) to identify key parameters affecting the fate of the CO2 and (iii) to evaluate the relationships between measurable quantities and parameters of interest.

  • 4.
    Niemi, Auli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Joodaki, Saba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Basirat, Farzad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hedayati, Maryeh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Perez, Lilyanne
    Levchenko, Stanislav
    Shklarnik, Alon
    Tatomir, Alexandru
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sauter, Martin
    Hingrl, Ferdinand
    Benson, Sally
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Study of CO2 Residual Trapping In-Situ – Results from Push- Pull Experiments at Heletz (Israel) Pilot CO2 Injection Site2018In: International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT-14 21st -25th October 2018, Melbourne, Australia / [ed] IEAGHG, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, J.
    Tsang, Y.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Analysis of alternative push-pull-test-designs for determining in situ residual trapping of carbon dioxide2014In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 27, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide storage in deep saline aquifers is a promising technique to reduce direct emissions of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. To ensure safe storage the in situ trapping mechanisms, residual trapping being one of them, need to be characterized. This study aims to compare three alternative single-well carbon dioxide push-pull test sequences for their ability to quantify residual gas trapping. The three tests are based on the proposed test sequence by Zhang et al. (2011) for estimating residual gas saturation. A new alternative way to create residual gas conditions in situ incorporating withdrawal and a novel indicator-tracer approach has been investigated. Further the value of additional pressure measurements from a nearby passive observation well was evaluated. The iTOUGH2 simulator with the EOS7C module was used for sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation. Results show that the indicator-tracer approach could be used to create residual conditions without increasing estimation uncertainty of S-gr. Additional pressure measurements from a passive observation well would reduce the uncertainty in the S-gr estimate. The findings of the study can be used to develop field experiments for site characterization.

  • 6.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California, USA.
    Benson, Sally
    Stanford University, USA.
    Hingerl, Ferdinand
    StreamSim Technologies Inc, Canada.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Residual trapping of carbon dioxide during geological storage: insight gained through a pore-network modeling approach2018In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 74, p. 62-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2 to the atmosphere, sequestration in deep saline aquifers is a viable strategy. Residual trapping is a key containment process important to the success of CO2 storage operations. While residual trapping affects CO2 migration over large scales, it is inherently a pore-scale process. Pore-network models (PNMs), capturing such processes, are useful for our understanding of residual trapping, and for upscaling trapping parameters for larger scale models. A PNM for simulation of quasi-static two-phase flow; CO2 intrusion (drainage) followed by water flooding (imbibition) was developed. It accounts for pore-scale displacement mechanisms, and was used to investigate residual CO2 trapping. The sensitivity of the residual CO2 saturation to several parameters was studied, to validate a trapping behavior in agreement with earlier studies. Then the PNM was calibrated to core sample data and used to simulate drainage-imbibition scenarios with different turning point saturations. From these the initial-residual saturation curves of CO2 in Heletz sandstone were estimated, essential for future macroscopic-scale simulations. Further, the occurrence of different pore-scale mechanisms were quantified and the size distribution of the residual clusters was shown to exhibit a bimodal appearance. The findings improve the understanding of residual trapping in Heletz sandstone.

  • 7.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Chin-Fu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pan, Lehua
    Univ Calif Berkeley, USA.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE, Environm & Water Resources Engn Ltd, Haifa, Israel.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Distribution of injected CO2 in a stratified saline reservoir accounting for coupled wellbore-reservoir flow2015In: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2152-3878, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 419-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geological storage in sedimentary basins is considered a viable technology in mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. Alternating high and low permeability strata are common in these basins. The distribution of injected CO2 among such layers affects e.g. CO2 storage efficiency, capacity and plume footprint. A numerical study on the distribution of injected CO2 into a multi-layered reservoir, accounting for coupled wellbore-reservoir flow, was carried out using the T2Well/ECO2N code. A site-specific case as well as a more general case were considered. Properties and processes governing the distribution of sequestrated CO2 were identified and the potential to operationally modify the distribution was investigated. The distribution of CO2 was seen to differ from that of injected water, i.e. it was not proportional to the transmissivity of the layers. The results indicate that caution should be taken when performing numerical simulations of CO2 injection into layered formations. Ignoring coupled wellbore-reservoir flow and instead adopting a simple boundary condition at the injection well, such as an inflow rate proportional to the transmissivity of each layer, may result in significant underestimation of the proportion of CO2 ending up in the shallower layers, as not all relevant processes are accounted for. This discrepancy has been thoroughly investigated and quantified for several CO2 sequestration scenarios.

  • 8.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Y.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Niemi, Antti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics.
    Refractive-Light-Transmission Technique Applied to Density-Driven Convective Mixing in Porous Media With Implications for Geological CO2 Storage2017In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 53, no 11, p. 8760-8780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density-driven convection has been identified to accelerate the rate of CO2 solubility trapping during geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. In this paper, we present an experimental method using the refractive properties of fluids (their impact on light transmission), and an analogous system design, which enables the study of transport mechanisms in saturated porous media. The method is used to investigate solutally induced density-driven convective mixing under conditions relevant to geological CO2 storage. The analogous system design allows us by choice of initial solute concentration and bead size to duplicate a wide range of conditions (Ra-values), making it possible to study the convective process in general, and as a laboratory analogue for systems found in the field. We show that the method accurately determines the solute concentration in the system with high spatial and temporal resolution. The onset time of convection (t(c)), mass flux (F), and flow dynamics are quantified and compared with experimental and numerical findings in the literature. Our data yield a scaling law for tc which gives new insight into its dependence on Ra, indicating t(c) to be more sensitive to large Ra than previously thought. Furthermore, our data show and explain why F is described equally well by a Ra-dependent or a Ra-independent scaling law. These findings improve the understanding of the physical process of convective mixing in saturated porous media in general and help to assess the CO2 solubility trapping rate under certain field conditions.

  • 9.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Div Earth Sci, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Prerequisites for density-driven instabilities and convective mixing under broad geological CO2 storage conditions2015In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 84, p. 136-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions can be greatly reduced by CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. One of the most secure and important mechanisms of CO2 trapping over large time scales is solubility trapping. In addition, the CO2 dissolution rate is greatly enhanced if density-driven convective mixing occurs. We present a systematic analysis of the prerequisites for density-driven instability and convective mixing over the broad temperature, pressure, salinity and permeability conditions that are found in geological CO2 storage. The onset of instability (Rayleigh-Darcy number, Ra), the onset time of instability and the steady convective flux are comprehensively calculated using a newly developed analysis tool that accounts for the thermodynamic and salinity dependence on solutally and thermally induced density change, viscosity, molecular and thermal diffusivity. Additionally, the relative influences of field characteristics are analysed through local and global sensitivity analyses. The results help to elucidate the trends of the Ra, onset time of instability and steady convective flux under field conditions. The impacts of storage depth and basin type (geothermal gradient) are also explored and the conditions that favour or hinder enhanced solubility trapping are identified. Contrary to previous studies, we conclude that the geothermal gradient has a non-negligible effect on density-driven instability and convective mixing when considering both direct and indirect thermal effects because cold basin conditions, for instance, render higher Ra compared to warm basin conditions. We also show that the largest Ra is obtained for conditions that correspond to relatively shallow depths, measuring approximately 800 m, indicating that CO2 storage at such depths favours the onset of density-driven instability and reduces onset times. However, shallow depths do not necessarily provide conditions that generate the largest steady convective fluxes; the salinity determines the storage depth at which the largest steady convective fluxes occur. Furthermore, we present a straight-forward and efficient procedure to estimate site-specific solutal Ra that accounts for thermodynamic and salinity dependence.

  • 10.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fredriksson, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet.
    PISA, reading literacy, and computer-based assessment2018In: Northern Lights on TIMSS and PISA 2018 / [ed] Anita Wester, Köpenhamn: Nordiska ministerrådet , 2018, p. 123-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The OECD changed the mode of delivery in PISA 2015 from a paper-based assessment (PBA) to a computer-based assessment (CBA). In PISA 2015, four countries improved their results in all three tested domains, and three of these were Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden). Students in the Nordic countries have significant experience in using digital devices, and this might be a plausible explanation for the improved results. In line with this, the results from South Korea and Turkey, two countries with a low average use of computers and the Internet, deteriorated when the test mode was changed. It is of vital importance to ensure that the PISA results from the computer-based test are comparable to previous results if countries are to make policy decisions based on the results. The overarching purpose of the present study is to explore how the change from PBA to CBA was associated with the Nordic students’ performance on the reading tasks in PISA in relation to item format, gender, computer experience, and the three reading aspects that were assessed. The analysis was performed on the overall results in reading literacy as well as the specific items that were used in both PISA 2012 and PISA 2015, in all the Nordic countries.

    Among the Nordic countries, there were no dramatic changes in the results on reading literacy in PISA 2015 compared to PISA 2012. Only in Sweden was a major change observed. Our findings show that in comparison with the other Nordic countries, Sweden seems to have a larger group of students who spend large amounts of time on the Internet, and this group improved their results on PISA 2015 compared with PISA 2012 more than other groups in Sweden and more than similar groups in the other Nordic countries. All of the Nordic countries showed a decreased proportion of students who gave no response to items and who did not complete all items in the PISA test on reading literacy. At the same time, the proportion of full-credit responses and no-credit responses increased.

  • 11.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Villavagen 16, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Yvonne
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA USA.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    The impact of co-contaminant SO2, versus salinity and thermodynamic conditions, on residual CO2 trapping during geological storage2018In: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2152-3878, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1053-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During geological storage in deep saline aquifers, immobilization of CO2 in reservoir rock determines both storage safety and capacity. Assessment of the sensitivity of residual trapping to different parameters (interfacial tension and contact angles) and the storage conditions affecting these is therefore of great importance. One aspect of concern is the presence of co-contaminants such as SO2 in the injected gas. Using experimentally measured values of interfacial tensions and contact angles, we apply pore-network modelling (which accounts for pore-scale mechanisms such as snap-off, cooperative pore body filling and piston-type displacement) to a generic sandstone network to quantify the impact of SO2 co-injection on residual CO2 trapping, and its relative importance as compared to the influences of thermodynamic conditions and salinity. We show that the presence of small amounts of SO2 in the injected CO2 has a notable positive effect on the amount of CO2 becoming residually trapped (similar to 3% increase at 1 wt% SO2). However, this effect is small compared to that of the brine salinity (similar to 20% decrease in residually trapped CO2 over the salinity range 0.2 to 5 M NaCl). Still, co-injection of SO2 could potentially favour the residual trapping of CO2 in reservoir rocks, especially at storage sites with inclined aquifers where the CO2 is set to migrate hydro-dynamically over long distances. The salinity of the resident brine is of primary importance during storage site selection. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the advancing contact angle strongly impacts residual CO2 trapping. 

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