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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anastasia
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sundbom, Marcus
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Div Populat Genet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lack of trophic polymorphism despite substantial genetic differentiation in sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations2017In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 643-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sympatric populations occur in many freshwater fish species; such populations are typically detected through morphological distinctions that are often coupled to food niche and genetic separations. In salmonids, trophic and genetically separate sympatric populations have been reported in landlocked Arctic char, whitefish and brown trout. In Arctic char and brown trout rare cases of sympatric, genetically distinct populations have been detected based on genetic data alone, with no apparent morphological differences, that is cryptic structuring. It remains unknown whether such cryptic, sympatric structuring can be coupled to food niche separation. Here, we perform an extensive screening for trophic divergence of two genetically divergent, seemingly cryptic, sympatric brown trout populations documented to remain in stable sympatry over several decades in two interconnected, tiny mountain lakes in a nature reserve in central Sweden. We investigate body shape, body length, gill raker metrics, breeding status and diet (stomach content analysis and stable isotopes) in these populations. We find small significant differences for body shape, body size and breeding status, and no evidence of food niche separation between these two populations. In contrast, fish in the two lakes differed in body shape, diet, and nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures despite no genetic difference between lakes. These genetically divergent populations apparently coexist using the same food resources and showing the same adaptive plasticity to the local food niches of the two separate lakes. Such observations have not been reported previously but may be more common than recognised as genetic screenings are necessary to detect the structures.

  • 2.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Effects of management intensity, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ponds are important elements of green areas in cities that help counteract the negative consequences of urbanization, by providing important habitats for biodiversity in cities and being essential nodes in the overall landscape-scale habitat network. However, there is relatively little knowledge about the impacts of pond management intensity, function and environmental variables on urban pond biodiversity. In this study we addressed this gap by investigating which factors were correlated with the level of biodiversity in urban ponds, indicated by species richness of aquatic insects, in Stockholm, Sweden. Our study did not confirm any direct link between the perceived intensity of management or function of ponds and overall biodiversity. However, it seems that management can influence particular groups of species indirectly, since we found that Trichoptera richness (Caddisflies) was highest at intermediate management intensity. We suggest that this is caused by management of vegetation, as the amount of floating and emergent vegetation was significantly correlated with both the overall species richness and the richness of Trichoptera (Caddisflies). This relationship was non-linear, since ponds with an intermediate coverage of vegetation had the highest richness. Interestingly, the amount of vegetation in the pond was significantly affected by pond function and pond management. The overall species richness and richness of Trichoptera were also positively correlated with pond size. Since we found that the pattern of relations between species richness and environmental variables differed between the insect groups we suggest that it will be difficult to provide overall design and management recommendations for ponds in urban green areas. Therefore, it is recommended that to provide high aquatic diversity of species in urban areas one should aim at promoting high diversity of different types of ponds with differing management and environmental factors that shape them.

  • 3.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Thomsson, Michaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds?: A study in the city of Stockholm2017In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1209-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban small water bodies, such as ponds, are essential elements of human socio-economic landscapes. Ponds also provide important habitats for species that would otherwise not survive in the urban environment. Knowledge on the biodiversity of urban ponds and the relationship between their ecological value and factors linked to urbanization and socio-economic status is crucial for decisions on where and how to establish and manage ponds in cities to deliver maximum biodiversity benefits. Our study investigates if the pattern of urban-pond biodiversity can be related to different socio-economic factors, such as level of wealth, education or percentage of buildings of different types. Because of lack of previous studies investigating that, our study is of exploratory character and many different variables are used. We found that the biodiversity of aquatic insects was significantly negatively associated with urbanisation variables such as amount of buildings and number of residents living around ponds. This relationship did not differ depending on the spatial scale of our investigation. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship with variables representing socio-economic status, such as education level and wealth of people. This latter result suggests that the socio-economic status of residents does not lead to any particular effect in terms of the management and function of ponds that would affect biodiversity. However, there is a need for a finer-scale investigation of the different potential mechanism in which residents in areas with differing socio-economic status could indirectly influence ponds.

  • 4.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Urban ponds for people and by people2016In: Urban Landscape Ecology: Science, Policy and Practice / [ed] Robert A. Francis , James D.A. Millington, Michael A. Chadwick, Routledge, 2016, p. 164-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5. Bourdeau, Paul E.
    et al.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Predator-induced morphological defences as by-products of prey behaviour: a review and prospectus2012In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 121, no 8, p. 1175-1190Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predator-induced morphological defences (PIMDs) are ubiquitous. Many PIMDs may be mediated by prey behaviour rather than directly cued by predators. A survey of 92 studies indicated 40 that quantified prey behaviour, all of which document positive associations between defence production and activity reduction. Thus, PIMDs are associated with changes in prey activity, which could have caused the morphological change. We propose two possible mechanisms: 1) decreased activity reduces feeding rate, resulting in lower growth and morphological change; and 2) activity reduction conserves energy, which is reallocated for growth, subsequently changing morphology. Resource availability also causes similar morphological change to predator presence, suggesting confounding effects of resources and predators with current methodology. Future studies should estimate food ingestion, assimilation efficiency, and growth rate in the presence and absence of predators, crossing predator presence with resource levels. Not all PIMDs will be behaviourally-mediated, but consideration of causal linkages between prey behaviour and PIMDs is warranted.

  • 6. Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Wiberg, Miria Kaltiala
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Personality trait differences between mainland and island populations in the common frog (Rana temporaria)2013In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and predicting species range expansions is an important challenge in modern ecology because of rapidly changing environments. Recent studies have revealed that consistent within-species variation in behavior (i.e., animal personality) can be imperative for dispersal success, a key process in range expansion. Here we investigate how habitat isolation can mediate differentiation of personality traits between recently founded island populations and the main population. We performed laboratory studies of boldness and exploration across life stages (tadpoles and froglets) using four isolated island populations and four mainland populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Both tadpoles and froglets from isolated populations were bolder and more exploratory than conspecifics from the mainland. Although the pattern can be influenced by possible differences in predation pressure, we suggest that this behavioral differentiation might be the result of a disperser-dependent founder effect brought on by an isolation-driven environmental filtering of animal personalities. These findings can have important implications for both species persistence in the face of climate change (i.e., range expansions) and ecological invasions as well as for explaining rapid speciation in isolated patches.

  • 7.
    Burraco, Pablo
    et al.
    CSIC, Donana Biol Stn, Dept Wetland Ecol, Ecol Evolut & Dev Grp, E-41092 Seville, Spain..
    Valdes, Ana Elisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany. Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Gomez-Mestre, Ivan
    CSIC, Donana Biol Stn, Dept Wetland Ecol, Ecol Evolut & Dev Grp, E-41092 Seville, Spain..
    Physiological mechanisms of adaptive developmental plasticity in Rana temporaria island populations2017In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, article id 164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adaptive plasticity is essential for many species to cope with environmental heterogeneity. In particular, developmental plasticity allows organisms with complex life cycles to adaptively adjust the timing of ontogenetic switch points. Size at and time to metamorphosis are reliable fitness indicators in organisms with complex cycles. The physiological machinery of developmental plasticity commonly involves the activation of alternative neuroendocrine pathways, causing metabolic alterations. Nevertheless, we have still incomplete knowledge about how these mechanisms evolve under environments that select for differences in adaptive plasticity. In this study, we investigate the physiological mechanisms underlying divergent degrees of developmental plasticity across Rana temporaria island populations inhabiting different types of pools in northern Sweden. Methods: In a laboratory experiment we estimated developmental plasticity of amphibian larvae from six populations coming from three different island habitats: islands with only permanent pools, islands with only ephemeral pools, and islands with a mixture of both types of pools. We exposed larvae of each population to either constant water level or simulated pool drying, and estimated their physiological responses in terms of corticosterone levels, oxidative stress, and telomere length. Results: We found that populations from islands with only temporary pools had a higher degree of developmental plasticity than those from the other two types of habitats. All populations increased their corticosterone levels to a similar extent when subjected to simulated pool drying, and therefore variation in secretion of this hormone does not explain the observed differences among populations. However, tadpoles from islands with temporary pools showed lower constitutive activities of catalase and glutathione reductase, and also showed overall shorter telomeres. Conclusions: The observed differences are indicative of physiological costs of increased developmental plasticity, suggesting that the potential for plasticity is constrained by its costs. Thus, high levels of responsiveness in the developmental rate of tadpoles have evolved in islands with pools at high but variable risk of desiccation. Moreover, the physiological alterations observed may have important consequences for both short-term odds of survival and long term effects on lifespan.

  • 8.
    Dijk, Ben
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Is one defence enough?: Disentangling the relative importance of morphological and behavioural predator-induced defences2016In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 237-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organisms show predator-induced behavioural and morphological phenotypic plasticity. These defence mechanisms are often expressed simultaneously. To estimate the relative importance of these two defences, we conducted a laboratory experiment using tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria) as prey and Aeshna dragonfly larvae as predators. We first raised tadpoles in the presence and absence of caged predators to induce differences in defensive morphology, and then conducted free ranging predator trials in environments that were either with or without the presence of predation cues to induce differences in defensive behaviour. This 2 x 2 design allowed us to separate the effects of inducible morphology from inducible behaviour. Caged predators induced deeper bodies and tailfins and reduced activity levels in tadpoles. The time to first capture was shortest in tadpoles without morphological or behavioural defences. Tadpoles with a behavioural defence had a significantly longer time to first capture. Tadpoles with only antipredator morphology tended to have a longer time to first capture as compared to those without any induced defences. This treatment also had a higher number of injured tadpoles as compared to other treatments, suggesting that inducible morphology facilitates predator escape due to the 'lure effect'. However, tadpoles with both behavioural and morphological defences did not have a longer time to first capture as compared to tadpoles with only morphological or behavioural induced defences. Our results suggest that both behavioural and morphological antipredator responses contribute to reduced capture efficiency by predators, but their simultaneous expression did not have any additive effect to the time of first capture and survival, and that the morphology response is most effective when tadpoles are active.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Socio-economic impacts of marine conservation efforts in three Indonesian fishing communities2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 103, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous conservation initiatives have been undertaken to protect large marine animals by legal protection and implementing marine protected areas (MPAs). Despite these efforts, many marine animals are still threatened, partly due to lack of compliance with conservation regulations. Meanwhile, research suggests that conservation efforts which also take socio-economic factors such as fishermen's livelihoods into account during planning and implementation are more likely to succeed. This study examined the compliance and socio-economic situation of local fishing communities at three sites in Indonesia (Nusa Penida, Tanjung Luar and Komodo National Park) where shark and manta ray conservation efforts have been implemented. 59 local residents were interviewed. The results showed that 49% of those residents had experienced a deterioration and 37% an improvement in their economic situation since conservation efforts in the form of species protection or MPAs were implemented in their area. The economic situation of the residents was associated with their access to alternative livelihoods, access to information on conservation rules, and relationship with conservation authorities. Particularly, interviewees with easier access to alternative income and a positive relationship with conservation authorities also experienced an increase in their economy. In addition, compliance with conservation efforts was positively related to improved economic situation, access to alternative livelihoods and information on conservation rules. These factors all differed among the three study sites, leading to different compliance levels between sites. The results of this study indicate the importance of considering socio-economic factors and of involving local communities when planning and implementing conservation efforts.

  • 10.
    Finotello, Simone
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Trieste, Dept Life Sci, Trieste, Italy..
    Feckler, Alexander
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bundschuh, Mirco
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Repeated pulse exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin affect the behavior, physiology, and survival of the damselfly larvae Ischnura graellsii (Insecta; Odonata)2017In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 144, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Damselflies form an essential part of the aquatic and terrestrial food web. Pesticides may, however, negatively affect their behavior, physiology, and survival. To assess this, a 42-day-lasting bioassay was conducted, during which damselfly larvae (Ischnura graellsii; n = 20) were repeatedly exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin (3 days at; 0, 10, 50, 250, 1250, and 6250 ng LCH L-1), followed by recovery phases (4 days) in pesticide-free medium for six weeks. This exposure design was used to simulate frequent runoff events in the field. Variables related to the behavior (strikes against prey and capture success), growth, physiology (lipid content and fatty acid composition), as well as mortality were assessed throughout the experiment. The two highest LCH concentrations induced 100% mortality within the first 48 h, whereas 85% of the test organisms survived 28 days under control conditions. The number of strikes against prey was not affected by LCH. In contrast, prey capture success decreased significantly (up to similar to 50% at 250 ng LCH L-1, for instance, after the third pulse exposure) following LCH-exposures compared to the control. This difference was not observed after recovery phases, however, which did not counteract the enhanced energy demand for detoxification and defense mechanisms indicated by a lower growth rate (up to similar to 20%) and lipid content (up to similar to 30%) of damselflies at 50 and 250 ng LCH L-1. In addition, two essential fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid) and two precursors (linolenic acid and alinolenic acid) decreased in their concentrations upon exposure towards 250 ng LCH L-1. Thus the results of this study indicate that long-term exposure towards LCH pulses can affect damselfly behavior, physiology and survival. Given the essential role of damselflies in food web dynamics, these effects may potentially translate into local population impairments with subsequent bottom-up directed effects within and across ecosystem boundaries.

  • 11.
    Golab, Maria J.
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nat Conservat, PL-31120 Krakow, Poland.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sniegula, Szymon
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nat Conservat, PL-31120 Krakow, Poland.
    Let's mate here and now - seasonal constraints increase mating efficiency2019In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 623-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Latitudinal climatic conditions shape the length of the mating season and could thus influence reproductive traits. Knowledge of how animals behave along latitudinal clines will increase understanding of the impact of climate on sexual selection and might help in the prediction of whether peripheral populations will spread or shrink in response to changes in climate. 2. This study investigated variation in the mating efficiency of a temperate insect, the emerald damselfly Lestes sponsa, under semi-natural field conditions along a latitudinal gradient covering three regions of the species' distribution: south, central and north. 3. A comparison was done of the proportion of copulating males, the proportion of males that formed tandems but did not copulate (unsuccessful males), and the proportion of males that did not attempt to form a tandem (passive males) in these three regions. 4. It was found that the proportion of copulations was significantly higher at northern latitudes than in the southern and central regions. Southern latitudes had a higher proportion of successful copulations compared with central latitudes. The northern region had a significantly lower frequency of passive males. The southern region had an intermediate proportion of passive males, and the central region had the highest proportion. The proportion of unsuccessful males did not differ between regions. The population density across sites did not affect these results. 5. The study shows that damselflies inhabiting northern populations mate more intensively than individuals from southern and central populations. This suggests that more restrictive environmental conditions during a brief mating season select for higher mating efficiency.

  • 12.
    Heino, Jani
    et al.
    Nat Environm Ctr, Finnish Environm Inst, Biodivers, Paavo Havaksen Tie 3, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland.
    Bini, Luis Mauricio
    Univ Fed Goias, Dept Ecol, BR-74001970 Goiania, Go, Brazil.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Unravelling the correlates of species richness and ecological uniqueness in a metacommunity of urban pond insects2017In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 73, p. 422-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    City ponds have the potential to harbour a rich biodiversity of aquatic insects despite being located in an urban landscape. However, our current knowledge on the correlates of pond biodiversity is limited and even less is known about the factors that influence the ecological uniqueness of urban ponds. The multiple environmental gradients, at different spatial scales, that may affect biodiversity and ecological uniqueness of urban ponds can thus be seen both as an opportunity and as a challenge for a study. In this study, we aimed to fill this gap by focusing on aquatic insect assemblages in 51 ponds in the Swedish city of Stockholm, using a metacommunity perspective. We found that species richness was primarily determined by the density of aquatic insects, water depth and proportion of buildings around the pond. The uniqueness of ponds was estimated as local contributions to beta diversity (LCBD), and it was primarily related to the proportion of arable land and industry around the ponds. With regard to the metacommunity we found two interesting patterns. First, there was a negative relationship between richness and LCBD. Second, biodiversity was spatially independent, suggesting that spatially-patterned dispersal did not structure species richness or LCBD. These last two patterns are important when considering conservation efforts of biodiversity in city ponds. We hence suggest that the conservation of insect biodiversity in urban pond should consider the surroundings of the ponds, and that high-richness ponds are not necessarily those that require most attention because they are not ecologically the most unique.

  • 13.
    Hyeun-Ji, Lee
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Compensating for a bad start: compensatory growth across life stages in an organism with a complex life cycle2016In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 41-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisms with a complex life cycle are characterized by a life-history shift through metamorphosis and include organisms such as insects and amphibians. They must optimize their use of resources and behaviour across different life stages to maximize their fitness. An interesting question with regard to such life-history shifts is whether growth in the juvenile stage can be compensated for in the adult stage. Here we ask whether emerald damselflies (Lestes sponsa (Hansemann, 1823)) are able to compensate for depressed growth during the juvenile aquatic stage in their terrestrial adult stage. Lestes sponsa emerge at a fixed adult body size, but feed during the adult stage and are thus able to gain mass as adults. We performed a mark-recapture study to answer whether individuals that emerge from metamorphosis with a low mass are able to compensate by subsequent mass gain during the adult stage. Results showed that compensatory mass gain occurred in the adult stage such that small individuals gained more mass than large individuals. We also found that females gained more mass than males. However, individuals that emerged at a low mass still had lower mass as mature adults than individuals that emerged at a high mass, suggesting that compensation was not complete. This suggests that larval ecology and adult fitness are tightly linked and future research should focus more on elucidating the nature of this relationship.

  • 14.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    Free Univ Berlin, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany;Anhui Normal Univ, Coll Life Sci, Key Lab Biot Environm & Ecol Safety Anhui Prov, Wuhu, Peoples R China.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Stoks, Robby
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Lab Aquat Ecol Evolut & Conservat, Leuven, Belgium.
    Mauersberger, Ruediger
    Forderverein Feldberg Uckermarkische Seenlandscha, Templin, Germany.
    Mikolajewski, Dirk J.
    Free Univ Berlin, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Predator species related adaptive changes in larval growth and digestive physiology2019In: Journal of insect physiology, ISSN 0022-1910, E-ISSN 1879-1611, Vol. 114, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prey species are often non-randomly distributed along predator gradients but according to how they trade off growth against predation risk. The foraging-mediated growth/predation risk trade-off is well established, with increased foraging accelerating growth but also increasing predator induced mortality. While adaptations in digestive physiology may partly modify the relationship between foraging and growth in response to predation risk, studies exploring the impact of digestive physiology on growth in prey subjected to predation risk are still scarce. Larvae of the dragonfly genus Leucorrhinia segregate at the species level between lakes either being dominated by predatory fish (fish-lakes) or predatory invertebrates (dragonfly-lakes). Predators of these two lake types differ dramatically in their hunting style like searching and pursuing mode causing different selection pressure on prey traits including foraging. In a laboratory experiment we estimated growth rate, digestive physiology (ingested food, growth efficiency, assimilation efficiency, conversion efficiency) and metabolic rate (oxygen consumption) in the presence and absence of predator cues. Whereas fish-lake and dragonfly-lake Leucorrhinia species did not differ in growth rate, they evolved different pathways of digestive physiology to achieve similar growth rate. Because fish-lake species expressed a higher metabolic rate than dragonfly-lake species, we assume energy to be differently allocated and used for metabolic demands between species of both predator environments. Further, growth rate, but not digestive physiology was plastic in response to the presence of predator cues. Our results highlight the impact of digestive physiology in shaping the foraging-mediated growth/predation risk trade-off, with digestive physiology contributing to species distribution patterns along predator gradients.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Bini, L. M.
    Univ Fed Goias, Dept Ecol, BR-74001970 Goiania, Go, Brazil.
    Coiffard, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Wester, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Heino, J.
    Finnish Environm Inst, Freshwater Ctr, Paavo Havaksen Tie 3, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland.
    Environmental variables drive differences in the beta diversity of dragonfly assemblages among urban stormwater ponds2019In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 106, article id 105529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater ponds are beneficial to urban landscapes because these man-made systems can reduce the negative effects of flooding in urban areas and restrain the distribution of pollutants. In addition, these systems are especially important to maintain the biodiversity of urban landscapes. Here, we sampled a set of 18 stormwater ponds in the city of Uppsala in Sweden to test the relationship between beta diversity of adult dragonflies and environmental factors (local and land use variables). We analysed the total beta diversity and its two components: replacement and richness difference. We recorded 31 species of Odonata, comprising 61% of the Odonata species in the province of Uppland in Sweden. By itself, this result indicates the importance of stormwater ponds in contributing to biodiversity in urban areas. The richness difference component of beta diversity was higher than the replacement component. Results from generalized dissimilarly models indicated that the richness difference component was mainly related with pond area and total vegetation cover (aquatic vegetation plus vegetation surrounding ponds). Focusing on different vegetation variables separately, models indicated that the beta diversity components were significantly correlated with percentage cover of floating algae scums, emergent aquatic macrophytes and tall shore vegetation. These results are consistent with what is known about the ecology of dragonflies, including the importance of aerial plant structures for perching, shelter from terrestrial and aquatic predators, and for providing oviposition sites. We also found that the stormwater ponds harboured a large part of the regional species pool. These systems are therefore important havens of biodiversity in urban landscapes. Our results also indicate that the management of different types of vegetation is key to maximize the potential of these systems in maintaining regional biodiversity.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Halvarsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mikolajewski, D. J.
    Free Univ Berlin, Inst Biol, Konigin Luise Str 1-3, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Genetic differentiation in the boreal dragonfly Leucorrhinia dubia in the Palearctic region2017In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last glacial period had a strong influence on the population genetic structure of boreal species in southern and central Europe. In addition, recent and current human impact on the boreal environment has led to habitat loss, which also has a large influence on population genetic structure of species. Here we present the spatial genetic structure of the boreal dragonfly Leucorrhinia dubia using ddRAD sequencing. We sampled individuals from nine locations in Europe, three in Asia (Russia and Japan) and one location of L. intermedia in Japan. Results showed three distinct genetic clusters in Europe. One genetic cluster consisted of individuals sampled from the locations in the Swiss Alps, a second consisted of individuals sampled in the United Kingdom, and a third cluster consisted of individuals from the rest of the seven sampled locations in Europe covering a latitudinal gradient from the French Pyrenees to the north of Finland. There was also a week support that the French Pyrenees and Austrian Alps samples differentiated from the cluster of the five samples from central and north Europe. We suggest that these clusters reflect historical recolonization patterns since the last glaciation. The L. dubia individuals sampled from locations in Asia formed one cluster referring to L. dubia orientalis separated from the individuals sampled in European and from the L. intermedia locality sampled. Our result suggests that aquatic insects in the fragmented boreal landscape in south central Europe and United Kingdom need conservation consideration.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Halvarsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mikolajewski, Dirk J.
    Free Univ Berlin, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany..
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Phylogeography and larval spine length of the dragonfly Leucorhinia dubia in Europe2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 9, article id e0184596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presence or absence of predators selects for different kind of morphologies. Hence, we expect variation in traits that protect against predators to vary over geographical areas where predators vary in past and present abundance. Abdominal larval spines in dragonfly larvae provide protection against fish predators. We studied geographical variation in larval spine length of the dragonfly Leucorrhinia dubia across Western Europe using a phylogenetic approach. Larvae were raised in a common garden laboratory experiment in the absence of fish predators. Results show that larvae from northern Europe (Sweden and Finland) had significantly longer larval spines compared to larvae from western and central Europe. A phylogeny based on SNP data suggests that short larval spines is the ancestral stage in the localities sampled in this study, and that long spines have evolved in the Fenno-Scandian clade. The role of predators in shaping the morphological differences among the sampled localities is discussed.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Ingvarsson, Par K.
    Bokma, Folmer
    Evolution of the G-matrix in life history traits in the common frog during a recent colonisation of an island system2012In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 863-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of genetic correlations between traits that ostensibly channel the path of evolution away from the direction of natural selection require information on key aspects such as ancestral phenotypes, the duration of adaptive evolution, the direction of natural selection, and genetic covariances. In this study we provide such information in a frog population system. We studied adaptation in life history traits to pool drying in frog populations on islands of known age, which have been colonized from a mainland population. The island populations show strong local adaptation in development time and size. We found that the first eigenvector of the variance-covariance matrix (g (max)) had changed between ancestral mainland populations and newly established island populations. Interestingly, there was no divergence in g (max) among island populations that differed in their local adaptation in development time and size. Thus, a major change in the genetic covariance of life-history traits occurred in the colonization of the island system, but subsequent local adaptation in development time took place despite the constraints imposed by the genetic covariance structure.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Nilsson-Ortman, Viktor
    Predation and the relative importance of larval colour polymorphisms and colour polyphenism in a damselfly2013In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 579-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific body colour variation is common in many animal species. Predation could be a key selective agent giving rise to variation in body colour, and such variation could be due to genetics (polymorphisms) or phenotypic plasticity (polyphenisms). In this study we examined the degree of colour polymorphism and polyphenism in background colour matching in larvae of the damselfly Coenagrion armatum. In addition, we tested if predation risk is reduced when larvae are exposed to a matching compared to a non-matching background. By raising families of larvae at three different background colours we showed that polymorphism explained about 20 % of the total variation and polyphenism about 35 %. In a predation experiment with fish, we showed that larvae with a body colour matching the background had a higher survival success compared to larvae with a non-matching background colour. We suggest that the background matching is adaptive in terms of survival from predation and that colour diversity is maintained because of spatial and temporal variation in the background experienced by damselfly larvae under field conditions.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Richter-Boix, Alex
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Within-Population Developmental and Morphological Plasticity is Mirrored in Between-Population Differences: Linking Plasticity and Diversity2013In: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 494-503Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate evolutionary diversification of organisms. If life-history and morphological diversification across a lineage is mirrored in diversification in the same traits due to phenotypic plasticity within a lineage it fulfils one of the expectations that are needed to support this diversification hypothesis. We carried out a laboratory study to examine development rate and morphology between and within populations of the parsley frog, Pelodytes punctatus. We found that frogs reared in the laboratory had a longer development time, relatively longer hind legs and relatively narrower heads under constant water level compared to those under decreasing water level simulating pool drying. This adaptive phenotypic plasticity response to pool drying was mirrored across populations because frogs from permanent waters had longer development times, relatively longer hind legs and relatively narrower heads compared to frogs from temporary waters. Hence the developmental and morphological plasticity observed within populations was also observed between populations as constitutive expressed traits. We suggest that the morphology pattern observed was driven by a common developmental process (time to metamorphosis), indicating that plasticity may contribute to evolutionary change, ultimately resulting in genetic accommodation of the morphological traits.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Richter-Boix, Alex
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gomez-Mestre, Ivan
    CSIC, Ecol Evolut & Dev Grp, Donana Biol Stn, Avda Amer Vespucio S-N, Seville, Spain..
    Morphological Consequences of Developmental Plasticity in Rana temporaria are not Accommodated into Among-Population or Among-Species Variation2016In: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 242-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental induced developmental plasticity occurs in many organisms and it has been suggested to facilitate biological diversification. Here we use ranid frogs to examine whether morphological changes derived from adaptive developmental acceleration in response to pool drying within a species are mirrored by differences among populations and across species. Accelerated development in larval anurans under pool drying conditions is adaptive and often results in allometric changes in limb length and head shape. We examine the association between developmental rate and morphology within population, among populations in divergent environments, and among species inside the Ranidae frog family, combining experimental approaches with phylogenetic comparative analyses. We found that frogs reared under decreasing water conditions that simulated fast pool drying had a faster development rate compared to tadpoles reared on constant water conditions. This faster developmental rate resulted in different juvenile morphologies between the two pool drying conditions. The association between developmental rate and morphology found as a result of plasticity was not mirrored by differences among populations that differed in development, neither was it mirrored among species that differed in development rate. We conclude that morphological differences among populations and species were not driven by variation in developmental time per se. Instead, selective factors, presumably operating on locomotion and prey choice, seem to have had a stronger evolutionary effect on frog morphology than evolutionary divergences in developmental rate in the ranid populations and species studied.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Veldhoen, Nik
    Lind, Martin I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Helbing, Caren C.
    Phenotypic plasticity in the hepatic transcriptome of the European common frog (Rana temporaria): the interplay between environmental induction and geographical lineage on developmental response2013In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 22, no 22, p. 5608-5623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenotypic plasticity might facilitate adaptation to new environmental conditions through the enhancement of initial survival of organisms. Once a population is established, further adaptation and diversification may occur through adaptive trait evolution. While several studies have found evidence for this mechanism using phenotypic traits, much less is known at the level of gene expression. Here, we use an islands system of frog populations that show local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity to pool drying conditions in development time until metamorphoses. We examined gene expression differences in Rana temporaria tadpole livers with respect to pool drying at the source population and in response to simulated pool drying in the laboratory. Using a MAGEX cDNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we identified an increase in several gene transcripts in response to artificial pool drying including thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1, ornithine transcarbamylase and catalase. In addition, these gene transcripts also showed greater abundance in island populations that developed faster. Hence, the gene transcripts were related to both constitutive response (higher levels in island populations that developed faster) and plastic response (increased abundance under decreasing water levels). This pattern is in accordance with genetic accommodation, which predicts similarities between plastic gene expression and constitutive expression in locally adapted populations.

  • 23. Johansson, Helena
    et al.
    Ingvarsson, Par K.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Cross-species amplification and development of microsatellites for six species of European Coenagrionid damselflies2012In: Conservation Genetics Resources, ISSN 1877-7252, E-ISSN 1877-7260, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 191-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the cross-amplification and development of new loci for six species of closely related European damselflies. First, twenty-nine published microsatellites for the damselflies Coenagrion puella and C. mercuriale were multiplexed using M13-tagged primers, tested on 23 individuals, and then cross-species amplified on 21-26 individuals of C. armatum, C. johanssoni, C. pulchellum and C. scitulum. Second, sixteen new primers were developed for use in C. armatum, C. johanssoni and C. scitulum, and screened on 21 individuals. Values for observed heterozygosities and number of alleles ranged between 0.00-0.87 and 2-19 respectively (over all loci and species). For all species the tested loci provide a minimum of 1-8 usable markers for population genetic studies.

  • 24. Johansson, Helena
    et al.
    Stoks, Robby
    Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Johansson, Frank
    Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Large-scale patterns in genetic variation, gene flow and differentiation in five species of European Coenagrionid damselfly provide mixed support for the central-marginal hypothesis2013In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 744-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, an increased effort has been directed towards understanding the distribution of genetic variation within and between populations, particularly at central and marginal areas of a species’ distribution. Much of this research is centred on the central-marginal hypothesis, which posits that populations at range margins are sparse, small and genetically diminished compared to those at the centre of a species’ distribution range. We tested predictions derived from the central-marginal hypothesis for the distribution of genetic variation and population differentiation in five European Coenagrionid damselfly species. We screened genetic variation (microsatellites) in populations sampled in the centre and margins of the species’ latitudinal ranges, assessed genetic diversity (HS) in the populations and the distribution of this genetic diversity between populations (FST). We further assessed genetic substructure and migration with Bayesian assignment methods, and tested for significant associations between genetic substructure and bioclimatic and spatial (altitude and latitude) variables, using general linearized models. We found no general adherence to the central-marginal hypothesis; instead we found that other factors such as historical or current ecological factors often better explain the patterns uncovered. This was illustrated in Coenagrion mercuriale whose colonisation history and behaviour most likely led to the observation of a high genetic diversity in the south and lower genetic diversity with increasing latitude, and in C. armatum and C. pulchellum whose patterns of low genetic diversity coupled with the weakest genetic differentiation at one of their range margins suggested, respectively, possible range shifts and recent, strong selection pressure.

  • 25.
    Kunce, Warren
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Combination effects of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids on development and survival of Chironomus riparius2015In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 122, p. 426-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard ecotoxicological risk assessments are conducted on individual substances, however monitoring of streams in agricultural areas has shown that pesticides are rarely present alone. In fact, brief but intense pulse events such as storm water runoff and spray drift during application subject freshwater environments to complex mixtures of pesticides at high concentrations. This study investigates the potential risks to non-target aquatic organisms exposed to a brief but intense mixture of the neonicotinoid pesticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid and the pyrethroid pesticides deltamethrin and esfenvalerate, compared to single substance exposure. All four of these pesticides have been detected in surface waters at concentrations higher than benchmark values and both classes of pesticides are known to exert adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms under single substance exposure scenarios. First instar midge larvae of the non-target aquatic organism, Chironomus riparius, were exposed to combinations of these four pesticides at 50% of their LC50 (96 h) values in a 1 h pulse. They were then reared to adulthood in uncontaminated conditions and assessed for survival, development time and fecundity. Our results show that the risk of disruption to survival and development of non-target aquatic organisms under this scenario is not negligible on account of the significant increases in mortality of C. riparius found in the majority of the pesticide exposures and the delays in development after pyrethroid exposure. While none of the deleterious effects appear to be amplified by combination of the pesticides, there is some evidence for antagonism. No effects on fecundity by any of the pesticide treatments were observed.

  • 26.
    Kunce, Warren
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Stoks, Robby
    Univ Leuven, Lab Aquat Ecol Evolut & Conservat, Leuven, Belgium..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Single and mixture impacts of two pyrethroids on damselfly predatory behavior and physiological biomarkers2017In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 190, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct mortality due to toxicity of single pesticide exposure along a concentration gradient, while the most common, is only one important parameter for assessing the effects of pesticide contamination on aquatic ecosystems. Sub-lethal toxicity can induce changes in an organism's behavior and physiology that may have population -level ramifications and consequences for ecosystem health. Additionally, the simultaneous detection of multiple contaminants in monitored watersheds stresses the importance of gaining a greater understanding of the toxicities of combined exposures, particularly at low, environmentally relevant concentrations. Using larvae of the Azure Damselfly (Coenagrion paella), we conducted a combined exposure investigation of two widely-used pyrethroid insecticides presumed to share the same neurotoxic mechanism of action, and estimated their effect on predatory ability, mobility and three physiological biomarkers (Glutathione S-transferase; GST, respiratory electron transport system; ETS, and malondialdehyde; MDA). Deltamethrin exposure (0.065 mu g/L and 0.13 mu g/L) was found to reduce the predatory ability, but it did not affect the larvae's mobility. Esfenvalerate exposure (0.069 mu g/L and 0.13 mu g/L), on the other hand, induced no significant changes in predatory ability or mobility. The decrease in predatory ability after the combination exposure (0.067 mu g/L deltamethrin and 0.12 mu g/L. esfenvalerate) did not significantly differ from the impact of the single deltamethrin exposures. Glutathione-S-transferase was induced after single esfenvalerate exposure and the lower deltamethrin concentration exposure, but seemingly inhibited after exposure to the higher concentration of deltamethrin as well as the combination of both pyrethroids. Our data indicate that sub-lethal exposure to deltamethrin reduces predatory ability and suggest that sub-lethal combined exposure to deltamethrin and esfenvalerate inhibits the GST detoxification pathway. These effects can eventually result in a lower emergence of adults from contaminated ponds.

  • 27. Lind, M. I.
    et al.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Testing the role of phenotypic plasticity for local adaptation: growth and development in time-constrained Rana temporaria populations2011In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 2696-2704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenotypic plasticity can be important for local adaptation, because it enables individuals to survive in a novel environment until genetic changes have been accumulated by genetic accommodation. By analysing the relationship between development rate and growth rate, it can be determined whether plasticity in life-history traits is caused by changed physiology or behaviour. We extended this to examine whether plasticity had been aiding local adaptation, by investigating whether the plastic response had been fixed in locally adapted populations. Tadpoles from island populations of Rana temporaria, locally adapted to different pool-drying regimes, were monitored in a common garden. Individual differences in development rate were caused by different foraging efficiency. However, developmental plasticity was physiologically mediated by trading off growth against development rate. Surprisingly, plasticity has not aided local adaptation to time-stressed environments, because local adaptation was not caused by genetic assimilation but on selection on the standing genetic variation in development time.

  • 28. Mikolajewski, D. J.
    et al.
    Ruesen, L.
    Mauersberger, R.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rolff, J.
    Relaxed predation results in reduced phenotypic integration in a suite of dragonflies2015In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1354-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although changes in magnitude of single traits responding to selective agents have been studied intensively, little is known about selection shaping networks of traits and their patterns of covariation. However, this is central for our understanding of phenotypic evolution as traits are embedded in a multivariate environment with selection affecting a multitude of traits simultaneously rather than individually. Here, we investigate inter- and intraspecific patterns of trait integration (trait correlations) in the larval abdomen of dragonflies as a response to a change in predator selection. Species of the dragonfly genus Leucorrhinia underwent a larval habitat shift from predatory fish to predatory dragonfly-dominated lakes with an associated relaxation in selection pressure from fish predation. Our results indicate that the habitat-shift-induced relaxed selection pressure caused phenotypic integration of abdominal traits to be reduced. Intraspecific findings matched patterns comparing species from both habitats with higher abdominal integration in response to predatory fish. This higher integration is probably a result of faster burst swimming speed. The abdomen holds the necessary morphological machinery to successfully evade predatory fish via burst swimming. Hence, abdominal traits have to function in a tight coordinated manner, as maladaptive variation and consequently nonoptimal burst swimming would cause increased mortality. In predatory dragonfly-dominated lakes, no such strong link between burst swimming and mortality is present. Our findings highlight the importance of studying multivariate trait relationships as a response to selection for understanding patterns of phenotypic diversification.

  • 29.
    Mikolajewski, Dirk Johannes
    et al.
    Free Univ Berlin, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Scharnweber, Kristin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Jiang, B
    Free Univ Berlin, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Leicht, Sebastian
    Free Univ Berlin, Inst Biol, Berlin, Germany.
    Mauersberger, Rüdiger
    Forderverein Feldberg Uckermark Seenlandschaft eV, Templin, Germany.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Changing the habitat: the evolution of inter-correlated traits to escape from predators2016In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 1394-1405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burst escape speed is an effective and widely used behaviour for evading predators, with burst escape speed relying on several different morphological features. However, we know little about how behavioural and underlying morphological attributes change in concert as a response to changes in selective predation regime. We studied intercorrelated trait differentiation of body shape and burst-swim-mediating morphology in response to a habitat shift-related reduction in burst escape speed using larvae of the dragonfly genus Leucorrhinia. Species in this genus underwent a well-known habitat shift from predatory fish lakes (fish lakes) to predatory fish-free lakes dominated by large predatory dragonflies (dragonfly lakes) accompanied by relaxed selection on escape burst speed. Results revealed that species from fish lakes that possess faster burst speed have evolved a suite of functionally intercorrelated traits, expressing a wider abdomen, a higher abdominal muscles mass and a larger branchial chamber compared with species from dragonfly lakes. In contrast, populations within species did not show significant differences in muscle mass and branchial chamber size between lake types in three of the species. High multicollinearity among variables suggests that traits have evolved in concert rather than independently when Leucorrhinia shifted from fish lakes to dragonfly lakes. Thus, relaxed selection on burst escape speed in dragonfly-lake species resulted in a correlated reduction of abdominal muscles and a smaller branchial chamber, likely to save production and/or maintenance costs. Our results highlight the importance of studying integrated behavioural and morphological traits to fully understand the evolution of complex phenotypes.

  • 30. Mobley, Kenyon B.
    et al.
    Ruiz, Rocio Colas
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Englund, Goran
    Bokma, Folmer
    No evidence that stickleback spines directly increase risk of predation by an invertebrate predator2013In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Some populations of stickleback have a reduced number and/or relative size of spines. Hypothesis: Macroinvertebrate predators such as dragonfly larvae cause selective pressure against spines by capturing more stickleback with pelvic spines than stickleback that are spineless. Organisms: Ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis). Methods: We used 10 stickleback, five with pelvic spines and five with their pelvic spines removed. We put them in containers with two dragonfly larvae. Every day for 4 days we monitored how many stickleback were captured by the larvae. We repeated this experiment ten times at two different densities of fish and predators. We also developed a model to determine whether selection for spinelessness can be distinguished from drift. Results: Dragonfly larvae caught as many stickleback with spines as without. The absence of spines was not associated with a decrease in predation risk. We substituted Bayesian estimates of the selection coefficient into quantitative genetic models of allele frequency change, and the results of the models suggest that the selective advantage of spine loss is so small that its effects cannot be distinguished from drift.

  • 31.
    Nilsson-Oertman, V.
    et al.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Rogell, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Stoks, R.
    Univ Leuven, Lab Aquat Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Leuven, Belgium..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ontogenetic changes in genetic variances of age-dependent plasticity along a latitudinal gradient2015In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 366-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expression of phenotypic plasticity may differ among life stages of the same organism. Age-dependent plasticity can be important for adaptation to heterogeneous environments, but this has only recently been recognized. Whether age-dependent plasticity is a common outcome of local adaptation and whether populations harbor genetic variation in this respect remains largely unknown. To answer these questions, we estimated levels of additive genetic variation in age-dependent plasticity in six species of damselflies sampled from 18 populations along a latitudinal gradient spanning 3600 km. We reared full sib larvae at three temperatures and estimated genetic variances in the height and slope of thermal reaction norms of body size at three points in time during ontogeny using random regression. Our data show that most populations harbor genetic variation in growth rate (reaction norm height) in all ontogenetic stages, but only some populations and ontogenetic stages were found to harbor genetic variation in thermal plasticity (reaction norm slope). Genetic variances in reaction norm height differed among species, while genetic variances in reaction norm slope differed among populations. The slope of the ontogenetic trend in genetic variances of both reaction norm height and slope increased with latitude. We propose that differences in genetic variances reflect temporal and spatial variation in the strength and direction of natural selection on growth trajectories and age-dependent plasticity. Selection on age-dependent plasticity may depend on the interaction between temperature seasonality and time constraints associated with variation in life history traits such as generation length.

  • 32. Nilsson-Ortman, Viktor
    et al.
    Stoks, Robby
    De Block, Marjan
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Generalists and specialists along a latitudinal transect: patterns of thermal adaptation in six species of damselflies2012In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 93, no 6, p. 1340-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical organisms colonizing temperate environments face reduced average temperatures and dramatic thermal fluctuations. Theoretical models postulate that thermal specialization should be favored either when little environmental variation is experienced within generations or when among-generation variation is small relative to within-generation variation. To test these predictions, we studied six temperate species of damselflies differing in latitudinal distribution. We developed a computer model simulating how organisms experience environmental variation (accounting for diapause and voltinism) and performed a laboratory experiment assaying thermal sensitivities of growth rates. The computer model showed opposing latitudinal trends in among-and within-generation thermal variability: within-generation thermal variability decreased toward higher latitudes, whereas relative levels of among-generation thermal variability peaked at midlatitudes (where a shift in voltinism occurred). The growth experiment showed that low-latitude species were more thermally generalized than mid- and high-latitude species, supporting the prediction that generalists are favored under high levels of within-generation variation. Northern species had steeper, near-exponential reaction norms suggestive of thermal specialization. However, they had strikingly high thermal optima and grew very slowly over most of the thermal range they are expected to experience in the field. This observation is at present difficult to explain. These results highlight the importance of considering interactions between life history and environmental variation when deriving expectations of thermal adaptation.

  • 33. Nilsson-Ortman, Viktor
    et al.
    Stoks, Robby
    De Block, Marjan
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Latitudinal patterns of phenology and age-specific thermal performance across six Coenagrion damselfly species2013In: Ecological Monographs, ISSN 0012-9615, E-ISSN 1557-7015, Vol. 83, no 4, p. 491-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of computer simulations and laboratory experiments we test if the thermal sensitivity of growth rates change during ontogeny in damselfly larvae and if these changes can be predicted based on the natural progression of average temperature or thermal variability in the field. The laboratory experiment included replicated species from Southern, Central, and Northern Europe. Although annual fluctuations in temperature represent a key characteristic of temperate environments, few studies of thermal performance have considered the ecological importance of the studied traits within a seasonal context. Instead, thermal performance is assumed to remain constant throughout ontogeny and to reflect selection acting over the whole life cycle. The laboratory experiment revealed considerable variation among species in the strength and direction of ontogenetic performance shifts. In four species from Southern and Central Europe, reaction norms were steepest during early ontogeny, becoming less steep during later ontogenetic stages (indicative of low-temperature acclimation). In one Northern European species, the slope of reaction norms did not change during ontogeny. In the other North European species, reaction norms became steeper during ontogeny (indicative of high-temperature acclimation). We had expected high-latitude species to show strong low-temperature acclimation responses, because they have a short flight season and inhabit a strongly seasonal environment. Instead, we found the reversed pattern: Low-latitude species displayed strong low-temperature acclimation responses, and high-latitude species displayed weak, or even reversed, acclimation responses to low temperatures. These findings suggest that low-temperature acclimation may be less beneficial and possibly more costly in habitats with rapid seasonal transitions in average temperature. We conclude that thermal performance traits are more dynamic than typically assumed and caution against using results from single ontogenetic stages to predict species' responses to changing environmental conditions.

  • 34. Nilsson-Ortman, Viktor
    et al.
    Stoks, Robby
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Competitive interactions modify the temperature dependence of damselfly growth rates2014In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1394-1406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual growth rates and survival are major determinants of individual fitness, population size structure, and community dynamics. The relationships between growth rate, survival, and temperature may thus be important for predicting biological responses to climate change. Although it is well known that growth rates and survival are affected by competition and predation in addition to temperature, the combined effect of these factors on growth rates, survival, and size structure has rarely been investigated simultaneously in the same ecological system. To address this question, we conducted experiments on the larvae of two species of damselflies and determined the temperature dependence of growth rate, survival, and cohort size structure under three scenarios of increasing ecological complexity: no competition, intraspecific competition, and interspecific competition. In one species, the relationship between growth rate and temperature became steeper in the presence of competitors, whereas that of survival remained unchanged. In the other species, the relationship between growth rate and temperature was unaffected by competitive interactions, but survival was greatly reduced at high temperatures in the presence of interspecific competitors. The combined effect of competitive interactions and temperature on cohort size structure differed from the effects of these factors in isolation. Together, these findings suggest that it will be challenging to scale up information from single-species laboratory studies to the population and community level.

  • 35. Nilsson-Örtman, V.
    et al.
    Stoks, R.
    De Block, M.
    Johansson, H.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Latitudinally structured variation in the temperature dependence of damselfly growth rates2013In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 64-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Metabolic Theory of Ecology predicts that the slope of the rate-temperature relationship, E, remains consistent across traits and organisms, acting as a major determinant of large-scale ecological patterns. Although E has recently been shown to vary systematically, we have a poor understanding of its ecological significance. To address this question, we conducted a common-garden experiment involving six damselfly species differing in distribution, estimating E at the level of full-sib families. Each species was sampled throughout its latitudinal range, allowing us to characterise variation in E along a latitudinal gradient spanning 3600 km. We show that E differs among populations and increases with latitude. E was right-skewness across species, but this was largely an artefact of the latitudinal trend. Increased seasonality towards higher latitude may contribute to the latitudinal trend in E. We conclude that E should be seen as a trait involved in local adaptation.

  • 36.
    Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Unit, Solvegatan 12, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.;Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 25 Willcocks St, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The Rate of Seasonal Changes in Temperature Alters Acclimation of Performance under Climate Change2017In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 190, no 6, p. 743-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How the ability to acclimate will impact individual performance and ecological interactions under climate change remains poorly understood. Theory predicts that the benefit an organism can gain from acclimating depends on the rate at which temperatures change relative to the time it takes to induce beneficial acclimation. Here, we present a conceptual model showing how slower seasonal changes under climate change can alter species' relative performance when they differ in acclimation rate and magnitude. To test predictions from theory, we performed a microcosm experiment where we reared a mid- and a high-latitude damselfly species alone or together under the rapid seasonality currently experienced at 62 degrees N and the slower seasonality predicted for this latitude under climate change and measured larval growth and survival. To separate acclimation effects from fixed thermal responses, we simulated growth trajectories based on species' growth rates at constant temperatures and quantified how much and how fast species needed to acclimate to match the observed growth trajectories. Consistent with our predictions, the results showed that the midlatitude species had a greater capacity for acclimation than the high-latitude species. Furthermore, since acclimation occurred at a slower rate than seasonal temperature changes, the midlatitude species had a small growth advantage over the high-latitude species under the current seasonality but a greater growth advantage under the slower seasonality predicted for this latitude under climate change. In addition, the two species did not differ in survival under the current seasonality, but the midlatitude species had higher survival under the predicted climate change scenario, possibly because rates of cannibalism were lower when smaller heterospecifics were present. These findings highlight the need to incorporate acclimation rates in ecological models.

  • 37.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Adams, Dean C.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    The Evolution of Wing Shape in Ornamented-Winged Damselflies (Calopterygidae, Odonata)2013In: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 300-309Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flight has conferred an extraordinary advantage to some groups of animals. Wing shape is directly related to flight performance and evolves in response to multiple selective pressures. In some species, wings have ornaments such as pigmented patches that are sexually selected. Since organisms with pigmented wings need to display the ornament while flying in an optimal way, we might expect a correlative evolution between the wing ornament and wing shape. We examined males from 36 taxa of calopterygid damselflies that differ in wing pigmentation, which is used in sexual displays. We used geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative approaches to analyse whether wing shape and wing pigmentation show correlated evolution. We found that wing pigmentation is associated with certain wing shapes that probably increase the quality of the signal: wings being broader where the pigmentation is located. Our results also showed correlated evolution between wing pigmentation and wing shape in hind wings, but not in front wings, probably because hind wings are more involved in signalling than front wings. The results imply that the evolution of diversity in wing pigmentations and behavioural sexual displays might be an important driver of speciation due to important pre-copulatory selective pressures.

  • 38.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Adams, Dean C.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Wing shape allometry and aerodynamics in calopterygid damselflies: a comparative approach2013In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 13, p. 118-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Wing size and shape have important aerodynamic implications on flight performance. We explored how wing size was related to wing shape in territorial males of 37 taxa of the damselfly family Calopterygidae. Wing coloration was also included in the analyses because it is sexually and naturally selected and has been shown to be related to wing shape. We studied wing shape using both the non-dimensional radius of the second moment of wing area (RSM) and geometric morphometrics. Lower values of the RSM result in less energetically demanding flight and wider ranges of flight speed. We also re-analyzed previously published data on other damselflies and dragonflies. Results: The RSM showed a hump-shaped relationship with wing size. However, after correcting for phylogeny using independent contrast, this pattern changed to a negative linear relationship. The basal genus of the study family, Hetaerina, was mainly driving that change. The obtained patterns were specific for the study family and differed from other damselflies and dragonflies. The relationship between the RSM and wing shape measured by geometric morphometrics was linear, but relatively small changes along the RSM axis can result in large changes in wing shape. Our results also showed that wing coloration may have some effect on RSM. Conclusions: We found that RSM showed a complex relationship with size in calopterygid damselflies, probably as a result of other selection pressures besides wing size per se. Wing coloration and specific behavior (e.g. courtship) are potential candidates for explaining the complexity. Univariate measures of wing shape such as RSM are more intuitive but lack the high resolution of other multivariate techniques such as geometric morphometrics. We suggest that the relationship between wing shape and size are taxa-specific and differ among closely-related insect groups.

  • 39.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Biología de Organismos y Sistemas, University of Oviedo.
    Bokma, Folmer
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Hind wing shape evolves faster than front wing shape in Calopteryx damselflies2012In: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 116-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wing shape has been shown in a variety of species to be influenced by natural and sexual selection. In damselflies, front- and hind wings can beat independently, and functional differentiation may occur. Males of Calopteryx damselflies show species-specific nuptial flights that differ in colour signalling with the hind wings. Therefore, hind wing shape and colour may evolve in concert to improve colour display, independent of the front wings. We predicted that male hind wing shape evolves faster than front wing shape, due to sexual selection. Females do not engage in sexual displays, so we predicted that females do not show differences in divergence between front- and hind wing shape. We analysed the nonallometric component of wing shape of five European Calopteryx taxa using geometric morphometrics. We found a higher evolutionary divergence of hind wing shape in both sexes. Indeed, we found no significant differences in rate of evolution between the sexes, despite clear sexspecific differences in wing shape. We suggest that evolution of hind wing shape in males is accelerated by sexual selection on pre-copulatory displays and that this acceleration is reflected in females due to genetic correlations that somehow link the rates of wing shape evolution in the two sexes, but not the wing shapes themselves.

  • 40.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Dijkstra, K. -DB.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Habitat variation and wing coloration affect wing shape evolution in dragonflies2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 1866-1874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitats are spatially and temporally variable, and organisms must be able to track these changes. One potential mechanism for this is dispersal by flight. Therefore, we would expect flying animals to show adaptations in wing shape related to habitat variation. In this work, we explored variation in wing shape in relation to preferred water body (flowing water or standing water with tolerance for temporary conditions) and landscape (forested to open) using 32 species of dragonflies of the genus Trithemis (80% of the known species). We included a potential source of variation linked to sexual selection: the extent of wing coloration on hindwings. We used geometric morphometric methods for studying wing shape. We also explored the phenotypic correlation of wing shape between the sexes. We found that wing shape showed a phylogenetic structure and therefore also ran phylogenetic independent contrasts. After correcting for the phylogenetic effects, we found (i) no significant effect of water body on wing shape; (ii) male forewings and female hindwings differed with regard to landscape, being progressively broader from forested to open habitats; (iii) hindwings showed a wider base in wings with more coloration, especially in males; and (iv) evidence for phenotypic correlation of wing shape between the sexes across species. Hence, our results suggest that natural and sexual selection are acting partially independently on fore- and hindwings and with differences between the sexes, despite evidence for phenotypic correlation of wing shape between males and females.

  • 41.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    A potential pitfall in studies of biological shape: Does size matter?2017In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 1447-1457Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The number of published studies using geometric morphometrics (GM) for analysing biological shape has increased steadily since the beginning of the 1990s, covering multiple research areas such as ecology, evolution, development, taxonomy and palaeontology. Unfortunately, we have observed that many published studies using GM do not evaluate the potential allometric effects of size on shape, which normally require consideration or assessment. This might lead to misinterpretations and flawed conclusions in certain cases, especially when size effects explain a large part of the shape variation. 2. We assessed, for the first time and in a systematic manner, how often published studies that have applied GM consider the potential effects of allometry on shape. 3. We reviewed the 300 most recent published papers that used GM for studying biological shape. We also estimated how much of the shape variation was explained by allometric effects in the reviewed papers. 4. More than one-third (38%) of the reviewed studies did not consider the allometric component of shape variation. In studies where the allometric component was taken into account, it was significant in 88% of the cases, explaining up to 87.3% of total shape variation. We believe that one reason that may cause the observed results is a misunderstanding of the process that superimposes landmark configurations, i.e. the Generalized Procrustes Analysis, which removes isometric effects of size on shape, but not allometric effects. 5. Allometry can be a crucial component of shape variation. We urge authors to address, and report, size effects in studies of biological shape. However, we do not propose to always remove size effects, but rather to evaluate the research question with and without the allometric component of shape variation. This approach can certainly provide a thorough understanding of how much size contributes to the observed shaped variation.

  • 42.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Bird predation selects for wing shape and coloration in a damselfly2015In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 791-799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wing shape is related to flight performance, which is expected to be under selection for improving flight behaviours such as predator avoidance. Moreover, wing conspicuousness, usually involved in sexual selection processes, is also relevant in terms of predation risk. In this study, we examined how predation by a passerine bird, the white wagtail Motacilla alba, selects wing shape and wing colour patch size in males of the banded demoiselle Calopteryx splendens. The wing colour patch is intra- and intersexually selected in the study species. In a field study, we compared wings of live damselflies to wings of predated damselflies which are always discarded after predation. Based on aerodynamic theory and a previous study on wing shape of territorial tactics in damselflies, we predicted an overall short and broad wing, with a concave front margin shape to be selected by predation. This shape would be expected to improve escaping ability. Moreover, we predicted that wing patch size should be negatively selected by predation. We found that selection operated differently on fore- and hindwings. In contrast to our predictions, predation favoured a slender general forewing shape. However, the predicted wing shape was favoured in hindwings. We also found selection favouring a narrower wing colour patch. Our results suggest different roles of fore- and hindwings in flight, as previously suggested for Calopteryx damselflies and shown for butterflies and moths. Forewings would be more involved in sustained flight and hindwings in flight manoeuvrability. Our results differ somehow from a recently published work in the same study system, but using another population, suggesting that selection can fluctuate across space, despite the simplicity of this predator-prey system.

  • 43.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Cincinnati, Dept Biol Sci, Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Wing morphology and migration status, but not body size, habitat or Rapoport's rule predict range size in North-American dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae)2019In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 309-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding why species range sizes vary is important for predicting the impact of environmental change on biodiversity. Here we use a multi-variable approach in a phylogenetic comparative context to understand how four morphological, two ecological, and two eco-geographical variables are associated with range size, latitudinal range and longitudinal range in 81 species of North-American libellulid dragonflies. Our results show that: 1) migratory species and species with a more expanded basal hindwing lobe have a larger range size; 2) opposite to Rapoport's rule, latitudinal range is negatively correlated with mid-range latitude; 3) longitudinal range is predicted by wing morphology and migration; 4) body size and larval habitat are not correlated with range size, latitudinal range or longitudinal range. These results suggest that dispersal-related traits, such as wing shape and migratory status, are important factors in predicting the range size of libellulid dragonflies. In addition, the reverse Rapoport's rule suggests that more northern-centred species might be more specialized than more southern-centred species. We suggest that the variables predicting range size are likely imposed by taxon-specific morphological, ecological, physiological and behavioural traits. Taxon-specific knowledge is thus necessary to understand the dynamics of range sizes and is important to implement successful restoration and conservation plans of threatened species.

  • 44.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Saul
    Karlsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Male wing shape differs between condition-dependent alternative reproductive tactics in territorial damselflies2014In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 91, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Territorial contests between males without weaponry are based on costly displays and can result in condition-dependent alternative reproductive tactics that maximize male fitness. Physiological and morphological traits such as fat content, body size or the expression of secondary sexual traits have been shown to contribute to male territory-holding potential. When territorial contests are based on flight displays, wing morphology is expected to contribute to the territory-holding potential of a male through its effects on flight performance. We explored whether wing shape contributed to the territory-holding potential of males of three species of Calopteryx damselflies. Males of these species show two distinct, condition-dependent behavioural tactics: territorial and nonterritorial. Previous studies have shown that territorial males have higher fitness than nonterritorial males. We used mark-recapture to determine male tactics within the populations and compared wing shape, size and wing coloured spot size (a secondary sexual trait) between tactics. Territorial males of all three species had shorter and slightly broader hindwings than nonterritorial males. In two species, forewings of territorial males were longer and broader than forewings of nonterritorial males. Wing size and wing spot size did not differ between tactics. We suggest that the wing shape of territorial males might confer better flight manoeuvrability, which would be advantageous for territorial contests. Therefore, wing shape is likely to be an important trait contributing to territory-holding potential in condition-dependent alternative reproductive tactics based on flight displays. (C) 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 45.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Söderquist, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Nordström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Flinders Univ S Australia, Anat & Histol Ctr Neurosci, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia..
    The price of looking sexy: visual ecology of a three-level predator–prey system2017In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 707-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colour signals and colour vision play a pivotal role in intraspecific communication and predator-prey interactions. However, the costs of expressing conspicuous sexual signals at multiple trophic levels have been largely overlooked. Sexual signals can also experience character displacement in sympatric populations of closely related species, leading to potential changes in conspicuousness. We here investigate a bird-damselfly-fruit fly predator-prey system, where two closely related damselfly species have conspicuous, sexually selected wing coloration. The damselflies can occur in sympatry and allopatry, and reproductive character displacement in the coloration size has been previously reported. We quantify the damselfly wing reflectance from replicated sympatric and allopatric populations, and use receptor noise models to investigate the visual discriminability of the wing coloration for the bird, damselfly and fly vision systems, against natural backgrounds. We perform electroretinograms to study damselfly eye sensitivity. We also estimate damselfly predation risk in natural populations. We find that the chromatic component of wing coloration makes males highly discriminable to the predator, but not to the prey. However, female wing coloration is predominantly cryptic for the predator and prey, and interestingly, also for male damselflies. A female being cryptic to conspecifics likely reduces male harassment. The estimates of predation risk partially support the discriminability results. We also show that there is no difference in colour vision sensitivity between the two damselfly species and sexes, and no difference in wing coloration or its discriminability between sympatric and allopatric populations. Our results suggest that sexually selected traits can be antagonistically selected by predators and prey and that this antagonistic selection can be sex-dependent: males are paying a large cost in terms of conspicuousness, while females remain mostly cryptic. Our study thus emphasizes the need for investigating visual communication at multitrophic levels since the degree of colour discriminability can differ between predators, prey and the focal species.

  • 46.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Söderquist, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada;Evolutionary Ecology Unit, Biology Department, Lund University, SE223-62 Lund, Sweden.
    Cortázar-Chinarro, María
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Lundgren, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Antagonistic natural and sexual selection on wing shape in a scrambling damselfly2016In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 1582-1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wings are a key trait underlying the evolutionary success of birds, bats, and insects. For over a century, researchers have studiedthe form and function of wings to understand the determinants of flight performance. However, to understand the evolutionof flight, we must comprehend not only how morphology affects performance, but also how morphology and performanceaffect fitness. Natural and sexual selection can either reinforce or oppose each other, but their role in flight evolution remainspoorly understood. Here, we show that wing shape is under antagonistic selection with regard to sexual and natural selectionin a scrambling damselfly. In a field setting, natural selection (survival) favored individuals with long and slender forewings andshort and broad hindwings. In contrast, sexual selection (mating success) favored individuals with short and broad forewings andnarrow-based hindwings. Both types of selection favored individuals of intermediate size. These results suggest that individualsface a trade-off between flight energetics and maneuverability and demonstrate how natural and sexual selection can operate insimilar directions for some wing traits, that is, wing size, but antagonistically for others, that is, wing shape. Furthermore, theyhighlight the need to study flight evolution within the context of species’ mating systems and mating behaviors.

  • 47.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Söderquist, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Saul
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    A preliminary study on female-limited colour polymorphism in Lestes sponsa2014In: INT J ODONATOL, ISSN 1388-7890, Vol. 17, no 2-3, p. 89-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Female-limited colour polymorphisms are widespread in Odonata, usually showing an androchrome and one or more gynochromes. Androchromes have been hypothesized to function as male mimics with a consequent decrease of male harassment, although males may also learn to recognize the different female colour morphs. In the Eurasian damselfly Lestes sponsa, the occurrence of two female colour morphs (androchrome and gynochrome) has been known since the beginning of the twentieth century, although this has been generally overlooked. In this work, we studied a Swedish population of L. sponsa by counting the number of females of each morph during nine consecutive days, as well as the number of tandems. Androchromes showed blue pruinescence at similar body parts as males, although more limited at the tip of the abdomen. Moreover, androchromes also showed bright blue coloured eyes as males. We found no indication that androchromes might be a result of age changes in female coloration. The androchrome morph accounted for 19% of the female population. Androchromes did not form tandems at a lower frequency than expected in the population, given the frequency of presence of each morph. Therefore our results suggest that either androchromes in this species do not function as male mimics, or that the population has reached equilibrium with equal fitness for each morph. Other aspects of male harassment and learned mate-recognition, as well as female morph behaviour, would shed light on the evolutionary and ecological significance of female morphs in this species.

  • 48. Sniegula, Szymon
    et al.
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Golab, Maria J.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Photoperiod and variation in life history traits in core and peripheral populations in the damselfly Lestes sponsa2014In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 137-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to predict evolutionary responses to environmental changes one needs to identify the evolutionary potential in terms of genetic variation of traits and of the traits' plasticity. We studied genetic variance in life history traits and their reaction norms in response to manipulated photoperiods in central, northern, and northernmost peripheral populations of the damselfly Lestes sponsa (Hansemann). After the central-marginal hypothesis, it is predicted that central populations will express the highest genetic variance. Northern and northernmost populations showed the highest development and growth rates. All populations expressed shorter development and accelerated growth when raised in a northern compared with a central latitude photoperiod. The slopes of reaction norms differed between regions resulting in a region-by-photoperiod interaction. There was genetic variation in development time; however, it did not differ across regions. There was no genetic variation in growth rate or in the plasticity of development time and growth rate to photoperiod. Results did not support the central-marginal hypothesis. However, evidence was found that the development time has the potential to evolve at similar rates across study regions. In contrast, the growth rate seems to be genetically constrained for further evolution, probably because of a strong past directional selection on this trait. The presence of low genetic variation in the slope of the reaction norms could be a result of stabilising selection imposed by seasonality.

  • 49.
    Sniegula, Szymon
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nat Conservat, Dept Ecosyst Conservat, PL-31120 Krakow, Poland..
    Golab, Maria J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nat Conservat, Dept Ecosyst Conservat, PL-31120 Krakow, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Populat Ecol Grp, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Seasonal time constraints reduce genetic variation in life-history traits along a latitudinal gradient2016In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 187-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Time constraints cause strong selection on life-history traits, because populations need to complete their life cycles within a shorter time. We therefore expect lower genetic variation in these traits in high-than in low-latitude populations, since the former are more time-constrained. 2. The aim was to estimate life-history traits and their genetic variation in an obligately univoltine damselfly along a latitudinal gradient of 2730 km. 3. Populations were grown in the laboratory at temperatures and photoperiods simulating those at their place of origin. In a complementary experiment, individuals from the same families were grown in constant temperature and photoperiod that mimicked average conditions across the latitude. 4. Development time and size was faster and smaller, respectively, and growth rate was higher at northern latitudes. Additive genetic variance was very low for life-history traits, and estimates for egg development time and larval growth rate showed significant decreases towards northern latitudes. The expression of genetic effects in life-history traits differed considerably when individuals were grown in constant rather than simulated and naturally variable conditions. 5. Our results support strong selection by time constraints. They also highlight the importance of growing organisms in their native environment for correct estimates of genetic variance at their place of origin. Our results also suggest that the evolutionary potential of life-history traits is very low at northern compared to southern latitudes, but that changes in climate could alter this pattern.

  • 50.
    Sniegula, Szymon
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nat Conservat, Dept Ecosyst Conservat, Al Mickiewicza 33, PL-31120 Krakow, Poland.
    Golab, Maria J.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nat Conservat, Dept Ecosyst Conservat, Al Mickiewicza 33, PL-31120 Krakow, Poland.
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Populat Ecol Grp, Krakow, Poland.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The genetic variance but not the genetic covariance of life-history traits changes towards the north in a time-constrained insect2018In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 853-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal time constraints are usually stronger at higher than lower latitudes and can exert strong selection on life-history traits and the correlations among these traits. To predict the response of life-history traits to environmental change along a latitudinal gradient, information must be obtained about genetic variance in traits and also genetic correlation between traits, that is the genetic variance-covariance matrix, G. Here, we estimated G for key life-history traits in an obligate univoltine damselfly that faces seasonal time constraints. We exposed populations to simulated native temperatures and photoperiods and common garden environmental conditions in a laboratory set-up. Despite differences in genetic variance in these traits between populations (lower variance at northern latitudes), there was no evidence for latitude-specific covariance of the life-history traits. At simulated native conditions, all populations showed strong genetic and phenotypic correlations between traits that shaped growth and development. The variance-covariance matrix changed considerably when populations were exposed to common garden conditions compared with the simulated natural conditions, showing the importance of environmentally induced changes in multivariate genetic structure. Our results highlight the importance of estimating variance-covariance matrixes in environments that mimic selection pressures and not only trait variances or mean trait values in common garden conditions for understanding the trait evolution across populations and environments.

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