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  • 1.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Hagentoft, Carl-Eric
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Humidity Control in Historic Buildings through Adaptive Ventilation: a Case Study2011In: NSB 2011: 9th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, 2011, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive ventilation, controlled with respect to absolute humidity inside and outside a building, canbe used to reduce RH below risk levels for biodeterioration. In the present case study, adaptiveventilation was used in a historic stone building with severe moisture problems. Measurementscarried out over a year shows that ventilation had a significant drying effect. The mould risk is keptat an acceptable level with exception of two short periods .Short term variations in RH are acceptableaccording to conservation standards. Heating or dehumidification as an auxiliary measure would beneeded only for a short period of time. The performance can be improved by increased fan capacityand improving air tightness of the building.

  • 2.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    van Schijndel, Jos
    Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, .
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    National museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Energy efficient climate control in historic buildings2014In: Climate for culture: Built culturalheritage in times of climate change / [ed] Johanna Leissner, Urban Kaiser, Ralf Kilian, Leipzig: Fraunhofer MOEZ , 2014, p. 29-32Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Klenz Larsen, Poul
    et al.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Adaptive ventilation for occasionally used churches2013In: EWCHP-2013 / [ed] Alexandra Troi, Elena Lucchi, Bolzano: European Academy of Bozen / Bolzano (EURAC) , 2013, p. 55-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many churches in Denmark and Sweden are rarely used for services or other activities. A simple climate control strategy is essential to avoid mold growth and attack by insects. Ventilation is the traditional method to reduce the humidity but it sometimes has the opposite effect. The ventilation needs to be controlled only to take in outside air, when it is drier than inside, to provide acceptable conditions. Adaptive ventilation was applied in three churches in Denmark and Sweden, each with a different heating regime. Nødebo church had intermittent heating for services in winter with basic heating to a constant temperature in between. Adaptive ventilation was only applied in the summer. The air was drawn from the outside without preheating. The ventilation reduced the relative humidity, but increased the short term fluctuations. Tyvelse church had intermittent heating for services during the winter, but no heating in between services. The air was drawn from the attic in order to gain heat from solar radiation in summer. It was assumed that preheating would raise the inside temperature slightly, and thereby reduce the RH, but no effect was observed. In Hangvar church, the intake air was preheated by a solar powered heating element. The preheating had only little effect on the interior RH, probably because of the large thermal capacity of the building itself. This is the major restriction for adaptive ventilation to work in very heavy buildings. A positive side effect is that the air quality inside the churches was improved by the ventilation because bad smells were removed.

  • 4.
    Luciani, Andrea
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Architecture and Urban Studies (DAStU), Italy.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    The influence of air exchange on the stability of the indoor climate in Skokloster castle2013In: e-Preservation Science, ISSN 1854-3928, E-ISSN 1581-9280, ISSN 1581-9280, Vol. 10, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skokloster Castle is a historic masonry building without any active climate control and hosting an important and heterogeneous collection of artefacts. Despite being cited as a good passive preservation environment, conservators are observing decay in the collections related to the indoor climate that may call for a re-evaluation of the climate control strategy. Air exchange is generally considered one of the driving forces influencing the indoor climate in unheated historic buildings. This study was developed to better understand and evaluate its influence on the indoor climate stability of the castle. The present study has outlined an experimental procedure for the assessment of the influence of air exchange that can be used in historic buildings in general. Air exchange rate was measured in seven rooms using tracer gas passive sampling. The results were related to an analysis of the variability of indoor temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and mixing ratio (MR). A connection with short-term RH fluctuations, considered the most dangerous for hygroscopic materials, was identified. Problems connected with mould growth and high RH levels were also considered and discussed.

  • 5.
    Napp, Margus
    et al.
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Chair Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Kalamees, Targo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Chair Bldg Phys & Energy Efficiency, EE-19086 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Adaptive ventilation for climate control in a medieval church in cold climate2016In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Old medieval churches hold objects of great historical and cultural value: organs, altars, paintings. But they have no systems for indoor climate control or the church may be heated only at services. These conditions are inadequate for the preservation of cultural heritage. The objective of this paper is to assess an adaptive ventilation (AV) solution in a church for reduction of the relative humidity (RH) in an unheated church to prevent mould growth and disintegration of wooden parts. The operation principle of the system is to ensure ventilation in the church when water vapour content in the outdoor air is lower than that indoors, to lower the RH in the church. A case study in Hangvar Church in Gotland, Sweden, was conducted to test the performance of AV to reduce the RH in the church. Field measurements showed that AV has a positive impact on the indoor RH of the church. During the measurement period without climate control, the RH in the church was higher than 70% of 98% of the time; with AV, the indoor RH was higher than 70% only 78% of the time. Building simulation was carried out to test the performance and energy consumption of AV under different conditions. The simulations showed that auxiliary heating and airflow rate both have high impact on the system performance. The higher the heating power, the more effective the system is; thus, lower airflow rates are needed. Infiltration has also high impact on the system performance: the lower the infiltration rate, the better the AV performance is.

  • 6.
    Vyhlidal, Tomas
    et al.
    Department of Innstrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech republic.
    Zitek, Pavel
    Department of Innstrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech republic.
    Camuffo, Dario
    Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche - Istituto di Scienze dell' atmosfera e del Clima, Italy..
    Simeunovic, Goran
    Department of Innstrumentation and Control Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech republic.
    Sladek, Otto
    Kybertec, Czech Republic.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Relative humidity control in historical buildings allowing the safe natural indoor-climate fluctuations2013In: EWCHP 2013 / [ed] Alexandra Troi, Elena Lucchi, Bozen / Bolzano: European Academy of Bozen / Bolzano (EURAC) , 2013, p. 77-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the paper, we present a method of relative humidity control in historical buildings based on the specifications of the European standard EN 15757. The approach follows the concept of acclimatization of the objects containing hygroscopic materials to the fluctuations of historical environment, which in general should not change substantially if the control is introduced. Only large fluctuations from the natural seasonal cycles of the indoor climate should be removed by the control system. Thus, the set point for the dehumidifier and humidifier are not constant, but follow the natural (seasonal) cycles of the interior microclimate. Next to the theoretical background, simulation experiments are provided and the application issues, including implementation on a programmable controller, are discussed.

  • 7.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Dept. of Instrumentation and Control Eng., Faculty of Mechanical Eng., Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Vyhlidal, Tomas
    Dept. of Instrumentation and Control Eng., Faculty of Mechanical Eng., Czech Technical University, Parague, Czech Republic.
    A method to determine heating power and heat up time for intermittent heating of churches2017In: 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] Stig Geving, Berit Time, Elsevier , 2017, Vol. 132, p. 915-920Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermittent heating, common in churches, requires higher heating power than steady state heating. With respect to energy use and preservation aspects, the heat up time should be short. Systems for intermittent heating are often designed using rule of thumb estimates or inadequate steady state calculations. This paper presents a method to relate heating power and heat up time for a specific building where thermal characteristics of a building are determined using a step response test.

  • 8.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Klenz Larsen, Poul
    Nationalmuseet, Denmark.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Solar energy augmented adaptive ventilation in historic buildings2014In: NSB 2014 / [ed] Jesper Arfvidsson, Lars-Erik Harderup, Anders Kumlin, Bitte Rosencrantz, Lund, 2014, p. 648-655Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many historic buildings suffer from problems related to moisture and high relative humidity. Adaptive ventilation can be a low-energy and low impact solution to mitigate these problems. Previous studies have shown that adaptive ventilation can have a significant drying effect. However due to the covariance of temperature and absolute humidity in the outside air, the effect on relative humidity inside a buildings is limited in the short term. The present paper presents results from a medieval stone church where a novel integration of solar heating and adaptive ventilation has been implemented. Solar energy is collected in the day and stored. In the night, when the outside air generally is drier (in absolute terms), outside air is preheated using the energy stored in the daytime and added to the building.

    The results show that adaptive ventilation can be a low-cost and low-energy option as compared to conventional humidity control.The average relative humidity and mould risk has decreased significantly. Auxiliary measures, such as dehumidification, would be needed, mainly in the summer. The energy from the photovoltaic elements has mitigated the cooling effect of the outside air.

  • 9.
    Wessberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Leijonhufvud, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    Broström, Tor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History, Conservation.
    An evaluation of three different methods for energy efficient indoor climate control in Skokloster Castle2016In: Proceedings EECHB-2016: Energy Efficiency and Comfort of Historic Buildings / [ed] y Michael de Bouw, Samuel Dubois, Liesbeth Dekeyser and Yves Vanhellemont, Bryssel: Flanders Heritage Agency , 2016, p. 144-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Climate change is expected to result in a warmer and more humid climate in northern Europe. Historic buildings with none or primitive climate control will face higher risk of bio-deterioration – mainly due to mould, rot and insects. There is a lack of experience of how different methods for energy efficient indoor climate control compare to each other in practical applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the relative performance of conservation heating, dehumidification and adaptive ventilation in a historic building. The investigation was carried out during three years at Skokloster, an unheated Baroque castle in Sweden suffering from problems due to high indoor relative humidity. The results show that the initial draught proofing of the rooms had a positive effect on the indoor climate which reduced the need for active climate control. Dehumidification was the most energy efficient method

1 - 9 of 9
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