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  • 1.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Auxiliary Cells for the Vascularization and Function of Endogenous and Transplanted Islets of Langerhans2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes develops through the progressive destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Regeneration or replacement of beta-cells is therefore needed to restore normal glucose homeostasis. Presently, normoglycemia can be achieved by the transplantation of whole pancreas or isolated islets of Langerhans. Islet transplantation can be performed through a simple laparoscopic procedure, but the long-term graft survival is low due to poor revascularization and early cell death.

    This thesis examined the possibility of using different auxiliary cells (Schwann cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and neural crest stem cells) to improve the engraftment and function of endogenous and transplanted islets.

    Co-transplantation of Schwann cells with islets improved islet graft function early after transplantation, and caused an increased islet mass at one month posttransplantation. However, the vascular densities of these grafts were decreased, which also related to an impaired graft function.

    Islet grafts containing endothelial progenitor cells had a superior vascular density, with functional chimeric blood vessels and substantially higher blood perfusion and oxygen tension than control transplants.

    By culturing and transplanting islets together with neural crest stem cells it was found that islets exposed to these cells had a higher beta-cell proliferation compared with control islets. At one month posttransplantation, the grafts with neural crest stem cells also had a superior vascular- and neural density.

    The potential of intracardially injected neural crest stem cells to home to the pancreas and ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice was investigated. During a three-week period after such cell treatment blood glucose concentrations decreased, but were not fully normalized. Neural crest stem cells were present in more than 10% of the pancreatic islets at two days postinjection, at which time the beta-cell proliferation was markedly increased when compared with islets of saline-treated diabetic animals. Three weeks later, a doubled beta-cell mass was observed in animals receiving neural crest stem cells.

    In summary, islets can easily be transplanted together with different auxiliary cells. Some of these cells provide the possibility of improving vascular- and neural engraftment, as well as beta-cell growth and survival. Systemic administration of neural crest stem cells holds the potential of regenerating the endogenous beta-cells.

    List of papers
    1. Influence of islet and peri-islet Schwann cells on vascularity and beta-cell function in endogenous and transplanted islets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of islet and peri-islet Schwann cells on vascularity and beta-cell function in endogenous and transplanted islets
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327312 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-09 Created: 2017-08-09 Last updated: 2017-08-09
    2. Bioengineering with Endothelial Progenitor Cells Improves the Vascular Engraftment of Transplanted Human Islets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioengineering with Endothelial Progenitor Cells Improves the Vascular Engraftment of Transplanted Human Islets
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327311 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-09 Created: 2017-08-09 Last updated: 2017-08-09
    3. Co-transplantation of Human Pancreatic Islets With Post-migratory Neural Crest Stem Cells Increases beta-Cell Proliferation and Vascular And Neural Regrowth
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-transplantation of Human Pancreatic Islets With Post-migratory Neural Crest Stem Cells Increases beta-Cell Proliferation and Vascular And Neural Regrowth
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 100, no 4, p. E583-E590Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are capable of substantially improving murine islet function by promoting beta-cell proliferation. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the potential of NCSCs to stimulate human beta-cell proliferation, and improve neural and vascular engraftment of human islets. Design, Setting, and Subjects: Human pancreatic islets from 18 brain-dead cadaveric donors (age range, 19-78 y) were obtained through the Nordic Network for Clinical Islet Transplantation. beta-cell proliferation and graft function was investigated at our experimental laboratory. Intervention and Main Outcome Measures: Human islets were transplanted, either alone or together with spheres of NCSCs. beta-cell proliferation, as well as islet neuralandvascular densities, were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Graft blood perfusion and oxygen tension were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry and Clark microelectrodes, respectively. Results: Two days posttransplantation, the number of Ki67-positive beta-cells was doubled in human islets that had been exposed to NCSCs. Similar findings were obtained in vitro, as well as with EdU as proliferation marker. Four weeks posttransplantation, NCSC-exposed human islet grafts had much higher neural and vascular densities. The newly formed blood vessels were also functional, given that these human islets had a substantially higher blood perfusion and oxygen tension when compared with control transplants. Conclusion: We conclude that exposure to NCSCs stimulates human beta-cell proliferation, andthat these cells improve both the neural and vascular engraftment of transplanted human islets. NCSCs are a promising cellular therapy for translation into clinical use.

    National Category
    Endocrinology and Diabetes
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-253267 (URN)10.1210/jc.2014-4070 (DOI)000353361500009 ()25668197 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Systemic neural crest stem cell treatment alleviates experimental type 1 diabetes by cellular homing to the damaged islets, inducing beta-cell regeneration
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systemic neural crest stem cell treatment alleviates experimental type 1 diabetes by cellular homing to the damaged islets, inducing beta-cell regeneration
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327313 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-09 Created: 2017-08-09 Last updated: 2017-08-09
  • 2.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Transplantation Surgery.
    Intracardially injected neural crest stem cells home to the pancreas and delays disease progression in an animal model for type 1 diabetes2015In: Xenotransplantation, ISSN 0908-665X, E-ISSN 1399-3089, Vol. 22, p. S198-S199Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Intracardially Injected Neural Crest Stem Cells Home To The Pancreas And Delays Disease Progression In An Animal Model For Type 1 Diabetes2015In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 99, no 11, p. S331-S331Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Surface-Coating with Endothelial Progenitor Cells Improves Blood Flow, Oxygen Tension and Vascular Density in Experimentally Transplanted Human Pancreatic Islets2013In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 96, no 6, p. S112-S112Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Christoffersson, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Bioengineering with Endothelial Progenitor Cells Improves the Vascular Engraftment of Transplanted Human Islets2018In: Cell Transplantation, ISSN 0963-6897, E-ISSN 1555-3892, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 948-956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic islets isolated for transplantation are disconnected from their vascular supply and need to establish a new functional network posttransplantation. Due to poor revascularization, prevailing hypoxia with correlating increased apoptosis rates in experimental studies can be observed for months posttransplantation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived cells that promote neovascularization. The present study tested the hypothesis that EPCs, isolated from human umbilical cord blood, could be coated to human islet surfaces and be used to promote islet vascular engraftment. Control or EPC bioengineered human islets were transplanted into the renal subcapsular space of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Four weeks posttransplantation, graft blood perfusion and oxygen tension were measured using laser Doppler flowmetry and Clark microelectrodes, respectively. Vessel functionality was also assessed by in vivo confocal imaging. The vascular density and the respective contribution of human and recipient endothelium were assessed immunohistochemically by staining for human and mouse CD31. Islet grafts with EPCs had substantially higher blood perfusion and oxygen tension than control transplants. Furthermore, analysis of the vascular network of the grafts revealed that grafts containing EPC bioengineered islets had a superior vascular density compared with control grafts, with functional chimeric blood vessels. We conclude that a simple procedure of surface coating with EPCs provides a possibility to improve the vascular engraftment of transplanted human islets. Established protocols are also easily applicable for intraportal islet transplantation in order to obtain a novel directed cellular therapy at the site of implantation in the liver.

  • 6.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Olerud, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Vasylovska, Svitlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    The therapeutic role of endothelial progenitor cells in Type 1 diabetes mellitus2011In: Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1746-0751, E-ISSN 1746-076X, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 599-605Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic beta-cells sense and adjust the blood glucose level by secretion of insulin. In Type 1 diabetes mellitus, these insulin-producing cells are destroyed, leaving the patients incapable of regulating blood glucose homeostasis. At the time of diagnosis, most patients still have 20-30% of their original beta-cell mass remaining. These residual beta-cells are targets for intervention therapies aimed at preventing further autoimmune destruction, in addition to increasing the number of existing beta-cells. Such a therapeutic option is highly desirable since it may lead to a full recovery of newly diagnosed patients, with no need for further treatment with immunosuppressant drugs or exogenous insulin administration. In this article, we propose that endothelial progenitor cells, a cell type known to promote and support neovascularization following endothelial injury, may be used as part of a combinational stem cell therapy aimed to improve the vascularization, survival and proliferation of beta-cells.

  • 7.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Vasylovska, Svitlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Li, Zhanchun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Olerud, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Kozlova, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Co-transplantation of Human Pancreatic Islets With Post-migratory Neural Crest Stem Cells Increases beta-Cell Proliferation and Vascular And Neural Regrowth2015In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 100, no 4, p. E583-E590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are capable of substantially improving murine islet function by promoting beta-cell proliferation. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the potential of NCSCs to stimulate human beta-cell proliferation, and improve neural and vascular engraftment of human islets. Design, Setting, and Subjects: Human pancreatic islets from 18 brain-dead cadaveric donors (age range, 19-78 y) were obtained through the Nordic Network for Clinical Islet Transplantation. beta-cell proliferation and graft function was investigated at our experimental laboratory. Intervention and Main Outcome Measures: Human islets were transplanted, either alone or together with spheres of NCSCs. beta-cell proliferation, as well as islet neuralandvascular densities, were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Graft blood perfusion and oxygen tension were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry and Clark microelectrodes, respectively. Results: Two days posttransplantation, the number of Ki67-positive beta-cells was doubled in human islets that had been exposed to NCSCs. Similar findings were obtained in vitro, as well as with EdU as proliferation marker. Four weeks posttransplantation, NCSC-exposed human islet grafts had much higher neural and vascular densities. The newly formed blood vessels were also functional, given that these human islets had a substantially higher blood perfusion and oxygen tension when compared with control transplants. Conclusion: We conclude that exposure to NCSCs stimulates human beta-cell proliferation, andthat these cells improve both the neural and vascular engraftment of transplanted human islets. NCSCs are a promising cellular therapy for translation into clinical use.

  • 8.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Vasylovska, Svitlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Olerud, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Kozlova, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Neural Crest Stem Cells Induce Beta-cell Proliferation in Cultured and Transplanted Human Pancreatic Islets2013In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 96, no 6, p. S149-S149Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Jansson, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Barbu, Andreea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Bodin, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Drott, Carl Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Espes, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Gao, Xiang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Kallskog, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Lau, Joey Börjesson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Liljebäck, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Quach, My
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Strömberg, Victoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Ullsten, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement2016In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 81-95Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic islets are richly vascularized, and islet blood vessels are uniquely adapted to maintain and support the internal milieu of the islets favoring normal endocrine function. Islet blood flow is normally very high compared with that to the exocrine pancreas and is autonomously regulated through complex interactions between the nervous system, metabolites from insulin secreting beta-cells, endothelium derived mediators, and hormones. The islet blood flow is normally coupled to the needs for insulin release and is usually disturbed during glucose intolerance and overt diabetes. The present review provides a brief background on islet vascular function and especially focuses on available techniques to measure islet blood perfusion. The gold standard for islet blood flow measurements in experimental animals is the microsphere technique, and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In humans there are still no methods to measure islet blood flow selectively, but new developments in radiological techniques hold great hopes for the future.

  • 10. Jädert, Cecilia
    et al.
    Petersson, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Massena, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Ahl, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Holm, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Lundberg, Jon O.
    Phillipson, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Decreased leukocyte recruitment by inorganic nitrate and nitrite in microvascular inflammation and NSAID-induced intestinal injury2012In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 683-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by vascular NO synthases can exert anti-inflammatory effects, partly through its ability to decrease leukocyte recruitment. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite, from endogenous or dietary sources, have emerged as alternative substrates for NO formation in mammals. Bioactivation of nitrate is believed to require initial reduction to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria. Here we investigated the effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite on leukocyte recruitment in microvascular inflammation and in NSAID-induced small-intestinal injury. We show that leukocyte emigration in response to the proinflammatory chemokine MIP-2 is reduced by 70% after 7 days of dietary nitrate supplementation as well as by acute intravenous nitrite administration. Nitrite also reduced leukocyte adhesion to a similar extent and this effect was inhibited by the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ whereas the effect on emigrated leukocytes was not altered by this treatment. Further studies in INF-alpha-stimulated endothelial cells revealed that nitrite dose-dependently reduced the expression of ICAM-1. In rats and mice subjected to a challenge with diclofenac, dietary nitrate prevented the increase in myeloperoxidase and P-selectin levels in small-intestinal tissue. Antiseptic mouthwash, which eliminates oral nitrate reduction, markedly blunted the protective effect of dietary nitrate on P-selectin levels. Despite attenuation of the acute immune response, the overall ability to clear an infection with Staphylococcus aureus was not suppressed by dietary nitrate as revealed by noninvasive IVIS imaging. We conclude that dietary nitrate markedly reduces leukocyte recruitment to inflammation in a process involving attenuation of P-selectin and ICAM-1 upregulation. Bioactivation of dietary nitrate requires intermediate formation of nitrite by oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and then probably further reduction to NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides in the tissues.

  • 11.
    Lau, Joey
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Svensson, J.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Johansson, Å
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Superior beta cell proliferation, function and gene expression in a subpopulation of rat islets identified by high blood perfusion2012In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 1390-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: The blood perfusion of individual pancreatic islets is highly variable, with a subgroup of islets having high perfusion and blood vessels responsive to further blood flow increase induced by glucose. This study tested the hypothesis that there is heterogeneity between islets with regard to beta cell proliferation, function and gene expression based on differences in their blood perfusion.

    Methods: Fluorescent microspheres were injected into the ascending aorta, and then microsphere-containing and non-microsphere-containing pancreatic islets were isolated for investigation. By this procedure, the 5% of islets with the greatest blood perfusion were identified for study. Islet endothelial cells were isolated separately to investigate the role of improved vascular support in the observed differences.

    Results: The vascular network was found to be more dense and tortuous in microsphere-containing than other islets. The most highly blood-perfused islets also had a higher rate of beta cell proliferation, superior beta cell function and a markedly different gene expression from other islets. Cultured islets exposed to islet endothelial cell products had a similarly increased beta cell proliferation rate, yet significantly fewer changes in gene expression than observed in the most highly blood-perfused islets.

    Conclusions/interpretation: A novel heterogeneity between islets was observed, with superior beta cell proliferation, function and gene expression in a subpopulation of islets identified by high blood perfusion. In contrast with a previously described population of low-oxygenated, sleeping islets, which are recruited into functionality when needed, the presently described heterogeneity is shown to remain in vitro after islet isolation.

  • 12.
    Liljebäck, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Olerud, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Extensive Loss of Islet Mass Beyond the First Day After Intraportal Human Islet Transplantation in a Mouse Model2016In: Cell Transplantation, ISSN 0963-6897, E-ISSN 1555-3892, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 481-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical islet transplantation is characterized by a progressive deterioration of islet graft function, which renders many patients once again dependent on exogenous insulin administration within a couple of years. In this study, we aimed to investigate possible engraftment factors limiting the survival and viability of experimentally transplanted human islets beyond the first day after their transplantation to the liver. Human islets were transplanted into the liver of nude mice and characterized 1 or 30 days after transplantation by immunohistochemistry. The factors assessed were endocrine mass, cellular death, hypoxia, vascular density and amyloid formation in the transplanted islets. One day posttransplantation, necrotic cells, as well as apoptotic cells, were commonly observed. In contrast to necrotic death, apoptosis rates remained high 1 month posttransplantation, and the total islet mass was reduced by more than 50% between 1 and 30 days posttransplantation. Islet mass at 30 days posttransplantation correlated negatively to apoptotic death. Vascular density within the transplanted islets remained less than 30% of that in native human islets up to 30 days posttransplantation and was associated with prevailing hypoxia. Amyloid formation was rarely observed in the 1-day-old transplants, but was commonly observed in the 30-day-old islet transplants. We conclude that substantial islet cell death occurs beyond the immediate posttransplantation phase, particularly through apoptotic events. Concomitant low vascularization with prevailing hypoxia and progressive amyloid development was observed in the human islet grafts. Strategies to improve engraftment at the intraportal site or change of implantation site in the clinical setting are needed.

  • 13.
    Ullsten, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Transplantation and regenerative medicine.
    Schwann cells regulate angiogenesis and blood vessel structure in native and transplanted pancreatic2015In: Xenotransplantation, ISSN 0908-665X, E-ISSN 1399-3089, Vol. 22, p. S46-S46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ullsten, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Grapensparr, Liza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Schwann Cells Regulate Angiogenesis And Blood Vessel Structure In Native And Transplanted Pancreatic Islets2015In: Transplantation, ISSN 0041-1337, E-ISSN 1534-6080, Vol. 99, no 11, p. S75-S75Article in journal (Other academic)
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