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  • 1.
    Bimpisidis, Zisis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    König, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Stagkourakis, Stefanos
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zell, Vivien
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Neurosci, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
    Vlcek, Bianca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Dumas, Sylvie
    Oramacell, 8 Rue Gregoire Tours, F-75006 Paris, France.
    Giros, Bruno
    INSERM, UMRS 1130, F-75005 Paris, France;CNRS, Unite Mixte Rech 8246, F-75005 Paris, France;Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Neurosci Paris Seine, F-75005 Paris, France;Douglas Mental Hlth Univ Inst, 6875 LaSalle Blvd, Verdun, PQ H4H 1R3, Canada;McGill Univ, Dept Psychiat, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Broberger, Christian
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hnasko, Thomas S.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Neurosci, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA;Res Serv VA San Diego Healthcare Syst, La Jolla, CA 92161 USA.
    Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    The NeuroD6 Subtype of VTA Neurons Contributes to Psychostimulant Sensitization and Behavioral Reinforcement2019In: eNeuro, E-ISSN 2373-2822, Vol. 6, no 3, article id e0066-19.2019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reward-related behavior is complex and its dysfunction correlated with neuropsychiatric illness. Dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have long been associated with different aspects of reward function, but it remains to be disentangled how distinct VTA DA neurons contribute to the full range of behaviors ascribed to the VTA. Here, a recently identified subtype of VTA neurons molecularly defined by NeuroD6 (NEX1M) was addressed. Among all VTA DA neurons, less than 15% were identified as positive for NeuroD6. In addition to dopaminergic markers, sparse NeuroD6 neurons expressed the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) gene. To achieve manipulation of NeuroD6 VTA neurons, NeuroD6(NEX)-Cre-driven mouse genetics and optogenetics were implemented. First, expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) was ablated to disrupt dopaminergic function in NeuroD6 VTA neurons. Comparing Vmat2(Cre)(lox/lox;NEX-) conditional knock-out (cKO) mice with littermate controls, it was evident that baseline locomotion, preference for sugar and ethanol, and place preference upon amphetamine-induced and cocaine-induced conditioning were similar between genotypes. However, locomotion upon repeated psychostimulant administration was significantly elevated above control levels in cKO mice. Second, optogenetic activation of NEX-Cre VTA neurons was shown to induce DA release and glutamatergic postsynaptic currents within the nucleus accumbens. Third, optogenetic stimulation of NEX-Cre VTA neurons in vivo induced significant place preference behavior, while stimulation of VTA neurons defined by Calretinin failed to cause a similar response. The results show that NeuroD6 VTA neurons exert distinct regulation over specific aspects of reward-related behavior, findings that contribute to the current understanding of VTA neurocircuitry.

  • 2.
    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Kozhevnikova, Mariya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    König, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Zhou, Chunfang
    Leao, Richardson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Genetics.
    Knöpfel, Thomas
    Pankratova, Stanislava
    Trolle, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Berezin, Vladimir
    Bock, Elisabeth
    Aldskogius, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Kozlova, Elena N.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Delivery of Differentiation Factors by Mesoporous Silica Particles Assists Advanced Differentiation of Transplanted Murine Embryonic Stem Cells2013In: Stem Cells Translational Medicine, ISSN 2157-6564, E-ISSN 2157-6580, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 906-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application. Here, we report the development of a novel technological approach for the local delivery of exogenous trophic factor mimetics to transplanted cells using specifically designed silica nanoporous particles. We demonstrated that delivering Cintrofin and Gliafin, established peptide mimetics of the ciliary neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, respectively, with these particles enabled not only robust functional differentiation of motor neurons from transplanted embryonic stem cells but also their long-term survival in vivo. We propose that the delivery of growth factors by mesoporous nanoparticles is a potentially versatile and widely applicable strategy for efficient differentiation and functional integration of stem cell derivatives upon transplantation.

  • 3.
    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    König, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Abrahamsson, Ninnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Kozhevnikova, Mariya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Zhou, Chunfang
    Trolle, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Pankratova, Stanislava
    Copenhagen University.
    Berezin, Vladimir
    Copenhagen University.
    Kozlova, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    In vitro generation of motor neuron precursors from mouse embryonic stem cells using mesoporous nanoparticles2014In: Nanomedicine, ISSN 1743-5889, E-ISSN 1748-6963, Vol. 9, no 16, p. 2457-2466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Stem cell-derived motor neurons (MNs) are utilized to develop replacement strategies for spinal cord disorders. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into MN precursors involves factors and their repeated administration. We investigated if delivery of factors loaded into mesoporous nanoparticles could be effective for stem cell differentiation in vitro.

    Materials & methods: We used a mouse embryonic stem cell line expressing green fluorescent protein under the promoter for the MN-specific gene Hb9 to visualize the level of MN differentiation. The differentiation of stem cells was evaluated by expression of MN-specific transcription factors monitored by quantitative real-time PCR reactions and immunocytochemistry.

    Results: Mesoporous nanoparticles have strong affiliation to the embryoid bodies, penetrate inside the embryoid bodies and come in contact with differentiating cells.

    Conclusion: Repeated administration of soluble factors into a culture medium can be avoided due to a sustained release effect using mesoporous silica.

  • 4.
    Hoeber, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    König, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Trolle, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Lekholm, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Zhou, Chunfang
    Nanologica AB , Södertälje, Sweden.
    Pankratova, Stanislava
    Univ Copenhagen, Inst Neurosci & Pharmacol, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Åkesson, Elisabet
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Aldskogius, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Kozlova, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    A Combinatorial Approach to Induce Sensory Axon Regeneration into the Dorsal Root Avulsed Spinal Cord2017In: Stem Cells and Development, ISSN 1547-3287, E-ISSN 1557-8534, Vol. 26, no 14, p. 1065-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spinal root injuries result in newly formed glial scar formation, which prevents regeneration of sensory axons causing permanent sensory loss. Previous studies showed that delivery of trophic factors or implantation of human neural progenitor cells supports sensory axon regeneration and partly restores sensory functions. In this study, we elucidate mechanisms underlying stem cell-mediated ingrowth of sensory axons after dorsal root avulsion (DRA). We show that human spinal cord neural stem/progenitor cells (hscNSPC), and also, mesoporous silica particles loaded with growth factor mimetics (MesoMIM), supported sensory axon regeneration. However, when hscNSPC and MesoMIM were combined, sensory axon regeneration failed. Morphological and tracing analysis showed that sensory axons grow through the newly established glial scar along "bridges" formed by migrating stem cells. Coimplantation of MesoMIM prevented stem cell migration, "bridges" were not formed, and sensory axons failed to enter the spinal cord. MesoMIM applied alone supported sensory axons ingrowth, but without affecting glial scar formation. In vitro, the presence of MesoMIM significantly impaired migration of hscNSPC without affecting their level of differentiation. Our data show that (1) the ability of stem cells to migrate into the spinal cord and organize cellular "bridges" in the newly formed interface is crucial for successful sensory axon regeneration, (2) trophic factor mimetics delivered by mesoporous silica may be a convenient alternative way to induce sensory axon regeneration, and (3) a combinatorial approach of individually beneficial components is not necessarily additive, but can be counterproductive for axonal growth.

  • 5.
    Hoeber, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Trolle, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    König, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Du, Zhongwei
    Gallo, Alessandro
    Hermans, Emmanuel
    Aldskogius, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Shortland, Peter
    Zhang, Su-Chun
    Deumens, Ronald
    Kozlova, Elena N
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Progenitors Assist Functional Sensory Axon Regeneration after Dorsal Root Avulsion Injury2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 10666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dorsal root avulsion results in permanent impairment of sensory functions due to disconnection between the peripheral and central nervous system. Improved strategies are therefore needed to reconnect injured sensory neurons with their spinal cord targets in order to achieve functional repair after brachial and lumbosacral plexus avulsion injuries. Here, we show that sensory functions can be restored in the adult mouse if avulsed sensory fibers are bridged with the spinal cord by human neural progenitor (hNP) transplants. Responses to peripheral mechanical sensory stimulation were significantly improved in transplanted animals. Transganglionic tracing showed host sensory axons only in the spinal cord dorsal horn of treated animals. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that sensory fibers had grown through the bridge and showed robust survival and differentiation of the transplants. Section of the repaired dorsal roots distal to the transplant completely abolished the behavioral improvement. This demonstrates that hNP transplants promote recovery of sensorimotor functions after dorsal root avulsion, and that these effects are mediated by spinal ingrowth of host sensory axons. These results provide a rationale for the development of novel stem cell-based strategies for functionally useful bridging of the peripheral and central nervous system.

  • 6.
    Kosykh, Anastasiia
    et al.
    Laboratory of Cell Proliferation, Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Ngamjariyawat, Anongnad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Vasylovska, Svitlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    König, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Trolle, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Lau, Joey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Mikaelyan, Arsen
    Laboratory of Cell Proliferation, Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Panchenko, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Carlsson, Per-Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Vorotelyak, Ekaterina
    Laboratory of Cell Proliferation, Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    N. Kozlova, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Neural crest stem cells from hair follicles and boundary cap have different  effects on pancreatic islets in vitro2015In: International Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0020-7454, E-ISSN 1563-5279, Vol. 125, no 7, p. 547-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    Neural crest stem cells derived from the boundary cap (bNCSCs), markedly promote survival, proliferation and function of insulin producing β-cells in vitro and in vivo after coculture/transplantation with pancreatic islets [ 1, 2 ]. Recently, we have shown that beneficial effects on β-cells require cadherin contacts between bNCSCs and β-cells [ 3, 4 ]. Here we investigated whether hair follicle (HF) NCSCs, a potential source for human allogeneic transplantation, exert similar positive effects on β-cells.

    Materials and Methods:

    We established cocultures of HF-NCSCs or bNCSCs from mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein together with pancreatic islets from DxRed expressing mice or NMRI mice and compared their migration towards islet cells and effect on proliferation of β-cells as well as intracellular relations between NCSCs and islets using qRT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry.

    Results:

    Whereas both types of NCSCs migrated extensively in the presence of islets, only bNCSCs demonstrated directed migration toward islets, induced β-cell proliferation and increased the presence of cadherin at the junctions between bNCSCs and β-cells. Even in direct contact between β-cells and HF-NCSCs, no cadherin expression was detected.

    Conclusions:

    These observations indicate that HF-NCSCs do not confer the same positive effect on β-cells as demonstrated for bNCSCs. Furthermore, these data suggest that induction of cadherin expression by HF-NCSCs may be useful for their ability to support β-cells in coculture and after transplantation.

  • 7.
    König, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Reconnecting the CNS and PNS with Stem Cell Transplantation2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe injury may result in disconnection between the peripheral and central nervous system. Regeneration of the central portion of sensory neurons into the spinal cord is notoriously poor in adult mammals, with low regenerative drive and an unpermissive central environment, most likely resulting in persistent loss of sensory function. A variety of strategies have been addressedto augment regeneration, including application of growth promoting factors, counteraction of inhibitory molecules, and provision of growth permissive substrates. Stem cells have been investigated in these contexts, as well as for the possibility of providing new neurons to act as a relay between the periphery and spinal cord. Here we have investigated different sources of neural stem cells for their ability to form neurons and glia after transplantation to the periphery; to project axons into the spinal cord; and to assist regeneration of surviving sensory neurons. These have been performed at two locations: the "dorsal root ganglion cavity", and the transitional zone following dorsal root avulsion. Neurons and glia were generated form mouse boundary cap neural crest stem cells and embryonic stem cell derived ventral spinal cord progenitors, and in addition to this, regeneration of sensory fibers was observed after transplantation of human fetal spinal cord derived progenitors and human embryonic stem cell derived ventral spinal cord progenitors. Further, delivery of neurotrophic factor mimetics via mesoporous silica nanoparticles proved a valuable tool for stem cell survival and differentiation. While technological advances make in vivo differentiation a realistic goal, our findings indicate that so far assisting regeneration of host sensory fibers to reconnect with the spinal cord by transplantation of stem cells is a more reliable strategy.

    List of papers
    1. Forced Runx1 expression in human neural stem/progenitor cells transplanted to the rat dorsal root ganglion cavity results in extensive axonal growth specifically from spinal cord-derived neurospheres
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forced Runx1 expression in human neural stem/progenitor cells transplanted to the rat dorsal root ganglion cavity results in extensive axonal growth specifically from spinal cord-derived neurospheres
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Stem Cells and Development, ISSN 1547-3287, E-ISSN 1557-8534, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1847-1857Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cell replacement therapy holds great promise for treating a wide range of human disorders. However, ensuring the predictable differentiation of transplanted stem cells, eliminating their risk of tumor formation, and generating fully functional cells after transplantation remain major challenges in regenerative medicine. Here, we explore the potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the embryonic forebrain (hfNSPCs) or the spinal cord (hscNSPCs) to differentiate to projection neurons when transplanted into the dorsal root ganglion cavity of adult recipient rats. To stimulate axonal growth, we transfected hfNSPC- and hscNSPC-derived neurospheres, prior to their transplantation, with a Tet-Off Runx1-overexpressing plasmid to maintain Runx1 expression in vivo after transplantation. Although pronounced cell differentiation was found in the Runx1-expressing transplants from both cell sources, we observed extensive, long-distance growth of axons exclusively from hscNSPC-derived transplants. These axons ultimately reached the dorsal root transitional zone, the boundary separating peripheral and central nervous systems. Our data show that hscNSPCs have the potential to differentiate to projection neurons with long-distance axonal outgrowth and that Runx1 overexpression is a useful approach to induce such outgrowth in specific sources of NSPCs.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Neuroscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-161344 (URN)10.1089/scd.2010.0555 (DOI)000296587400003 ()21322790 (PubMedID)
    Note

    De 2 första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

    Available from: 2011-11-11 Created: 2011-11-11 Last updated: 2017-12-08
    2. Delivery of Differentiation Factors by Mesoporous Silica Particles Assists Advanced Differentiation of Transplanted Murine Embryonic Stem Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delivery of Differentiation Factors by Mesoporous Silica Particles Assists Advanced Differentiation of Transplanted Murine Embryonic Stem Cells
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Stem Cells Translational Medicine, ISSN 2157-6564, E-ISSN 2157-6580, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 906-915Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application. Here, we report the development of a novel technological approach for the local delivery of exogenous trophic factor mimetics to transplanted cells using specifically designed silica nanoporous particles. We demonstrated that delivering Cintrofin and Gliafin, established peptide mimetics of the ciliary neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, respectively, with these particles enabled not only robust functional differentiation of motor neurons from transplanted embryonic stem cells but also their long-term survival in vivo. We propose that the delivery of growth factors by mesoporous nanoparticles is a potentially versatile and widely applicable strategy for efficient differentiation and functional integration of stem cell derivatives upon transplantation.

    Keywords
    Cell transplantation, Differentiation, Embryonic stem cells, Nervous system, Neural differentiation, Neural stem cell, Stem cell culture, Transplantation
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211443 (URN)10.5966/sctm.2013-0072 (DOI)000326312000017 ()
    Note

    De 3 första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet

    Available from: 2013-11-27 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Murine neural crest stem cells and embryonic stem cell derived neuron precursors survive and differentiate after transplantation in a model of dorsal root avulsion
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Murine neural crest stem cells and embryonic stem cell derived neuron precursors survive and differentiate after transplantation in a model of dorsal root avulsion
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, E-ISSN 1932-7005, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Spinal root avulsion results in paralysis and sensory loss, and is commonly associated with chronic pain. In addition to the failure of avulsed dorsal root axons to regenerate into the spinal cord, avulsion injury leads to extensive neuroinflammation and degeneration of second order neurons in the dorsal horn. The ultimate objective with the treatment of this condition is to counteract degeneration of spinal cord neurons and to achieve functionally useful regeneration/reconnection of sensory neurons with spinal cord neurons. Here we explore if stem cells transplanted on the surface of avulsed spinal cord can survive, differentiate and migrate into the damaged spinal cord during the first few weeks after this intervention. Murine boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) or embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived, pre-differentiated neuron precursors were implanted acutely at the junction between avulsed dorsal roots L3-L6 and the spinal cord. Both types of cells survived transplantation, but showed distinctly different modes of differentiation. Thus, bNCSCs migrated into the spinal cord, expressed glial markers, and formed elongated tubes in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) compartment of the avulsed dorsal root transitional zone(DRTZ) area. In contrast, the ESC-transplants remained at the site of implantation and differentiated to motor neurons and interneurons. These data show that both stem cell types successfully survive implantation to the acutely injured spinal cord and maintained their differentiation and migration potential. These data suggest that depending on the source of neural stem cells, they can play different beneficial roles for recovery after dorsal root avulsion.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2017
    Keywords
    sensory neuron, spinal cord, dorsal root transitional zone, regeneration, migration, glial cells, Schwann cells, motor neurons
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Research subject
    Neuroscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218684 (URN)10.1002/term.1893 (DOI)000394173600012 ()24753366 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 20716
    Available from: 2014-02-14 Created: 2014-02-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Boundary cap neural crest stem cells homotopically implanted to the injured dorsal root transitional zone give rise to different types of neurons and glia in adult rodents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boundary cap neural crest stem cells homotopically implanted to the injured dorsal root transitional zone give rise to different types of neurons and glia in adult rodents
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, E-ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 15, p. 60-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The boundary cap is a transient group of neural crest-derived cells located at the presumptive dorsal root transitional zone (DRTZ) when sensory axons enter the spinal cord during development. Later, these cells migrate to dorsal root ganglia and differentiate into subtypes of sensory neurons and glia. After birth when the DRTZ is established, sensory axons are no longer able to enter the spinal cord. Here we explored the fate of mouse bNCSCs implanted to the uninjured DRTZ after dorsal root avulsion for their potential to assist sensory axon regeneration. Grafted cells showed extensive survival and differentiation after transplantation to the avulsed DRTZ. Transplanted cells located outside the spinal cord organized elongated tubes of Sox2/GFAP expressing cells closely associated with regenerating sensory axons or appeared as small clusters on the surface of the spinal cord. Others, migrating into the host spinal cordas single cells, differentiated to spinal cord neurons with different neurotransmitter characteristics, extensive fiber organization, and in some cases surrounded by glutamatergic terminal-like profiles. These findings demonstrate that bNCSCs implanted at the site of dorsal root avulsion injury display remarkable differentiation plasticity inside the spinal cord and in the peripheral compartment where they organize tubes associated with regenerating sensory fibers. These properties offer a basis for exploring the ability of bNCSCs to assist regeneration of sensory axons into the spinal cord and replace lost neurons in the injured spinal cord.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2014
    Keywords
    neural stem cell, sensory neuron, spinal cord injury, cell differentiation, nerve regeneration, cell replacement
    National Category
    Neurosciences Neurology
    Research subject
    Neuroscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218685 (URN)10.1186/1471-2202-15-60 (DOI)000337318200001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 20716Swedish Research Council, 5420
    Available from: 2014-02-14 Created: 2014-02-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    5. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Progenitors Assist Functional Sensory Axon Regeneration after Dorsal Root Avulsion Injury
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Progenitors Assist Functional Sensory Axon Regeneration after Dorsal Root Avulsion Injury
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 10666Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Dorsal root avulsion results in permanent impairment of sensory functions due to disconnection between the peripheral and central nervous system. Improved strategies are therefore needed to reconnect injured sensory neurons with their spinal cord targets in order to achieve functional repair after brachial and lumbosacral plexus avulsion injuries. Here, we show that sensory functions can be restored in the adult mouse if avulsed sensory fibers are bridged with the spinal cord by human neural progenitor (hNP) transplants. Responses to peripheral mechanical sensory stimulation were significantly improved in transplanted animals. Transganglionic tracing showed host sensory axons only in the spinal cord dorsal horn of treated animals. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that sensory fibers had grown through the bridge and showed robust survival and differentiation of the transplants. Section of the repaired dorsal roots distal to the transplant completely abolished the behavioral improvement. This demonstrates that hNP transplants promote recovery of sensorimotor functions after dorsal root avulsion, and that these effects are mediated by spinal ingrowth of host sensory axons. These results provide a rationale for the development of novel stem cell-based strategies for functionally useful bridging of the peripheral and central nervous system.

    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-251488 (URN)10.1038/srep10666 (DOI)000356063500001 ()26053681 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 5420, 20716
    Available from: 2015-04-20 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    6. Human spinal cord neural progenitors alone but not in combination with growth factor mimetic loaded mesoporous silica assist regeneration of sensory fibers into the spinal cord after dorsal root avulsion
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human spinal cord neural progenitors alone but not in combination with growth factor mimetic loaded mesoporous silica assist regeneration of sensory fibers into the spinal cord after dorsal root avulsion
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spinal root avulsion injuries result in permanent loss of sensory function and often cause neuropathic pain. We recently showed that human embryonic stem cells derived neural progenitors (hNP) transplanted to the site of avulsed dorsal roots assist regeneration of sensory fibers into the adult mouse spinal cord. Here, we explored the potential of human spinal cord neural stem/progenitor cells (hscNSPCs) and of growth factor mimetics loaded nanoparticles to repair spinal root avulsion injury. We found that hscNSPCs and to some extent mimetic loaded nanoparticles support regeneration of sensory axons into the spinal cord when they are applied separately, whereas hscNSPCs implanted together with mimetic-loaded nanoparticles failed to support sensory  regeneration. These findings suggest that the positive effect of hscNSPCs may be eliminated by nanoparticle mediated release of neurotrophic factors due to changes in stem cell properties or surrounding cells at the place of avulsion, preventing growth of injured sensory axons into the spinal cord. Thus, hscNSPCs are able to assist restoration of sensory connections between the PNS and spinal cord, although not in combination with nanoparticle-delivered neurotrophic factor mimetics.

    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-251490 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 20716
    Available from: 2015-04-20 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2018-01-11
  • 8.
    König, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hoeber, Jan
    Trolle, Carl
    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso
    Berezin, Vladimir
    Åkesson, Elisabet
    Kozlova, Elena N
    Human spinal cord neural progenitors alone but not in combination with growth factor mimetic loaded mesoporous silica assist regeneration of sensory fibers into the spinal cord after dorsal root avulsionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spinal root avulsion injuries result in permanent loss of sensory function and often cause neuropathic pain. We recently showed that human embryonic stem cells derived neural progenitors (hNP) transplanted to the site of avulsed dorsal roots assist regeneration of sensory fibers into the adult mouse spinal cord. Here, we explored the potential of human spinal cord neural stem/progenitor cells (hscNSPCs) and of growth factor mimetics loaded nanoparticles to repair spinal root avulsion injury. We found that hscNSPCs and to some extent mimetic loaded nanoparticles support regeneration of sensory axons into the spinal cord when they are applied separately, whereas hscNSPCs implanted together with mimetic-loaded nanoparticles failed to support sensory  regeneration. These findings suggest that the positive effect of hscNSPCs may be eliminated by nanoparticle mediated release of neurotrophic factors due to changes in stem cell properties or surrounding cells at the place of avulsion, preventing growth of injured sensory axons into the spinal cord. Thus, hscNSPCs are able to assist restoration of sensory connections between the PNS and spinal cord, although not in combination with nanoparticle-delivered neurotrophic factor mimetics.

  • 9.
    König, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Trolle, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Kapuralin, Katarina
    University of Zagreb School of Medicine.
    Adameyko, Igor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mitrecic, Dinko
    University of Zagreb School of Medicine.
    Aldskogius, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Shortland, Peter
    Queen Mary University of London.
    Kozlova, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Murine neural crest stem cells and embryonic stem cell derived neuron precursors survive and differentiate after transplantation in a model of dorsal root avulsion2017In: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, E-ISSN 1932-7005, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spinal root avulsion results in paralysis and sensory loss, and is commonly associated with chronic pain. In addition to the failure of avulsed dorsal root axons to regenerate into the spinal cord, avulsion injury leads to extensive neuroinflammation and degeneration of second order neurons in the dorsal horn. The ultimate objective with the treatment of this condition is to counteract degeneration of spinal cord neurons and to achieve functionally useful regeneration/reconnection of sensory neurons with spinal cord neurons. Here we explore if stem cells transplanted on the surface of avulsed spinal cord can survive, differentiate and migrate into the damaged spinal cord during the first few weeks after this intervention. Murine boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) or embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived, pre-differentiated neuron precursors were implanted acutely at the junction between avulsed dorsal roots L3-L6 and the spinal cord. Both types of cells survived transplantation, but showed distinctly different modes of differentiation. Thus, bNCSCs migrated into the spinal cord, expressed glial markers, and formed elongated tubes in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) compartment of the avulsed dorsal root transitional zone(DRTZ) area. In contrast, the ESC-transplants remained at the site of implantation and differentiated to motor neurons and interneurons. These data show that both stem cell types successfully survive implantation to the acutely injured spinal cord and maintained their differentiation and migration potential. These data suggest that depending on the source of neural stem cells, they can play different beneficial roles for recovery after dorsal root avulsion.

  • 10.
    König, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Åkesson, Elisabet
    Telorack, Michèle
    Vasylovska, Svitlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Ngamjariyawat, Anongnad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Sundström, Erik
    Oster, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Trolle, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Berens, Christian
    Aldskogius, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Seiger, Åke
    Kozlova, Elena N
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy.
    Forced Runx1 expression in human neural stem/progenitor cells transplanted to the rat dorsal root ganglion cavity results in extensive axonal growth specifically from spinal cord-derived neurospheres2011In: Stem Cells and Development, ISSN 1547-3287, E-ISSN 1557-8534, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 1847-1857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell replacement therapy holds great promise for treating a wide range of human disorders. However, ensuring the predictable differentiation of transplanted stem cells, eliminating their risk of tumor formation, and generating fully functional cells after transplantation remain major challenges in regenerative medicine. Here, we explore the potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the embryonic forebrain (hfNSPCs) or the spinal cord (hscNSPCs) to differentiate to projection neurons when transplanted into the dorsal root ganglion cavity of adult recipient rats. To stimulate axonal growth, we transfected hfNSPC- and hscNSPC-derived neurospheres, prior to their transplantation, with a Tet-Off Runx1-overexpressing plasmid to maintain Runx1 expression in vivo after transplantation. Although pronounced cell differentiation was found in the Runx1-expressing transplants from both cell sources, we observed extensive, long-distance growth of axons exclusively from hscNSPC-derived transplants. These axons ultimately reached the dorsal root transitional zone, the boundary separating peripheral and central nervous systems. Our data show that hscNSPCs have the potential to differentiate to projection neurons with long-distance axonal outgrowth and that Runx1 overexpression is a useful approach to induce such outgrowth in specific sources of NSPCs.

  • 11.
    Schizas, Nikos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    König, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Andersson, Brittmarie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Vasylovska, Svitlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hoeber, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Kozlova, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Hailer, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Neural crest stem cells protect spinal cord neurons from excitotoxic damage and inhibit glial activation by secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor2018In: Cell and Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, E-ISSN 1432-0878, Vol. 372, no 3, p. 493-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acute phase of spinal cord injury is characterized by excitotoxic and inflammatory events that mediate extensive neuronal loss in the gray matter. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) can exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects that may be mediated by soluble factors. We therefore hypothesize that transplantation of NCSCs to acutely injured spinal cord slice cultures (SCSCs) can prevent neuronal loss after excitotoxic injury. NCSCs were applied onto SCSCs previously subjected to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-induced injury. Immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining were used to quantitatively study cell populations and apoptosis. Concentrations of neurotrophic factors were measured by ELISA. Migration and differentiation properties of NCSCs on SCSCs, laminin, or hyaluronic acid hydrogel were separately studied. NCSCs counteracted the loss of NeuN-positive neurons that was otherwise observed after NMDA-induced excitotoxicity, partly by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis. They also reduced activation of both microglial cells and astrocytes. The concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was increased in supernatants from SCSCs cultured with NCSCs compared to SCSCs alone and BDNF alone mimicked the effects of NCSC application on SCSCs. NCSCs migrated superficially across the surface of SCSCs and showed no signs of neuronal or glial differentiation but preserved their expression of SOX2 and Krox20. In conclusion, NCSCs exert neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic and glia-inhibitory effects on excitotoxically injured spinal cord tissue, some of these effects mediated by secretion of BDNF. However, the investigated NCSCs seem not to undergo neuronal or glial differentiation in the short term since markers indicative of an undifferentiated state were expressed during the entire observation period.

  • 12.
    Trolle, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Abrahamsson, Ninnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    König, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Vasylovska, Svitlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Kozlova, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Regenerative neurobiology.
    Boundary cap neural crest stem cells homotopically implanted to the injured dorsal root transitional zone give rise to different types of neurons and glia in adult rodents2014In: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, E-ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 15, p. 60-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The boundary cap is a transient group of neural crest-derived cells located at the presumptive dorsal root transitional zone (DRTZ) when sensory axons enter the spinal cord during development. Later, these cells migrate to dorsal root ganglia and differentiate into subtypes of sensory neurons and glia. After birth when the DRTZ is established, sensory axons are no longer able to enter the spinal cord. Here we explored the fate of mouse bNCSCs implanted to the uninjured DRTZ after dorsal root avulsion for their potential to assist sensory axon regeneration. Grafted cells showed extensive survival and differentiation after transplantation to the avulsed DRTZ. Transplanted cells located outside the spinal cord organized elongated tubes of Sox2/GFAP expressing cells closely associated with regenerating sensory axons or appeared as small clusters on the surface of the spinal cord. Others, migrating into the host spinal cordas single cells, differentiated to spinal cord neurons with different neurotransmitter characteristics, extensive fiber organization, and in some cases surrounded by glutamatergic terminal-like profiles. These findings demonstrate that bNCSCs implanted at the site of dorsal root avulsion injury display remarkable differentiation plasticity inside the spinal cord and in the peripheral compartment where they organize tubes associated with regenerating sensory fibers. These properties offer a basis for exploring the ability of bNCSCs to assist regeneration of sensory axons into the spinal cord and replace lost neurons in the injured spinal cord.

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