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  • 1.
    Forsgren, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik AB.
    Maria, Strømme
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of a TiO2 implant coating deposited through cathodic arc evaporation2012In: European Cells and Materials, ISSN 1473-2262, E-ISSN 1473-2262, Vol. 23, no Suppl. 5, 36- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Forsgren, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    Nanoteknologi och funktionella material, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik Sverige AB.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of a TiO2 implant coating deposited through cathodic arc evaporation2012In: Scandinavian Society of Biomaterials, Uppsala, Sweden, May 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Gustafsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Olsson, Eva
    TEM investigation of the temperature dependence on nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite on arc-deposited TiO2 coatings 2014In: 18th International Microscopy Congress, Prague, Czech Republic, ID-13. Materials for medicine and biomaterial, 2014, id13- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Butt, Umer
    Sandvik Coromant.
    Bjöörn, Dorota
    Sandvik Coromant.
    Shen, Zhijian
    Nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite on arc-deposited TiO2surfaces studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation2013In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 284, 1-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of nucleation and growth kinetics of biomimetically deposited hydroxyapatite (HA) oncrystalline TiO2surfaces is important with respect to the application and performance of HA as functionalimplant coatings. Arc-evaporation was used to deposit TiO2coatings dominated by anatase phase, rutilephase or their mixtures. Subsequent formation of HA from phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS) wasinvestigated in real-time using in situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize thepresence, morphology and crystal structure of TiO2coatings and the formed HA. Increasing temperature ofthe PBS, increasing flow rate and applying a higher ion concentration in solution were found to accelerateHA nucleation process and hence affect growth kinetics. Lower PBS temperature resulted in the formationof HA coatings with flake-like morphology and increasing HA porosity. All TiO2coatings under studyenabled HA formation at body temperature, while in contrast Ti reference surfaces only supported HAnucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. QCM-D technique is a powerful tool for studying theimpact of process parameters during biomimetic coating deposition on coating structure evolution in realtime and provides valuable information for understanding, optimizing as well as tailoring the biomimeticHA growth processes.

  • 5.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Forsgren, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik AB.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of surgical implant coatings of titanium dioxide deposited though cathodic arc evaporation2012In: Biotechnology letters, ISSN 0141-5492, E-ISSN 1573-6776, Vol. 41, no 6, 740-746 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured crystalline titaniumdioxide coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporated on titanium grade five medical implant substrates were demonstrated to exhibit UV-induced photocatalytic activity that can be utilized to provide bactericidal effects against Staphylococcus epidermidis. The photocatalytic activity of the coatings was confirmedvia degradation of Rhodamine B under UV illumination.A 90 %reduction of viable bacteria was achieved in a clinically suitable time of only 2 min with a UVdose of 2.4 J delivered at 365 nm. These results areencouraging for the development of antimicrobialsurfaces in orthopedics and dentistry in order to prevent or treat post-surgical infections.

  • 6.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Genvad, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik Tooling Sverige AB, Stockholm.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influence of microstructure and chemical composition of sputter deposited TiO2 thin films on in vitro bioactivity2011In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 22, no 12, 2727-2734 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functionalisation of biomedical implants viasurface modifications for tailored tissue response is agrowing field of research. Crystalline TiO2 has been provento be a bone bioactive, non-resorbable material. In contactwith body fluids a hydroxyapaptite (HA) layer forms on itssurface facilitating the bone contact. Thus, the path ofimproving biomedical implants via deposition of crystallineTiO2 on the surface is interesting to follow. In thisstudy we have evaluated the influence of microstructureand chemical composition of sputter deposited titaniumoxide thin films on the in vitro bioactivity. We find thatboth substrate bias, topography and the flow ratio of thegases used during sputtering affect the HA layer formed onthe films after immersion in simulated body fluid at 37C.A random distribution of anatase and rutile crystals, formedat negative substrate bias and low Ar to O2 gas flow ratios,are shown to favor the growth of flat HA crystal structureswhereas higher flow ratios and positive substrate biasinduced growth of more spherical HA structures. Thesefindings should provide valuable information when optimizingthe bioactivity of titanium oxide coatings as well asfor tailoring process parameters for sputtered-based productionof bioactive titanium oxide implant surfaces.

  • 7.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Lindahl, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Xia, Wei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    The effect of Si-doping on the release of antibiotic from hydroxyapatite coatings2013In: Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, ISSN 2158-7027, E-ISSN 2158-7043, Vol. 4, no 3, 237-241 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we show that incorporation of ions during biomimetic coating deposition may be utilized to tailor the drug loading capacity of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. Pure biomimetic HA (HA-B) and Si-doped equivalents (SiHA-B) where deposited by a biomimetic process onto titanium dioxide covered titanium substrates. The antibiotic Cephalothin was incorporated into the coatings by adsorptive loading and the release was studied in-vitro. SiHA-B coatings exhibited superior drug incorporation capacity compared to pure HA-B coatings, resulting in a drug release profile dominated by an initial 10 min burst effect while a more prolonged 10 hour release was observed from HA-B coatings. The results emphasize the possibility to impact the drug release kinetics from implant coatings by selective doping elements and the use of thin, biomimetic HA-coatings as drug delivery vehicles. Functionalizing metal implants with SiHA-B coatings presents an interesting strategy towards creating synergetic effects through ion- and antibiotic release and, hence, contributing both towards preventing post-surgical infections while at the same time enhancing the bone-bonding ability.

  • 8.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sörensen, Jan
    Brohede, Ulrica
    Åstrand, Maria
    Procter, Philip
    Arnoldi, Jörg
    Steckel, Hartwig
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Drug eluting hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications2013In: European Cells and Materials, ISSN 1473-2262, E-ISSN 1473-2262, ISSN 1473-2262, Vol. 26, no 2, 36- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sörensen, Jan
    Brohede, Ulrica
    Åstrand, Maria
    Procter, Philip
    Arnoldi, Jörg
    Steckel, Hartwig
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Drugeluting hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications2013In: Scandinavian Society for Biomaterials, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sörensen, Jan Henrik
    Christian-Albrechts Universitet Kiel.
    Brohede, Ulrika
    Sandvik Coromant.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik Coromant.
    Procter, Philip
    Arnoldi, Jörg
    Steckel, Hartwig
    Christian-Albrechts Universitet Kiel.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Drug loading and release of Tobramycin from Hydroxyapatite coated fixation pins2013In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 24, no 9, 2265-2274 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the loading and release properties of Tobramycin incorporated by adsorptive loading from a solution into plasma sprayed and biomimetically coated Hydroxyapatite (HA) fixation pins. The aim of this study is to contribute towards designing a functional implant surface offering local release of the antibiotic agent to prevent post-surgical infections. Cathodic arc deposition is used to coat stainless steel fixation pins with a bioactive, anatase phase dominated, TiO2 coating onto which a HA layer is grown biomimetically. The loading and release properties are evaluated by studying the subsequent release of Tobramycin using high performance liquid chromatography and correlated to the differences in HA coating microstructure and the physical conditions under loading. The results from these studies show that a dual loading strategy consisting of a solution temperature of 90 °C and a pressure of 6 bar during a loading time of 5 min release a sufficient amount of Tobramycin to guarantee the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus up to 2 days for plasma sprayed HA coatings and for 8 days for biomimetic coatings. The present study emphasizes the advantages of the nanoporous structure of biomimetically deposited HA over the more dense structure of plasma sprayed HA coatings in terms of antibiotic incorporation and subsequent sustained release and provides a valuable outline for the design of implant surfaces aiming for a fast-loading and controlled, local drug administration.

  • 11.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sörensen, Jan Henrik
    Christian-Albrechts Universitet Kiel.
    Sörensen, Torben
    Christian-Albrechts Universitet Kiel.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik Coromant.
    Procter, Philip
    Steckel, Hartwig
    Christian-Albrechts Universitet Kiel.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Impact of Biomechanical Forces on Antibiotics Release Kinetics from Hydroxyapatite Coated Surgical Fixation Pins2013In: Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, ISSN 2158-7027, E-ISSN 2158-7043, Vol. 4, no 4, 343-350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the impact of biomechanical wear and abrasion on the antibiotic release profiles of hydroxyapa-tite (HA) coated fixation pins during their insertion into synthetic bone. Stainless steel fixation pins are coated with crystalline TiO2 by cathodic arc evaporation forming the bioactive layer for biomimetic deposition of Tobramycin con-taining HA. Tobramycin is either introduced by co-precipitation during HA formation or by adsorption-loading after HA deposition. The samples containing antibiotics are inserted into bone mimicking polyethylene foam after which the drug release is monitored using high performance liquid chromatography. This analysis shows that HA coating wear and delamination significantly decrease the amount of drug released during initial burst, but only marginally influence the sustained release period. Spalled coating fragments are found to remain within the synthetic bone material structure. The presence of HA within this structure supports the assumption that the local release of Tobramycin is not only ex-pected to eliminate bacteria growth directly at the pin interface but as well at some distance from the implant. Further-more, no negative effect of gamma sterilization could be observed on the drug release profile. Overall, the observed results demonstrate the feasibility of a multifunctional implant coating that is simultaneously able to locally deliver clinically relevant doses of antibiotics and an HA coating capable of promoting osteoconduction. This is a potentially promising step toward orthopaedic devices that combine good fixation with the ability to treat and prevent post-surgical infections.

  • 12.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sörensen, Jan
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sörensen, Torben
    Procter, Philip
    Steckel, Hartwig
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Biomechanical and antimicrobial properties of Tobramycin eluting fixation pins2013In: OrthopaedicTrauma Association 2013 Annual Meeting Archive / [ed] Orthopaedic Trauma Association, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik Tooling Sverige AB, Stockholm.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Effect of deposition parameters on the photocatalytic activity and bioactivity of TiO(2) thin films deposited by vacuum arc on Ti-6Al-4V substrates2012In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B - Applied biomaterials, ISSN 1552-4973, E-ISSN 1552-4981, Vol. 100B, no 4, 1078-1085 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article evaluates the influence of the main parameters in a cathodic arc deposition process on the microstructure of titanium dioxide thin coatings and correlates these to the photocatalytic activity (PCA) and in vitro bioactivity of the coatings. Bioactivity of all as deposited coatings was confirmed by the growth of uniform layers of hydroxyapatite (HA) after 7 days in phosphate buffered saline at 37°C. Comparison of the HA growth after 24 h indicated enhanced HA formation on coatings with small titanium dioxide grains of rutile and anatase phase. The results from the PCA studies showed that coatings containing a mixed microstructure of both anatase and rutile phases, with small grain sizes in the range of 26-30 nm and with a coating thickness of about 250 nm, exhibited enhanced activity as compared with other microstructures and higher coating thickness. The results of this study should be valuable for the development of new bioactive implant coatings with photocatalytically induced on-demand antibacterial properties.

  • 14.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Nanoteknologi och funktionella material, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik Sverige AB.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Photocatalytic and bioactive TiO2 thin films deposited by vaccum arc2012In: Scandinavian Society of Biomaterials 2012, Uppsala, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik AB.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Photocatalytic and bioactive TiO2 thin films deposited by vacuum arc2012In: European Cells and Materials, ISSN 1473-2262, E-ISSN 1473-2262, Vol. 23, no Suppl. 5, 48- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving biomedical implants via deposition of functionalised surface coatings is a growing field of research. With respect to implant surfaces, infections present a major problem, and result mostly from the contamination of the surface by bacteria during surgery. UV irradiation induced photocatalysis on crystalline TiO2 implant surfaces may present a promising way to decontaminate surfaces while at the same time providing a bioactive surface for enhanced tissue integration.

  • 16. Sörensen, Jan H
    et al.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sörensen, Torben C
    Procter, Philip
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Steckel, Hartwig
    Co-precipitation of Tobramycin into Biomimetically Coated Orthopedic Fixation Pins Employing Submicron-Thin Seed Layers of Hydroxyapatite2014In: Current Drug Delivery, ISSN 1567-2018, E-ISSN 1875-5704, Vol. 11, no 4, 501-510 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implant migration, loosening and cut-out as well as nosocomial infections are current problems during surgery. New innovative strategies to overcome these issues are emphasized in today's research. The currentwork presents a novel strategy involving co-precipitation ofTobramycin with biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) formation to produce implant coatings that may ensure controlled local drug delivery to prevent early bacterial colonization of the implant. A sub-micron thin HA layer served as seed layer for the co-precipitation process and allowed for incorporation of Tobramycin in the coating from a stock solution of antibiotic concentrations as high as 20 mg/ml. Concentrations from 0.5 to 20 mg/ml Tobramycin and process temperatures of 37 °C and 60 °C were tested to assess the optimal parameters resulting in a thin Tobramycin delivering HA coating on discs and orthopedic fixation pins. The coating morphology and thickness as well as drugrelease profile were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy and high performanceliquid chromatography. The coatings were found to deliver pharmaceutically relevant amounts of Tobramycinover a period as of12 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest release period ever observed for a fast-loaded biomimetic implant coating. The presented approach may form thefoundation for development of combination device/antibiotic delivery vehicles tailored to meet well-defined clinical needs combatting infections and ensuring fast implant in-growth.

  • 17.
    Sörensen, Jan Henrik
    et al.
    Christian-Albrechts Universitet Kiel.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sörensen, Torben
    Stryker GmbH.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik Coromant.
    Procter, Philip
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Steckel, Hartwig
    Christian-Albrechts Universitet Kiel.
    Biomechanical and Antibacterial Properties of Tobramycin Loaded Hydroxyapatite Coated Fixation Pins2014In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B - Applied biomaterials, ISSN 1552-4973, E-ISSN 1552-4981, Vol. 102, no 7, 1381-1392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the use of nanoporous, biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings deposited on TiO2 coated fixation pins as functional implant surfaces for the local release of Tobramycin in order to prevent bacterial colonization. The impact of HA-coating thickness, coating morphology and biomechanical forces during insertion into synthetic bone on the drug loading and release properties are analyzed. The coatings are shown to exhibit bactericidal effects against Staphylococcus aureus in agar medium for a duration of 6 days after loading by adsorption with Tobramycin for only 5 min at elevated temperature and pressure. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography analysis shows a drug release in phosphate buffered saline for 8 days with antibiotic concentration remaining above the minimal inhibitory concentration for S. aureus during the entire release period. Biomechanical insertion tests into synthetic bone and conventional scratch testing demonstrate adhesive strength at the HA/TiO2 interface. Biocompatibility is verified by cell viability tests. Outgrowth endothelial cells, as well as primary osteoblasts, are viable and firmly attached to both HA and TiO2 surfaces. The results presented are encouraging and support the concept of functional HA coatings as local drug delivery vehicles for biomedical applications to treat as well as to prevent post-surgical infections.

  • 18.
    Welch, Ken
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik Tooling.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Strømme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Lilja, Mirjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Bioactive and photocatalytically active surgical implant surfaces2012In: Euro Bio-inspired Materials, International School and Conference on Biological Materials Science, 20-23 March, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving biomedical implants via deposition of functionalised surface coatings is a growing field of research. An enhanced bone-bonding capability by induction of hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the implant surface is a critical characteristic of a bioactive implant coating. In the field of implants, infections present a major problem, and result mostly from the contamination of the implant surface by bacteria during surgery. There is a need for antibacterial surface treatments, which can prevent the bacterial colonization and biofilm formation without compromising the biocompatibility of the implant itself.Crystalline TiO2 is not only a bioactive, non-resorbable material, it also exhibits excellent superhydrophilic and photocatalytic properties when irradiated with UV light. Thus, UV irradiation induced photocatalysis on crystalline TiO2 implant surfaces may present an effective method for decontaminating implant surfaces.In our study we have evaluated the influence of the main deposition parameters in the cathodic evaporation process on the microstructure of TiO2 thin films and correlated these to the photocatalytic activity (PCA) and in vitro bioactivity of the coatings.Bioactivity of all as deposited coatings was confirmed by the growth of uniform layers of HA after 7 days in phosphate buffered saline at 37 °C. Comparison of the HA growth after 24 hours indicated enhanced HA formation on coatings with small titanium dioxide grains of the rutile and the anatase phase. The results from the PCA studies showed that coatings containing a mixed microstructure of both anatase and rutile phases, with small grain sizes in the range of 26-30 nm and with a coating thickness of about 250 nm, exhibited enhanced activity as compared to other microstructures and higher coating thickness. The results of this study should be valuable for the development of new bioactive implant coatings with photocatalytically induced on-demand antibacterial properties.

  • 19. Zaborowska, M.
    et al.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Brånemark, R.
    Lilja, Miriam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Forsgren, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Åstrand, Maria
    Sandvik Sverige AB.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Thomsen, P.
    Trobos, M.
    Bacteria-surface interactions: methodological development for the assessment of implant surface treatments2012Conference paper (Refereed)
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