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  • 1.
    Jörum, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Beyond Syria's borders: a history of territorial disputes in the Middle East2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Lebanon, together with the province of Hatay in Turkey (containing Antakya) and the Golan Heights were all part of French mandate Syria, but are now all outside the boundaries of the modern Syrian state. The policies and reactions of Syria both to the loss of these territories and to the states that have either absorbed, annexed or emerged from them (Lebanon, Turkey and Israel) are the focus of Emma Jorum's book. Jorum uses the differences in policy and discourse when it comes to each of these three cases to highlight the nature of territorial dispute in the region, and the processes of state-building and nationalism more generally. Through the examination of Syria's policies concerning these lost territories, Jorum plots and analyses Syrian-Turkish, Syrian-Lebanese and Syrian-Israeli relations, explaining why some losses have been pushed to one side and others remain at the forefront in Syria's international relations and diplomacy efforts.

  • 2.
    Jörum, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Beyond the Border: Syrian Policies towards Territories Lost2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study furthers our understanding of an often ignored but important and central part of modern politics; the dynamic relationship between territory and state. The republic of Syria, carved out of a much larger territory during the post World War I re-mapping of the Middle East, constitutes the empirical focus. The study analyzes Syrian policies towards three territories lost; Lebanon, Hatay and the Golan Heights. Through the examination of Syrian policies towards the three areas from the time of their loss until the end of 2010, the study argues that while special relations to these three cases are signaled through words or deeds or both, Syria clearly has different views of and ambitions for them. Although Syria, during the period under study, repeatedly disrespected the sovereignty of Lebanon it does not strive to incorporate it into Syria. The same goes for Hatay, despite the fact that Syrian maps depict it as part of Syria. The Golan Heights, on the other hand, is considered a necessary part of the Syrian national territory and therefore has to be returned to Syria. The study seeks to understand why certain territories lost remain on the agenda as something that has to be returned while the loss of others are possible to come to terms with. For this purpose, a theoretical and methodological framework for analyzing change and consistency in a state's perception of territories lost is developed. Further, five explanatory factors are discussed and applied to the Syrian cases. Of the five, only integrative state building and the existence of a contending élite with the ability to formulate an alternative version of an appropriate and right-sized national territory were concluded to have affected policies towards territories lost in the Syrian case.

  • 3.
    Jörum, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The October 1998 Turkish-Syrian Crisis in Arab Media2006In: State Frontiers: Borders and Boundaries in the Middle East / [ed] Inga Brandell, London: I.B. Tauris , 2006, p. 159-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Lundgren Jörum, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    End of Exile: Returning Diaspora Members and Political Leadership in the Arab World2014In: Democratization and Citizenship Discourses in the Mena Region / [ed] Micheletti, Michele, Stockholm: Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul , 2014, p. 101-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Lundgren Jörum, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Repression across borders: homeland response to anti-regime mobilization among Syrians in Sweden2015In: Diaspora Studies, ISSN 0976-3457, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within social movement studies, it is often argued that a state’s capabilities of hindering mobilisation can be outmaneuvered through transnational mobilisation. The same way, within diaspora studies, it has been suggested that homeland repression can be avoided through diaspora mobilisation. In both cases, it is argued, activists outside of the target state may put pressure on it without having to fear its repression. Based on the case of Syrian anti-regime activists in Sweden, this article argues that for activists with roots in the target state, this is not necessarily the case.  Through surveillance, intelligence reports and threats against both activists abroad and their families still in the state of origin, the target state may continue to hamper and discourage mobilisation abroad. The theoretical idea that so called domestic opportunity structures are territorially contained is thereby questioned and the article argues that homeland repression across borders may explain why some diaspora groups mobilize in order to draw attention to homeland conditions while others, with clear reasons to do so, refrain from such activities. Based on in-depth interviews with 30 Syrian anti-regime activists in Sweden 2012-2014, the article suggests that a third identity category be added to Earl’s (2003) typology of repression, through the distinction between states repressing within their territorial jurisdiction and states repressing outside of their territorial jurisdiction. Transterritorial repression is a problem not only for the individuals affected but also for the states where they reside, as citizens with roots in certain authoritarian states are effectively discouraged from exercising their constitutional rights.

  • 6.
    Lundgren Jörum, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    The importance of the unimportant: understanding Syrian policies towards Hatay 1939-20122013In: Turkey-Syria relations: between enmity and amity / [ed] Raymond Hinnebusch, Özlem Tür, Farnham: Ashgate, 2013, p. 111-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lundgren-Jörum, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Discourses of a Revolution: Framing the Syrian Uprising2012In: Ortadoğu Etütleri, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 9-39Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares how the Syrian uprising was framed by the Syr-ian regime as well as some of the major oppositional organizations between March and November 2011. As expected in conflict the ver-sions told differ. The regime stresses that Syria is the victim of a foreign conspiracy where armed terrorists are killing civilians and security per-sonnel alike. The opposition, on the other hand, argues that the upris-ing is a domestic affair, initiated by ordinary people. The article further seeks to give an overview of the regime’s and the opposition’s views of the post-uprising Syria and their respective ideas of the best way to get there. The article argues that the Syrian opposition has, by and large, maintained a unified position. The major division is not, as could perhaps be expected, between the internal and the external opposition but between the “older” internal opposition and the rest. The article also argues that minority questions are not substantially dealt with by either the opposition or the regime. Both sides focus on the Kurds but effectively avoid other minorities.

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