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  • 1.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Recreational fishing for sea trout – Resource for whom and to what value?2018In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 204, p. 380-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreational fishing is an important activity that delivers substantial social and economic values. Proper management of recreational fisheries relies on information about resource use and associated values by different fishers, but such information is rare, particularly for open access fisheries. In this study a survey of 471 fishers on the Swedish island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, assessed catches, proportion of catch-and-release (C&R), and economic value (expenditures and willingness to pay, WTP) of sea trout fishing in 2015-2016. Data was analysed in relation to gear used (fly and spin angling, nets and mixed fishery) and fisher connection to fishing site (permanent and temporary residents, Swedish and international tourists). There were marginal differences in daily catch rates, but significant differences in effort and annual catches between different fishers, with resident fishers having the highest catches. Anglers had 86% C&R rates, and fly fishers (> 95%) differed significantly from other anglers. Anglers, particularly fly fishers and fishing tourists, had much higher expenditures per year, fish caught and fish kept compared to net fishers. WTP before refraining from fishing, for doubling of fish supply and for potential fishing license was also highest among anglers. Our findings are discussed in terms of distinguishing characteristics for different types of recreational fishers. Fishing efforts, economic values and the need for further studies are also outlined in the context of fisheries and tourism management.

  • 2.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    What factors enable or hinder engagement of civil society in ecosystem management? The case of “pike factories” and wetland restoration in Sweden.In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    What factors enable or hinder engagement of civil society in ecosystem management?: The case of "pike factories' and wetland restoration in Sweden2018In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, no 5-6, p. 950-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engaging civil society in conservation activities is an important complementary strategy to counteract ongoing biodiversity decline and loss of ecosystem services. Since 2011, the Swedish Anglers Association (SAA) has cooperated with landowners to restore wetlands nationwide. We investigated factors that enabled or hindered civil society-led wetland restoration in Sweden through interviews and surveys with the SAA's project leaders and landowners. Principal internal and external factors contributing to the project's implementation included: flexibility and adaptive management of its leadership; support from authorities and policies; the good reputation of the SAA team; and landowners' willingness to cooperate. The latter was linked to their feelings of environmental responsibility, the low investment required by them, and expectations of some benefits. We discuss the need to enable adaptive management in environmental management projects, adjust existing policies to their needs, and re-think funding strategies to consider the long-term nature of such projects.

  • 4.
    Brisman, Johan
    et al.
    SIDA.
    Ekstrand, Sam
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fogelgren, Jan
    FAO.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Miljö och fiskerinäring efter flodvågen: vad görs för att skapa en hållbar återuppbyggnad?2005In: Kungl. Skogs- och lantbruksakademiens tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5350, Vol. 144, no 6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har träffat fiskare i Thailand som säger att de får dubbelt så stora fångster som före tsunamin,och dessutom slipper de få ögoninfektioner av smutsigt havsvatten, berättade Janne Fogelgren, somarbetar inom FN-organet FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation), vid KSLAs sammankomstden 14 april. Det är ett vittnesbörd som blixtbelyser två kritiska punkter i återuppbyggnaden efterflodvågskatastrofen i Sydostasien julen 2004: föroreningarna från turisthotellen och överexploateringenav fiskeresurserna.Janne Fogelgren var en av de experter som diskuterade återuppbyggnaden efter tsunamikatastrofenvid KSLAs sammankomst. Panelen var överens om att det finns en betydande risk attman bygger in gamla brister och gamla miljöproblem i de nya samhällen som nu börjar ta form ide flodvågsdrabbade kustområdena. Diskussionen kretsade kring vad som kan och bör göras föratt återuppbyggnaden ska bli miljömässigt hållbar.

  • 5. Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Holmgren, Susanne
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Re-establishment of epibiotic communities in reforested mangroves of Gazi Bay, Kenya2006In: Wetlands Ecology and Management, ISSN 0923-4861, E-ISSN 1572-9834, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 527-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recolonization of epibiotic flora and fauna in two fringing Sonneratia alba reforestation plots was investigated and compared to a natural mangrove stand and a denuded site in Gazi Bay, Kenya. The reforested sites differed with respect to land history and planting density. Habitat availability in the form of pneumatophore surface differed among forested sites (P<0.001), and between landward and seaward zones (P<0.05). Eighteen algal species were found in the natural area compared to 23 and 10 in replanted sites. Only one species was encountered in the denuded area. SIMPER analysis distinguished Enteromorpha ramulosa, Polysiphonia sp., Hypnea sp. and Caloglossa leprieuri as the main algal species responsible for differences between sites. Algal bio- mass was positively correlated to pneumatophores area (P<0.001). Total algal biomass differed mark- edly between forested sites: 1.4 (matrix replantation), 28.6 (natural stand) and 44.3 g m-2 (integrated replantation) in the seaward zones. The matrix replantation showed strong differences in algal community assemblages compared to the other forested sites, and this site also had significantly lower biomass of sessile benthic fauna (P<0.001). Statistical differences in algal (P<0.01) and sponge (P<0.05) community composition between landward and sea- ward zones were observed in all sites and trunk fouling fauna was distinctly different between sites. Reasons for the above patterns are discussed and it is suggested that zonation patterns affecting pneumatophore surface and inundation time, in combination with proximity of sites to natural seeding areas, are the most likely explanations for observed patterns of epibiotic community distribution in this study.

  • 6.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Stockholm univ..
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Community structure and temporal variability of juvenile fish assemblages in natural and replanted mangroves, Sonneratia alba Sm., of Gazi Bay, Kenya2007In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 74, no 1-2, p. 44-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The juvenile fish community associated with natural, degraded and replanted Sonneratia alba mangroves in Gazi Bay was sampled during the South East and North East monsoons between April 2002 and June 2003. A total of 1800 individuals belonging to 49 taxa and 34 families were collected from the intertidal forest using stake nets. Fish abundance ranged from 0.93 ± 0.20 ind. m−2 (SEM02) to 1.16 ± 0.18 ind. m−2 (SEM03) between seasons and between 0.54 ± 0.07 ind. m−2 and 1.64 ± 0.33 ind. m−2 for individual sites across seasons. Five taxa accounted for approximately 70% of the total fish abundance, with Gobidae and Gerres oyena dominating. ANOSIM revealed seasonal differences in fish species composition and abundance (p = 0.01) due to fluctuating abundances of primarily Terapon sp. and Thryssa sp. The majority (65%) of fishes were reef associates, which implies a tight coupling between mangroves and coral reefs. The high proportion (75%) of commercial species indicates that fringing S. alba mangroves of Gazi Bay are important in sustaining coastal fisheries in the area. The fact that the replanted mangroves of Gazi Bay harbor a significant number of commercially important species as juveniles suggest their function as nursery habitats for nekton may well have been restored. This study is original in quantitatively evaluating the use of replanted intertidal mangroves by juvenile fish in the West Indian Ocean; a topic poorly studied worldwide to date.

  • 7.
    Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Dept. systems ecology, Stockholm univ..
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Use of replanted mangroves as nursery grounds by shrimp communities in Gazi Bay, Kenya2005In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 535-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantitatively assessed the distribution of postlarval and juvenile shrimps in natural, degraded and replanted stands of Sonneratia alba mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya in 2002–2003. Two plantations (matrix and integrated) differing in historical status and planting strategy were studied. Sampling was conducted using stake nets (2 mm mesh), each net enclosing 9 m2 of intertidal microhabitat. A total of 615 shrimps from 19 species/taxa were caught, including several penaeid species of major commercial importance. Penaeids dominated the catch (66%) followed by Macrobrachium spp. (16%) and Acetes sp. (6%). Shrimp abundance ranged from 0.42 to 10.0 ind. per net (9 m2) for individual sites across spring tides and significant differences were detected between sites and over time (p<0.001). Results showed no significant difference in diversity of species/taxa between sites. However, multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in community assemblages between sites, except for the natural stand and integrated plantation. These two sites harbored higher abundances of the majority of all taxa caught. The observed distribution patterns are discussed with regard to measured environmental parameters such as elevation, structural complexity and sediment characteristics.

  • 8. Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Ochiewo, Jacob
    Maghimbi, Sam
    Bandeira, Salomão
    Murky water: Analyzing risk perception and stakeholder vulnerability related to sewage impacts in mangroves of East Africa2009In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 227-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal cities in East Africa are growing rapidly and consequently there is a rapid increase in urban sewage production, putting added pressure on already strained treatment systems. As a result, peri- urban mangroves are receiving extensive amounts of sewage but very little is know as to the ecological and societal consequences of this. However, UNEP among others advocate the use of low-cost, natural sewage treatment technology whenever possible and mangroves have been suggested as useful second stage biofilters. Because of the high resource dependency in many peri-urban coastal communities in East Africa, it is imperative to investigate potential societal impacts on local communities using sewage impacted peri-urban mangroves. Consequently this paper aims to characterize stakeholder groups currently affected by sewage impacted mangroves and thus also map vulnerabilities across local users in relation to future initiatives to use mangroves as biofilters along the East African coast. As risk perception is an important part of vulnerability, and risk perception related to sewage and pollution in an African setting has been little studied, we also aim to contribute baseline data on risk perception related to pollution across peri-urban populations in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique.

  • 9. Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid
    et al.
    Collin, Sara
    Lo Seen, Danny
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Depommier, Dennis
    Ravishankar, T.
    Koedam, Nico
    Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India) for conservation and management purposes2006In: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, ISSN 1746-4269, E-ISSN 1746-4269, Vol. 2, p. 24-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mangrove forests, though essentially common and wide-spread, are highly threatened. Local societies along with their knowledge about the mangrove also are endangered, while they are still underrepresented as scientific research topics. With the present study we document local utilization patterns, and perception of ecosystem change. We illustrate how information generated by ethnobiological research can be used to strengthen the management of the ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Godavari mangrove forest located in the East-Godavari District of the state Andhra Pradesh in India, where mangroves have been degrading due to over-exploitation, extensive development of aquaculture, and pollution from rural and urbanized areas (Kakinada).One hundred interviews were carried out among the fisherfolk population present in two mangrove zones in the study area, a wildlife sanctuary with strong conservation status and an adjacent zone. Results from the interviews indicated that Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh., a dominant species in the Godavari mangroves, is used most frequently as firewood and for construction. Multiple products of the mangrove included the bark of Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou to dye the fishing nets and improve their durability, the bark of Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco to poison and catch fish, and the leaves of Avicennia spp. and Excoecaria agallocha L. as fodder for cattle. No medicinal uses of true mangrove species were reported, but there were a few traditional uses for mangrove associates. Utilization patterns varied in the two zones that we investigated, most likely due to differences in their ecology and legal status. The findings are discussed in relation with the demographic and socio-economic traits of the fisherfolk communities of the Godavari mangroves and indicate a clear dependency of their livelihood on the mangrove forest.Reported changes in the Godavari mangrove cover also differed in the two zones, with significantly less perceptions of a decrease in the protected area, as compared to the adjacent non-protected area. A posteriori comparisons between sequential satellite imagery (retrospective till 1977) and respondents that were at least 15 years back then, revealed a mangrove decrease which was however perceived to different extents depending on the area with which the fishermen were familiar. While local needs had not been incorporated in the existing policy, we created a framework on how data on ethnobotanical traditions, fishery-related activities and local people's perceptions of change can be incorporated into management strategies.

  • 10. Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid
    et al.
    Zetterström, Tove
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Troell, Max
    Wickramasinghe, A
    Koedam, Nico
    Recent Changes in Land-use in the Pambala-Chilaw Lagoon Complex (Sri Lanka) Investigated Using Remote Sensing and GIS: Conservation of Mangroves vs. Development of Shrimp Farming2002In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 185-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shrimp aquaculture is currently one of the major threats to mangroves, their destruction causing both environmental and social problems. This study investigated the mangrove area in the Pambala–Chilaw Lagoon complex (07°30′ N, 079°49′ E) in Sri Lanka. Using air-borne remote sensing, a land-use map was constructed in a geographical information system of the study area and pond managers were interviewed about the functioning of their shrimp farms. Based on fieldwork during the four years after taking the aerial photographs, an updated GIS-based land-use map was constructed and compared the original situation. This revealed that shrimp farms had expanded with by 25 ha in four years, mainly at the expense of mangrove forest (approx. 13 ha) and coconut plantations (approx. 11 ha). Official documents from the World Conservation Union advise conservation of the undisturbed habitats in Pambala, but this study’s observations do not corroborate an eventuation of this. Other authors reported political patronage as the main cause of this adverse situation. Since the shrimp industry depends on various ecological services provided by the mangrove ecosystem in order to maintain production (cf. ecological footprint concept) the mangrove destruction is counter-productive and these observations are therefore alarming for the aquaculturists as well. The low ratio (2.6 : 1) of remaining mangrove to shrimp pond area suggests that the industry may experience severe problems, particularly as mangrove areas continue to be reclaimed for aquaculture or other land uses, unless drastic measures are taken.

  • 11.
    de la Torre Castro, Maricela
    et al.
    Stockholm univ..
    Eklöf, Johan
    Stockholm univ..
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Björk, Mats
    Stockholm univ..
    Seagrass importance in food provisioning services: fish stomach content as a link between seagrass meadows and local fisheries2008In: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The links between ecosystem processes and functions and ecosystem services (i.e. the humanbenefits from those) are elusive. In this paper, the food provisioning service of seagrass meadows isoperationalized through the study of the stomach contents of 13 important commercial fish species inChwaka Bay, Zanzibar. Using local fishers’ knowledge on bait, scientific knowledge about the structureof the meadows (associated flora and fauna), stomach content analysis and multivariate statistics, the foodprovisioning service associated with seagrasses and its importance for fish (as important diet component)and for humans (in small-scale artisanal fisheries) are described. The study presents the food items for 13commercial fish species identified at the lowest possible taxonomical level and compares with previousliterature findings. In addition, differences in stomach contents of Siganus sutor and Leptoscarus vaigiensiscaught with both drag-nets and dema basket traps are investigated in order to explore bait presence andindirectly evaluate fishers’ knowledge on bait preference. The results show that most of the items consumedby commercial fishes are associated with seagrass beds and that there are clear indicators that the baittraditionally used seems to be effective. The paper elaborates on the consideration of seagrass ecosystemsin a holistic perspective, the difficulties in valuation of ecosystem services and finally the crucial importanceof these aspects for human well-being and sustainability in coastal communities of the Western IndianOcean.

  • 12.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Links between humans and seagrasses: an example from tropical East Africa2004In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 47, p. 361-387Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Deutsch, Lisa
    et al.
    Jansson, Åsa
    Troell, Max
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Folke, Carl
    Kautsky, Nils
    The ‘ecological footprint’: communicating human dependence on nature’s work2000In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 32, p. 351-355Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Eklöf, Johan S
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Nilsson, Camilla
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    How do seaweed farms influence fishery catches in a seagrass-dominated setting in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar?2006In: Aquatic Living Resources, ISSN 0990-7440, E-ISSN 1765-2952, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 137-147Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gullström, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Zoologiska institutionen.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Bandeira, Salomao O.
    Björk, Mats
    Kautsky, Nils
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Stockholms universitet, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Seagrass ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean2002In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 588-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrasses are marine angiosperms widely distributed in both tropical and temperate coastal waters creating one of the most productive aquatic ecosystems on earth. In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, with its 13 reported seagrass species, these ecosystems cover wide areas of near-shore soft bottoms through the 12 000 km coastline. Seagrass beds are found intertidally as well as subtidally, sometimes down to about 40 m, and do often occur in close connection to coral reefs and mangroves. Due to the high primary production and a complex habitat structure, seagrass beds support a variety of benthic, demersal and pelagic organisms. Many fish and shellfish species, including those of commercial interest, are attracted to seagrass habitats for foraging and shelter, especially during their juvenile life stages. Examples of abundant and widespread fish species associated to seagrass beds in the WIO belong to the families Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Centriscidae, Gerreidae, Gobiidae, Labridae, Lethrinidae Lutjanidae, Monacanthidae, Scaridae, Scorpaenidae, Siganidae, Syngnathidae and Teraponidae. Consequently, seagrass ecosystems in the WIO are valuable resources for fisheries at both local and regional scales. Still, seagrass research in the WIO is scarce compared to other regions and it is mainly focusing on botanic diversity and ecology. This article reviews the research status of seagrass beds in the WIO with particular emphasis on fish and fisheries. Most research on this topic has been conducted along the East African coast, i.e. in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and eastern South Africa, while less research was carried out in Somalia and the Island States of the WIO (Seychelles, Comoros, Reunion (France), Mauritius and Madagascar). Published papers on seagrass fish ecology in the region are few and mainly descriptive. Hence, there is a need of more scientific knowledge in the form of describing patterns and processes through both field and experimental work. Quantitative seagrass fish community studies in the WIO such as the case study presented in this paper are negligible, but necessitated for the perspective of fisheries management. It is also highlighted that the pressure on seagrass beds in the region is increasing due to growing coastal populations and human disturbance from e.g. pollution, eutrophication, sedimentation, fishing activities and collection of invertebrates, and its effect are little understood. Thus, there is a demand for more research that will generate information useful for sustainable management of seagrass ecosystems in the WIO.

  • 16.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Phillips, Michael
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Troell, Max
    Eco-certification of Farmed Seafood: Will it Make a Difference?2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 659-674Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-certification is widely considered a tool for reducing environmental impacts of aquaculture, but what are the likely environmental outcomes for the world's fastest growing animal-food production sector? This article analyzes a number of eco-certification schemes based on species choice, anticipated share of the global seafood market, size of eligible producers, and targeted environmental impacts. The potential of eco-certification to reduce the negative environmental impacts of aquaculture at scale presently appears uncertain as: (a) certification schemes currently focus on species predominantly consumed in the EU and US, with limited coverage of Asian markets; (b) the share of certified products in the market as currently projected is too low; (c) there is an inequitable and non-uniform applicability of certification across the sector; (d) mechanisms or incentives for improvement among the worst performers are lacking; and (e) there is incomplete coverage of environmental impacts, with biophysical sustainability and ecosystem perspectives generally lacking.

  • 17.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Tlusty, M.
    Troell, M.
    Certify sustainable aquaculture?2013Other (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Jonell, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Troell, Max
    Miljömärkning av fisk och skaldjur - hur långt räcker det?2015In: Havsutsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 8-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19. Kautsky, Nils
    et al.
    Folke, Carl
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Troell, Max
    Beveridge, Malcolm
    Primavera, Jurgenne H.
    Aquaculture2000In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity / [ed] Levin, Simon Asher, San Diego: Academic Press , 2000, 1, p. 185-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20. Kautsky, Nils
    et al.
    Folke, Carl
    Troell, Max
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Gotland University, SWEDESD, Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development.
    Odlad fisk är mindre miljövänlig än många tror2003In: Torskar torsken?: forskare och fiskare om fisk och fiske / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2003, p. 93-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21. Kautsky, Nils
    et al.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Troell, Max
    Ecosystem perspectives on management of disease in shrimp pond farming2000In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 191, no 1-3, p. 145-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews and discusses, from an ecological perspective, the causes behind the development and spreading of pathogens in shrimp aquaculture. The risk of disease in shrimp farming often increases with culture intensity and high stocking densities, and when polyculture is replaced by monoculture. High pond densities will facilitate the spread of pathogens between ponds. Shortage of clean water supply and insufficient waste removal lead to overloading of metabolites, environmental degradation, and to the shrimp becoming stressed by bad water quality, and thus more prone to becoming affected by disease. Excessive fluctuations in abiotic factors like oxygen, salinity, and temperature may also increase stress and susceptibility to disease. The location of farms in mangrove environments can lead to acidification that may directly, or indirectly, through release of heavy metals from the sediments, lower disease resistance. The use of hatchery-reared larvae will increase genetic uniformity and thus disease risk in comparison to the collection of wild larvae where selection has already favored the most viable individuals. Global and regional transportation of seed larvae and broodstock will facilitate the spread of pathogens. Apart from the above factors, which are all dependant on the farming itself, contamination by pesticides and pollutants from agriculture and industrial activities may lower disease resistance of the shrimp, especially if combined with other environmental factors.We show that shrimp farming is, to a large extent, dependent on ecological services supplied by nature, and discuss the carrying capacity of shrimp pond farming from an ecosystem perspective, including aspects like culture intensity, pond density and sustainability. Since aquaculture is basically a natural ecological process, although in intensive shrimp farming it reaches industrial proportions, it is essential that we do not forget the underlying ecological principles, as this may help us to understand and contribute to the solution of some of the disease problems faced by shrimp farming.

  • 22. Moberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Ecosystem services of the tropical seascape: interactions, substitutions and restoration2003In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 46, no 1-2, p. 27-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tropical coastal ‘‘seascape’’ often includes a patchwork of mangroves, seagrass beds, and coral reefs that produces a variety of natural resources and ecosystem services. By looking into a limited number of attempts at substitution and restoration of ecosystem services (e.g. artificial reefs, aquaculture in mangroves, artificial seawalls), we address the questions: (1) To what degree can technologies substitute for ecosystem services in the seascape? (2) How can ecosystem restoration reestablish not only the functions of direct value to humans, but also the ability of the systems to cope with future disturbance? Substitutions often imply the replacement of a function provided free by a solar powered, self-repairing resilient ecosystem, with a fossil-fuel-powered, expensive, artificial substitute that needs maintenance. Further, restoration usually does not focus on large-scale processes such as the physical, biological and biogeochemical interactions between mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs. Nonetheless, restoration might be the only viable management alternative when the system is essentially locked into an undesired community state (stability domain) after a phase-shift. We conclude that ecosystem services cannot be readily replaced, restored or sustained without extensive knowledge of the dynamics, multifunctionality and interconnectedness of ecosystems.

  • 23. Pihl, Leif
    et al.
    Baden, Susanne
    Kautsky, Nils
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Troell, Max
    Wennhage, Håkan
    Shift in fish assemblage structure due to loss of seagrass Zostera marina habitats in Sweden2006In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 67, no 1-2, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The areal extent of Zostera marina in the archipelago of the Swedish Skagerrak has decreased by 60% over two decades. To investigate the effects of Z. marina loss on the local fish assemblages, the fish fauna was compared between existing seagrass beds and sites where seagrass had vanished. A field study was carried out at four shallow locations in the outer archipelago of the coast in June 2004. Within each location two sites were sampled, one with an existing Z. marina bed and another where Z. marina had disappeared. Fish were sampled semi-quantitatively with a beach seine. Samples were taken during both day and night and captured fish were examined to species, enumerated and measured in the field, and released thereafter. The number of fish species was found to be significantly higher in Z. marina habitats compared to areas where seagrass was missing, and density and biomass of fish were generally lower in areas dominated by bare sediment compared to those in the seagrass habitats. Several species and groups of fishes (i.e., gadoids, labrids, syngnathids) were absent or occurred in low densities at sites where Z. marina was missing. For example, juvenile 0-group cod density was reduced by 96% at sites where Z. marina had disappeared. Such a reduction in recruitment of cod is in the same order of magnitude as the combined effect of seal predation and mortality due to by-catches in the eel fyke-net fishery estimated for the archipelago of the Swedish Skagerrak. Hence, the results clearly indicate a shift in the fish assemblage, including a loss of taxa at the family level as a result of degradation in habitat-forming vegetation.

  • 24.
    Ronnback, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Ingwall, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    The return of ecosystem goods and services in replanted mangrove forests: perspectives from local communities in Kenya2007In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 313-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mangroves are severely threatened ecosystems, with loss rates exceeding those of rainforests and coral reefs, stressing the need for large-scale rehabilitation programmes. Not only are ecological evaluations of such planting efforts scarce, but studies of local stakeholders' perceptions and valuation of planted areas are also virtually non-existent. This paper assesses how resource users value natural versus planted mangroves and how they perceive plantation initiatives. Semi-structured interviews with 48 resource users from two Kenyan villages show marked mangrove dependence. Respondents identified 24 ecosystem goods, and ranked a variety of food items, traditional medicine, fuel and construction materials as very important resources. Natural mangroves (11.1 +/- 2.5) were rated more highly than plantations (4.8 +/- 2.7) in terms of the number and quality of products, except for mangrove poles. Nine ecosystem services were acknowledged, with significant differences between natural (5.2 +/- 1.1) and planted (4.1 +/- 1.6) mangroves. Most respondents (71%) were positive towards the plantations, and negative attitudes were entirely based on the perception of limited information given to the community prior to planting. Multivariate analyses show distinct patterns among user groups (based on gender, occupation and locality) with respect to recognized goods and services, knowledge of mangrove species and plantations, and attitudes towards threats, community management and existing plantations. Homogeneity of responses within defined user groups accounts for these patterns. Perspectives of local users were analysed in relation to information from interviews with six managers and researchers responsible for existing plantations, as well as scientific studies on the return of ecosystem functions in planted mangroves of the area. Findings are discussed in the context of ecological knowledge, learning within social groups, village setting and history, and primary economic activity. Communication of plantation goals may be fundamental to project success and sustainability, and community participation should take into account the heterogeneous nature of stakeholder groups, in terms of perceptions and valuations of ecosystem goods and services, to avoid conflicts in future plantation use.

  • 25.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mangroves and seafood production: the ecological economics of sustainability2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Shrimp aquaculture: state of the art2001Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    The ecological basis for economic value of seafood production supported by mangrove ecosystems1999In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 235-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The undervaluation of natural products and ecological services generated by mangrove ecosystems is a major driving force behind the conversion of this system into alternative uses. This trend of undervaluation is partly due to the difficulty involved in placing a monetary value on all relevant factors, but lack of ecological knowledge and a holistic approach among those performing the evaluation may be even more important determinants. This article identifies and synthesizes ecological and biophysical links of mangroves that sustain capture fisheries and aquaculture production. Fish, crustacean and mollusc species associated with mangroves are presented and the ecology of their direct use of this system is reviewed. Through a coastal seascape perspective, biophysical interactions among mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs are illustrated. The life-support functions of mangrove ecosystems also set the framework for sustainable aquaculture in these environments. Estimates of the annual market value of capture fisheries supported by mangroves ranges from US$ 750 to 16 750 per hectare, which illustrates the potential support value of mangroves. The value of mangroves in seafood production would further increase by additional research on subsistence fisheries, biophysical support to other ecosystems, and the mechanisms which sustain aquaculture production.

  • 28.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Bryceson, Ian
    Kautsky, Nils
    Coastal Aquaculture Development in Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean: Prospects and Problems for Food Security and Local Economies2002In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 31, no 7/8, p. 537-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the experience and status of coastal aquaculture of seaweeds, mollusks, fish and crustaceans in eastern Africa and the islands of the western Indian Ocean. In many respects, coastal aquaculture is still in its infancy in the region, and there is a pressing need to formulate development strategies aimed at improving the income and assuring the availability of affordable protein to coastal communities. This paper also draws from positive and negative experiences in other parts of the world. The requirements of feed and fry, and the conversion of mangroves are used to illustrate how some aquaculture activities constitute a net loss to global seafood production. The paper presents both general and specific sustainability guidelines based on the acknowledgement of aquaculture as an ecological process. It is concluded that without clear recognition of its dependence on natural ecosystems, the aquaculture industry is unlikely to develop to its full potential in the region.

  • 29.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Pihl, L
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Wennhage, H
    Ecosystem goods and services from Swedish coastal habitats: Identification, valuation, and implications of ecosystem shifts2007In: Ambio, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 534-544Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Havets naturkapital: Gratis men livsnödvändigt arbete2007In: Mat, råvaror och energi - en kunskapsresa i Linnés anda, FORMAS , 2007, p. 71-90Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    The natural capital of the sea. Ecosystem services - free of cost but priceless in worth2007In: Food, raw materials and energy: A knowledge journey in the spirit of Linnaeus, FORMAS , 2007, p. 71-90Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Macia, Adriano
    Almqvist, Gustaf
    Schultz, Lisen
    Troell, Max
    Do Penaeid Shrimps have a Preference for Mangrove Habitats? Distribution Pattern Analysis on Inhaca Island, Mozambique2002In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 427-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific information on how penaeid shrimps are distributed within mangrove ecosystems is scarce, which presents an obstacle for fisheries as well as mangrove management. This study investigated the prime nursery microhabitats for the two major commercial species in Mozambique; Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros. Stake net enclosures were used to sample shrimps living among unvegetated shallows and mangroves at Inhaca Island, Mozambique, during three consecutive spring tide periods. Four microhabitats were sampled: (1) sand flat; (2) fringe Avicennia marina on sandy substrate; (3) fringe A. marina on muddy substrate; and (4) interior A. marina adjacent to the supratidal terrestrial margin. P. indicus had a significant preference for fringe mangroves over the adjacent sand flat (P<0.001 and P=0.05). Postlarval shrimps only occupied the sand flat, whereas the mangrove was utilized by postlarval, juvenile and sub-adult life stages. Within the fringe mangrove, there was no correlation between shrimp abundance and organic content of sediment (5.7–11.6 shrimps m-2). Shrimps utilized the most interior margin of the mangroves (0.35 shrimps m-2), although catch rates were significantly lower than in the mangrove fringe (P<0.001). M. monoceros was significantly (P<0.01), more abundant in the sand flat (0.44–2.1 shrimpsm-2) than in the mangrove fringe (0.04–0.61 shrimps m-2), although this habitat preference was not evident for juvenile and sub-adult life stages. The results demonstrate the extensive use of mangrove habitats by penaeid shrimps. The confinement to mangroves for P. indicus, but not for M. monoceros, is discussed in the context of habitat characteristics and predation avoidance behaviour. Methodological considerations of the stake net technique are also outlined.

  • 33.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Primavera, Jurgenne H.
    Illuminating the need for ecological knowledge in economic valuation of mangroves under different management regimes — a critique2000In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a commentary on a paper by Gilbert and Janssen (Gilbert, A.J., Janssen, R., 1998. Ecol. Econ. 25, 323–346) that deals with valuation of management alternatives for the Pagbilao mangroves, Philippines. Our main critique focuses on the undervaluation of fisheries as well as the inability to quantify the value of ecological services and internalize aquaculture’s environmental costs. In addition, the sustainability criteria set up for the aquaculture management alternatives is open to debate. These weaknesses affect the result of Gilbert and Janssen’s analysis so that the value of the unexploited mangrove forest is underestimated, and the value and sustainability of converting the forest into aquaculture ponds are overestimated. If applied to decision-making, the erroneous results from this partial cost–benefit analysis may have dire consequences for the mangroves and coastal communities of Pagbilao.

  • 34.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Troell, Max
    Kautsky, Nils
    Primavera, Jurgenne H.
    Distribution Pattern of Shrimps and Fish Among Avicennia and Rhizophora Microhabitats in the Pagbilao Mangroves, Philippines1999In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 223-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of fish and invertebrates associated with this system. This study sampled microhabitats (89–258 m2) inside the mangrove forest at Pagbilao, the Philippines, on two consecutive spring tides using stake nets. Distribution patterns of shrimps and fish were compared among four microhabitats that differed in dominant mangrove species (Avicennia marina, A. officinalis or Rhizophora apiculata), structural complexity of the root system, and proximity to open water habitat. A 5 to 6-year-old replanted Rhizophora microhabitat was also sampled to study faunal recolonization following replantation. The mean (±SE) density of the shrimp community was 1.5 ± 0.2 shrimps m-2, dominated by Palaemonidae, followed by Acetes sp., Penaeus merguiensis and Metapenaeus ensis. The highest shrimp density was observed in the replanted Rhizophora habitat, which also had the highest structural complexity. The mean (±SE) density and biomass of the fish community was 5.1 ± 2.0 fish m-2 and 10.4 ± 3.3 g m-2, respectively, dominated by Ambassis kopsi, A. urotaenia and Atherinomorus balabacensis. The fish community preferred the pneumatophore (Avicennia) microhabitats to the prop root (Rhizophora) habitats. Highest fish abundance and biomass were observed in the most inland habitat, which also lacked larger (total length >100 mm) carnivorous fish. The results demonstrate the extensive use of intertidal mangrove forests by vagile fauna, as well as the successful recolonization by shrimps and fish of replanted Rhizophora habitat. The role of mangroves as predation refuges, based on the distribution pattern of shrimps and fish, is discussed. Sampling strategies in mangrove intertidal habitat are also outlined.

  • 35.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Troell, Max
    Zetterström, Tove
    Babu, Dangeti E.
    Mangrove dependence and socio-economic concerns in shrimp hatcheries of Andhra Pradesh, India2003In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 30, p. 344-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many environmental and socio-economic concerns about the shrimp aquaculture industry. This study, based on interviews, direct observations and literature reviews, shows that the Indian hatchery industry is heavily dependent upon the continuous support of natural resources and ecosystem services generated by marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. The mangrove ecosystem support area (‘ecological footprint’) needed to supply the hatcheries with Penaeus monodon shrimp broodstock, and the aquaculture grow-out ponds with postlarvae, exem- plify the dependence on external ecosystems. Each hectare of mangrove in the Godavari River delta generated an annual fisheries catch of 0.8–1.5 P. monodon spawners (gravid females), valued at US$ 92–184. The entire Godavari mangrove delta had a partial gross economic value of US$ 3.0–6.0 million per year for the provision of shrimp spawners alone. The average hatchery, producing 75 million postlarvae annually, had an ecological footprint of 534 ha mangrove for the life-support input of shrimp spawners. The ecological footprint of intensive shrimp ponds was up to 11 times the pond area for postlarval input alone. The shrimp ponds in the State of Andhra Pradesh needed 35,000–138,000 ha of mangroves to satisfy the spawner requirement to hatcheries, and this implied a need to appropriate mangroves in other regions. Hatcheries were prepared to pay up to US$ 2000 for a single shrimp spawner, which also illustrated that the mangrove support areas regionally available were too small. Other concerns about the industry are the net loss of employment if hatcheries replace wild postlarvae collection, the extensive use of groundwater creating direct resource-use conflicts, bycatch problems in broodstock fisheries, and pollution by effluents. The risk of hatcheries introducing, ampli- fying and propagating disease affecting both cultured organisms and wild biota is another concern that can, and should, be addressed.

  • 36.
    Ståhl, Johan
    et al.
    School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Marine Ecology, Gothenburg university.
    Paulsen, Sandra
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
    Pihl, Leif
    Department of Marine Ecology, Gothenburg University.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy.
    Wennhage, Håkan
    Department of Marine Ecology, Gothenburg University.
    Coastal habitat support to fish and fisheries in Sweden: integrating ecosystem function into fisheries management2008In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 51, no 8-9, p. 594-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study adopts an interdisciplinary approach, where ecological data on habitat structure and fish populations are combined with results from economic valuation case studies to assess effects of habitat disturbance. The focus is on three major habitats (soft sediment bottoms, seagrass beds and rocky bottoms with macroalgae), five fish species (cod, plaice, eel, mackerel and sea trout) and three types of fisheries (commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries). The results have important implications for coastal zone management, demonstrating both ecologically and economically how coastal habitats support fisheries.

  • 37. Troell, M.
    et al.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Jonell, M.
    Hållbart vattenbruk: potential och utmaningar2013In: Havsbruk som håller i längden, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2013, p. 229-246Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Troell, Max
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute, The International Institute of Ecological Economics.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    Folke, Carl
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    Misplaced critique: assumptions and applications of the ecological footprint2002In: Beijer discussion paper series, ISSN 1102-4941, no 150Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39. Troell, Max
    et al.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Beveridge, Malcolm
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Primavera, Jurgenne
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Folke, Carl
    Aquaculture and biodiversity2013In: Encyclopedia of biodiversity / [ed] S. Levin, Academic Press, 2013, 2nd edition, p. 189-201Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40. Troell, Max
    et al.
    Pihl, Leif
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Wennhage, Håkan
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Kautsky, Nils
    Regime shifts and ecosystem services in Swedish coastal softbottom habitats: when resilience is undesirable2005In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 10, no 1/30, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystems can undergo regime shifts where they suddenly change from one state into another. This can have important implications for formulation of management strategies, if system characteristics develop that are undesirable from a human perspective, and that have a high resistance to restoration efforts. This paper identifies some of the ecological and economic consequences of increased abundance of filamentous algae on shallow soft bottoms along the Swedish west coast. It is suggested that a successive increase in the sediment nutrient pool has undermined the resilience of these shallow systems. After the regime shift has occurred, self-generation properties evolve keeping the system locked in a high-density algae state. The structural and functional characteristics of the new system state differ significantly from the original one, resulting in less valuable ecosystem goods and services generated for society. In Sweden, loss of value results from the reduced capacity for mitigating further coastal eutrophication, reduced habitat quality for commercial fishery species, and the loss of aesthetic and recreational values.

  • 41. Troell, Max
    et al.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Halling, Christina
    Kautsky, Nils
    Buschmann, A.
    Ecological engineering in aquaculture: use of seaweeds for removing nutrients from intensive mariculture1999In: Journal of Applied Phycology, ISSN 0921-8971, E-ISSN 1573-5176, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid scale growth of intensive mariculture systems can often lead to adverse impacts on the environment. Intensive fish and shrimp farming, being defined as throughput-based systems, have a continuous or pulse release of nutrients that adds to coastal eutrophication. As an alternative treatment solution, seaweeds can be used to clean the dissolved part of this effluent. Two examples of successfully using seaweeds as biofilters in intensive mariculture systems are discussed in this paper. The first example shows that Gracilaria co-cultivated with salmon in a tank system reached production rates as high as 48.9 kg m−2 a−1, and could remove 50% of the dissolved ammonium released by the fish in winter, increasing to 90–95% in spring. In the second example, Gracilaria cultivated on ropes near a 22-t fish cage farm, had up to 40% higher growth rate (specific growth rate of 7% d−1) compared to controls. Extrapolation of the results showed that a 1 ha Gracilaria culture gave an annual harvest of 34 t (d. wt), and assimilated 6.5% of the released dissolved nitrogen. This production and assimilation was more than twice that of a Gracilaria monoculture. By integrating seaweeds with fish farming the nutrient assimilating capacity of an area increases. With increased carrying capacity it will be possible to increase salmon cage densities before risking negative environmental effects like eutrophication and toxic algal blooms sometimes associated with the release of dissolved nutrients. The potential for using mangroves and/or seaweeds as filters for wastes from intensive shrimp pond farming is also discussed. It is concluded that such techniques, based on ecological engineering, seems promising for mitigating environmental impacts from intensive mariculture; however, continued research on this type of solution is required.

  • 42. Troell, Max
    et al.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Kautsky, Nils
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Aquaculture and Energy Use2004In: Encyclopedia of Energy / [ed] Cutler J. Cleveland, San Diego, Calif: Elsevier Academic Press , 2004, 1, p. 97-108Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43. Walters, B.B.
    et al.
    Rönnbäck, P.
    Kovacs, J.
    Crona, B.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hussain, S.
    Badola, R.
    Ethnobiology, socio-economics and adaptive management of mangroves: a review2008In: Aquatic Botany, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 220-236Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Warren-Rhodes, Kimberly
    et al.
    The WorldFish Center-Solomon Islands.
    Schwarz, Anne-Maree
    The WorldFish Center-Solomon Islands.
    NG Boyle, Linda
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Alberta, Joelle
    The WorldFish Center-Solomon Islands.
    Suti Agaloa, Stephen
    National Resource Development Conservation, Solomon Islands.
    Warren, Regon
    The WorldFish Center-Solomon Islands.
    Bana, Andrew
    Western Province Government, Solomon Islands.
    Paul, Chris
    The WorldFish Center-Solomon Islands.
    Kodosiku, Ringo
    National Resource Development Conservation, Solomon Islands.
    Bosma, Wilko
    National Resource Development Conservation, Solomon Islands.
    Yee, Douglas
    Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology, Honiara, Solomon Islands.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment. Gotland University, SWEDESD, Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Duke, Norm
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Mangrove ecosystem services and the potential for carbon revenue programmes in the Solomon Island2011In: Environmental Conservation, ISSN 0376-8929, E-ISSN 1469-4387, Vol. 38, p. 485-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mangroves are an imperilled biome whose protection and restoration through payments for ecosystem services (PES) can contribute to improved livelihoods, climate mitigation and adaptation. Interviews with resource users in three Solomon Islands villages suggest a strong reliance upon mangrove goods for subsistence and cash, particularly for firewood, food and building materials. Village-derived economic data indicates a minimum annual subsistence value from mangroves of US$ 345–1501 per household. Fish and nursery habitat and storm protection were widely recognized and highly valued mangrove ecosystem services. All villagers agreed that mangroves were under threat, with firewood overharvesting considered the primary cause. Multivariate analyses revealed village affiliation and religious denomination as the most important factors determining the use and importance of mangrove goods. These factors, together with gender, affected users’ awareness of ecosystem services. The importance placed on mangrove services did not differ significantly by village, religious denomination, gender, age, income, education or occupation. Mangrove ecosystem surveys are useful as tools for raising community awareness and input prior to design of PES systems. Land tenure and marine property rights, and how this complexity may both complicate and facilitate potential carbon credit programmes in the Pacific, are discussed.

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  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf