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  • 1. Ahsan, Murshidul
    et al.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Algotsson, Magnus
    Sarenbo, Sirkku
    Handling and Welfare of Bovine Livestock at Local Abattoirs in Bangladesh2014Ingår i: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, ISSN 1088-8705, E-ISSN 1532-7604, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 340-353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animals laughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bosindicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were eithere maciated orinjured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were castusing ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trache a shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases.The over all animal handling was unnecessarily rough and he OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training nde ducation of the staff in a battoirs concerning humanes laughtering practices as well as a need to build moderns laughtering plants in Bangladesh.

  • 2.
    Ali, M. Z.
    et al.
    BLRI, Anim Hlth Res Div, Dhaka 1341, Bangladesh.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Follow Up of Maternally Derived Antibodies Titer against Economically Important Viral Diseases of Chicken2018Ingår i: POULTRY SCIENCE JOURNAL, ISSN 2345-6604, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 149-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was conducted to know the rate of maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) transfer from parents to their offspring and declining the MDAs in their chicks at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days of age against four major poultry viruses like Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Infectious bursal diseases virus (IBDV), and Avian Reo virus (ARV). The MDAs was studied on Grandparent (GP) to Parent stock (PS), and Parent stock (PS) to broiler at 30 weeks and 50 weeks of age in Cobb-500 broiler strain chicken. The MDAs was measured from serum antibody titer by indirect ELISA test. The MDAs transfer rate against NDV from GP to PS at 50 weeks of age was higher (68.82%) than at 30 weeks of age but in case of PS to broiler it was higher (66.01%) at 30 weeks of age and its persistent rate also higher (7.96%) up to 21th days of age. Against IBV, MDAs transfer rates were higher in PS to broiler than GP to PS of both ages and highest rates were revealed in PS to broiler at 30 weeks of age as 70.72%. On the other hand, among all lines MDAs transfer rates against IBDV was higher (86.94%) in GP to PS at 30 weeks of age. For ARV, the MDAs transfer rates were highest in GP to PS in both ages than PS to broiler and within GP to PS at 50 weeks of age, it was highest (94.87%) than 30 weeks of age. Accordingly, the poultry producer may help to develop an effective vaccination schedule by considering the MDAs from above experiment.

  • 3.
    Badrul, Hasan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Absence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci among highly ESBL-positive crows (Corvus splendens) foraging on hospital waste in Bangladesh2015Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 5, artikel-id 29761Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as a growing problem in hospitals; however, domesticated animals, poultry, and wild birds are acting as potential reservoirs. There is a knowledge gap in the Epidemiology of VRE from Bangladesh.

    METHODS:

    To study the prevalence of VRE and the mechanisms of resistance implicated among wild birds, 238 fecal samples were collected in 2010 from house crows (Corvus splendens) foraging on hospital waste in Bangladesh. Fecal samples were screened by analyzing color change in broth and screening for vanA and vanB resistant genes by PCR.

    RESULTS:

    Neither vanA nor vanB genes were detected from the fecal samples. The house crow does not seem to constitute a reservoir for VRE.

    CONCLUSION:

    The zero prevalence is an indication that foraging on hospital waste does not constitute a major risk of VRE carriage in house crows and this is the first study to focus on the prevalence of VRE from wild birds in Bangladesh.

  • 4.
    Farzana, R.
    et al.
    Khwaja Yunus Ali Med Coll, Sirajgonj, Bangladesh..
    Mozumder, T.
    ZH Sikder Med Coll, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Molecular epidemiology and spread dynamics of multi-drug resistant in A. baumannii isolated from patients and hospital environment in Bangladesh2016Ingår i: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1201-9712, E-ISSN 1878-3511, Vol. 45, s. 89-89Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Antimicrobial Resistance and Production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae from Birds in Bangladesh2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissemination of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family with extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) has become a global concern. ESBLs and MBLs have been reported in humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the environment, and their isolation frequencies are increasing rapidly worldwide.  Most studies have been performed in developed countries and quite few in developing countries, where the antibiotic consumption is often poorly controlled. To explore the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh, and of ESBLs and MBLs in particular, fecal samples from poultry and wild birds were studied in this thesis.

    Samples were collected from both sick birds (poultry having Escherichia coli infections) and healthy birds (free-range poultry, seagulls and crows) residing in different environmental niches. Samples from patients and fresh/sea water were included, to follow the chain of antibiotic resistance in bacteria from humans to the environment. Information regarding the antibiotic usage in poultry production was also collected. The susceptibility of avian E. coli isolates cultured with and without selective pressure was tested against antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine in Bangladesh. Special attention was paid to ESBL-producing isolates, which were further characterized genetically.

    The results of the studies showed that E. coli isolates from commercial poultry, free-range poultry, gulls and crows were resistant to several classes of antibiotics, and that the level and spectrum of antibiotic resistance varied between different bird populations. There was no NDM-producer found among the birds, but ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae could be found in up to 59% of the crows, the birds with the highest carriage rate of multiresistant  Enterobacteriaceae of all bird species studied. The most common ESBL-type was CTX-M-15, which also is the most common in the human population in Bangladesh. Birds also shared clinically important sequence types with humans, including E. coli clone O25b-ST131.

    In conclusion, ESBL-producing bacteria with multiresistance are easily spread to wild birds. Their opportunistic feeding behavior at poorly managed hospital waste dumps and nearby water bodies makes them into both reservoirs and active spreaders. The high level of antibiotic resistant and ESBL-producing bacteria in the bird population of Bangladesh is worrying, and there is no easy solution in sight. Nationwide programs are necessary to both improve the management of hospital waste and sewage and the control of the antibiotic usage to prevent further environmental contamination. 

    Delarbeten
    1. High Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Large- and Small-Scale Poultry Farms in Bangladesh
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>High Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Large- and Small-Scale Poultry Farms in Bangladesh
    Visa övriga...
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Avian diseases, ISSN 0005-2086, E-ISSN 1938-4351, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 689-692Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance in avian bacterial pathogens is a common problem in the Bangladesh poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to provide information on the present status of antibiotic resistance patterns in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in Bangladesh. Of 279 dead or sick poultry of different ages, 101 pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from broilers and layer hens with colibacillosis infections were screened to determine phenotypic expression of antimicrobial resistance against 13 antibiotics used in both veterinary and human medicine in Bangladesh. Of 101 pathogenic E. coli isolates, more than 55% were resistant to at least one or more of the tested compounds, and 36.6% of the isolates showed multiple-drug-resistant phenotypes. The most common resistances observed were against tetracycline (45.5%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (26.7%), nalidixic acid (25.7%), ampicillin (25.7%), and streptomycin (20.8%). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (12.9%), chlormaphenicol (8.9%), nitrofurantoin (2%), and gentamicin (2%) was also observed, and none of the isolates were resistant to tigecycline as well as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. One isolate was resistant to cefuroxime (1%), cefadroxil (1%), and mecillinam (1%) but was not an ESBL producer. Resistance rates, although significant in Bangladeshi isolates, were found to be lower than those reported for avian isolates from the Republic of Korea and clinical, avian, and environmental isolates from Bangladesh. The high level of antibiotic resistance in avian pathogens from Bangladesh is worrisome and indicates that widespread use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion and disease prevention could have negative implications for human and animal health and the environment.

    Nyckelord
    Escherichia coli, pathogenic, colibacillosis, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167635 (URN)000298539000024 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-02-02 Skapad: 2012-01-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli in Wild Birds and Free-range Poultry, Bangladesh
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli in Wild Birds and Free-range Poultry, Bangladesh
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    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 2055-2058Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Multidrug resistance was found in 22.7% of Escherichia coli isolates from bird samples in Bangladesh; 30% produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases, including clones of CTX-M genes among wild and domestic birds. Unrestricted use of antimicrobial drugs in feed for domestic birds and the spread of resistance genes to the large bird reservoir in Bangladesh are growing problems.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-189246 (URN)10.3201/eid1812.120513 (DOI)000328172700024 ()23171693 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-12-28 Skapad: 2012-12-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Dissemination of NDM-1
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Dissemination of NDM-1
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    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Lancet. Infectious diseases (Print), ISSN 1473-3099, E-ISSN 1474-4457, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 99-100Artikel i tidskrift, Letter (Refereegranskat) Published
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-169320 (URN)10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70333-4 (DOI)000299656000009 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-02-28 Skapad: 2012-02-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. The Gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) as an Environmental Bioindicator and Reservoir for Antibiotic Resistance on the Coastlines of the Bay of Bengal
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) as an Environmental Bioindicator and Reservoir for Antibiotic Resistance on the Coastlines of the Bay of Bengal
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    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 466-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The presence and frequency of multiresistant bacteria in wild birds act as indicators of the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance. To explore the rate of contamination mediated by Escherichia coli, 150 fecal samples from the brown-headed gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) and 8 water samples from the Bay of Bengal area were collected, cultured, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Special attention was paid to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates, which were further characterized genetically. Antibiotic resistance was found in 42.3% (36/85) of the E. coli isolates and multidrug resistance in 11.8%. Isolates from the area with a higher human activity were more resistant than those from an area with a lower level of activity. Most frequent was resistance to ampicillin (29.4%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24.7%) and quinolones (22.4%). Carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli was relatively high (17.3%) in the gulls, whereas no ESBL producers were found in the water. All ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, but one, carried blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-15-like genes. A blaCTX-M-14-like enzyme was found as an exception. Gulls from two different colonies shared E. coli clones and harbored the clinically relevant sequence types ST10, ST48, and ST131. The high frequency of antibiotic resistance and ESBL production among E. coli isolates from gulls indicates that the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance has already gone far on the coastlines of the Bay of Bengal. Considering the limited control over the antibiotic consumption and waste from human activities in Bangladesh, there is no easy solution in sight.

    Nyckelord
    Brown-headed gull, E. coli, antibiotic resistance, blaCTX-M-15, ESBL.
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Veterinärmedicin Mikrobiologi inom det medicinska området
    Forskningsämne
    Infektionssjukdomar; Medicinsk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199626 (URN)10.1089/mdr.2013.0233 (DOI)000342303200014 ()24786256 (PubMedID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Formas
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-08 Skapad: 2013-05-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Association between Hospital Waste and the House Crow (Corvus splendens) in the Dissemination of Antibiotic Resistance and the Epidemic Escherichia coli Clone O25b-ST131 in Bangladesh
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Association between Hospital Waste and the House Crow (Corvus splendens) in the Dissemination of Antibiotic Resistance and the Epidemic Escherichia coli Clone O25b-ST131 in Bangladesh
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiresistant bacteria constitute a serious health risk. In order to investigate the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance in areas with poor waste management in Bangladesh, fecal samples from 238 house crows living in the surroundings of two major hospitals were screened for members of the Enterobacteriaceae family with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-production. These were compared with 31 ESBL-producing patient isolates, and the susceptibility of E. coli isolates was tested. Without selective pressure, 65.8% of the E. coli isolates from crows were resistant to one or more of 13 antibiotics, and 39.1% were multiresistant. The highest resistance rates were against tetracycline (52.2%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (43.5%), nalidixic acid (39.8%) and ampicillin (33.5% ). Fifty-nine percent of the crows were ESBL-carriers, and the isolates harbored CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, CTX-M-79 or CTX-M-14-like genes. Two thirds of these ESBL-producers were multi-drug resistant. The ESBL-producing isolates from patients showed a higher rate of resistance compared with the ESBL-producers from crows. One hundred percent were multi-drug resistant, and most common was resistance to ciprofloxacin (93.3%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (60%). The corresponding figures for ESBL-producing crow isolates were 41.3% and 57.3%. The crows and patients shared the epidemic E. coli clone O25b-ST131, which carried CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14-like enzymes. Dissemination of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was also observed among the crows. In conclusion, the Bangladeshi house crow is the bird with the highest carriage rate of ESBL-producing bacteria observed so far. Their scavenging behavior at poorly managed hospital waste dumps, makes them into both reservoirs and active spreaders of antibiotic resistance into the environment. Nationwide programs are necessary to both improve the management of hospital waste and sewage and the control of the antibiotic usage to prevent further environmental contamination. 

    Nyckelord
    House crow, E. coli, antibiotic resistance, blaCTX-M-15, ESBL, O25b-ST131
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Veterinärmedicin Mikrobiologi inom det medicinska området
    Forskningsämne
    Epidemiologi; Medicinsk vetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199627 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Formas
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-08 Skapad: 2013-05-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11
  • 6.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Association between Hospital Waste and the House Crow (Corvus splendens) in the Dissemination of Antibiotic Resistance and the Epidemic Escherichia coli Clone O25b-ST131 in BangladeshManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiresistant bacteria constitute a serious health risk. In order to investigate the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance in areas with poor waste management in Bangladesh, fecal samples from 238 house crows living in the surroundings of two major hospitals were screened for members of the Enterobacteriaceae family with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-production. These were compared with 31 ESBL-producing patient isolates, and the susceptibility of E. coli isolates was tested. Without selective pressure, 65.8% of the E. coli isolates from crows were resistant to one or more of 13 antibiotics, and 39.1% were multiresistant. The highest resistance rates were against tetracycline (52.2%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (43.5%), nalidixic acid (39.8%) and ampicillin (33.5% ). Fifty-nine percent of the crows were ESBL-carriers, and the isolates harbored CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, CTX-M-79 or CTX-M-14-like genes. Two thirds of these ESBL-producers were multi-drug resistant. The ESBL-producing isolates from patients showed a higher rate of resistance compared with the ESBL-producers from crows. One hundred percent were multi-drug resistant, and most common was resistance to ciprofloxacin (93.3%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (60%). The corresponding figures for ESBL-producing crow isolates were 41.3% and 57.3%. The crows and patients shared the epidemic E. coli clone O25b-ST131, which carried CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14-like enzymes. Dissemination of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was also observed among the crows. In conclusion, the Bangladeshi house crow is the bird with the highest carriage rate of ESBL-producing bacteria observed so far. Their scavenging behavior at poorly managed hospital waste dumps, makes them into both reservoirs and active spreaders of antibiotic resistance into the environment. Nationwide programs are necessary to both improve the management of hospital waste and sewage and the control of the antibiotic usage to prevent further environmental contamination. 

  • 7.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Drobni, Peter
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Alam, Munirul
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Dissemination of NDM-12012Ingår i: Lancet. Infectious diseases (Print), ISSN 1473-3099, E-ISSN 1474-4457, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 99-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Faruque, Rayhan
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Sadique, Abdus
    Ahmed, Kabir Uddin
    Islam, Zahirul
    Parvez, M. B. Hossain
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Alam, Munirul
    High Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Large- and Small-Scale Poultry Farms in Bangladesh2011Ingår i: Avian diseases, ISSN 0005-2086, E-ISSN 1938-4351, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 689-692Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance in avian bacterial pathogens is a common problem in the Bangladesh poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to provide information on the present status of antibiotic resistance patterns in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in Bangladesh. Of 279 dead or sick poultry of different ages, 101 pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from broilers and layer hens with colibacillosis infections were screened to determine phenotypic expression of antimicrobial resistance against 13 antibiotics used in both veterinary and human medicine in Bangladesh. Of 101 pathogenic E. coli isolates, more than 55% were resistant to at least one or more of the tested compounds, and 36.6% of the isolates showed multiple-drug-resistant phenotypes. The most common resistances observed were against tetracycline (45.5%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (26.7%), nalidixic acid (25.7%), ampicillin (25.7%), and streptomycin (20.8%). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (12.9%), chlormaphenicol (8.9%), nitrofurantoin (2%), and gentamicin (2%) was also observed, and none of the isolates were resistant to tigecycline as well as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. One isolate was resistant to cefuroxime (1%), cefadroxil (1%), and mecillinam (1%) but was not an ESBL producer. Resistance rates, although significant in Bangladeshi isolates, were found to be lower than those reported for avian isolates from the Republic of Korea and clinical, avian, and environmental isolates from Bangladesh. The high level of antibiotic resistance in avian pathogens from Bangladesh is worrisome and indicates that widespread use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion and disease prevention could have negative implications for human and animal health and the environment.

  • 9.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Islam, Kamrul
    Ahsan, Murshidul
    Hossain, Zakir
    Rashid, Mahmudur
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Talukder, Bibhas
    Ahmed, Kabir Uddin
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Kashem, Mohammad Abul
    Fecal carriage of multi-drug resistant and extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing E. coli in household pigeons, Bangladesh2014Ingår i: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 168, nr 1, s. 221-224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance and ESBL constitute a risk to human and animal health. Birds residing close to humans could mirror the spectrum of human associated antibiotic resistance. Household pigeons were screened in Bangladesh to shed light on human associated, as well as, environmental antibiotic resistance. Escherichia coil from pigeons (n = 150) were tested against 11 antibiotics. 89% E. coil isolates were resistant to one or more critically important human antibiotics like ampicillin, cefadroxil, mecillinam, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tigecycline. No carbapenamase-producers were detected and the lower ESBL prevalence (5%) in pigeons. ESBL-producing E. coil isolates had bla(CTX-M_15) genes. Pigeons shared some bacterial clones and had bird associated sequence types like E. coil ST1408. Fecal carriage of bacteria resistance of critically important human antibiotics, together with examples of shared genotypes among pigeons, indicate the human-birds and bird to bird transmissions are important in the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance.

  • 10.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Laurell, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Rakib, Mufti Mahmud
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Ahlstedt, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar. Linnaeus Univ, Sch Nat Sci, Kalmar, Sweden.;Kalmar Cty Hosp, Clin Microbiol, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Caceres, Mercedes
    Natl Autonomous Univ Leon UNAN Leon, Fac Med Sci, Dept Microbiol, Leon, Nicaragua..
    Järhult, Josef D.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases in Healthy Humans, Poultry, and Wild Birds in Leon, NicaraguaA Shared Pool of bla(CTX-M) Genes and Possible Interspecies Clonal Spread of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases-Producing Escherichia coli2016Ingår i: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 22, nr 8, s. 682-687Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern in the healthcare of today, especially the increasing number of gram-negative bacteria producing -lactamases such as extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs). However, little is known about the relationship of ESBL producers in humans and domestic and wild birds, especially in a low-income setting. Therefore, we studied the fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in healthy humans, poultry, and wild birds in the vicinity of Leon, Nicaragua. Three hundred fecal samples were collected during December 2012 from humans (n=100), poultry (n=100) and wild birds (n=100). The samples were examined for ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, revealing the prevalence of 27% in humans, 13% in poultry, and 8% in wild birds. Further characterization of the ESBL-producing isolates was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (NDM, CTX-M), epidemiological typing (ERIC2-PCR), multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing. ESBL producers harbored bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-22), and bla(CTX-M-3) genotypes. The bla(CTX-M-15) constituted the absolute majority of ESBL genes among all samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated highly related E. coli clones among humans, poultry, and wild birds. Clinically relevant E. coli clone ST648 was found in humans and poultry. There is a shared pool of bla(CTX-M) genes between humans and domesticated and wild birds in Nicaragua, and the results suggest shared clones of ESBL-producing E. coli. The study adds to the notion that wild birds and poultry can pick up antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human origin and function as a melting pot of resistance. Structured surveillance programs of antimicrobial resistance and a more regulated prescription of antibiotics are warranted in Nicaragua.

  • 11.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Sandegren, Linus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Alam, Munirul
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    The Gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) as an Environmental Bioindicator and Reservoir for Antibiotic Resistance on the Coastlines of the Bay of Bengal2014Ingår i: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 466-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence and frequency of multiresistant bacteria in wild birds act as indicators of the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance. To explore the rate of contamination mediated by Escherichia coli, 150 fecal samples from the brown-headed gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) and 8 water samples from the Bay of Bengal area were collected, cultured, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Special attention was paid to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates, which were further characterized genetically. Antibiotic resistance was found in 42.3% (36/85) of the E. coli isolates and multidrug resistance in 11.8%. Isolates from the area with a higher human activity were more resistant than those from an area with a lower level of activity. Most frequent was resistance to ampicillin (29.4%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24.7%) and quinolones (22.4%). Carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli was relatively high (17.3%) in the gulls, whereas no ESBL producers were found in the water. All ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, but one, carried blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-15-like genes. A blaCTX-M-14-like enzyme was found as an exception. Gulls from two different colonies shared E. coli clones and harbored the clinically relevant sequence types ST10, ST48, and ST131. The high frequency of antibiotic resistance and ESBL production among E. coli isolates from gulls indicates that the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance has already gone far on the coastlines of the Bay of Bengal. Considering the limited control over the antibiotic consumption and waste from human activities in Bangladesh, there is no easy solution in sight.

  • 12.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Alam, A
    Akter, L
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Dissemination of the multidrug-resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli O25b-ST131 clone and the role of house crow (Corvus splendens) foraging on hospital waste in Bangladesh.2015Ingår i: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 21, nr 11, artikel-id UNSP 1000.e1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two hundred and thirty-eight faecal samples from crows foraging on hospital wastes were analysed for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. ESBL-producing crow isolates were characterized and compared with 31 patient isolates. Among the crows, 59% carried ESBL producers. These included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter cloacae harbouring the genes for CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55, CTX-M-79, and CTX-M-14. Human isolates carried only the CTX-M-15 gene. Two-thirds of crow E. coli isolates and all human E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant. Crows and patients shared E. coli sequence types, including the epidemic E. coli O25b-ST131 clone. The scavenging behaviour of crows at poorly managed hospital waste dumps made them potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, including ESBLs.

  • 13.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Perveen, Khalida
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Zahra, Rabaab
    Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospitals in Pakistan2014Ingår i: Journal of Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0022-2615, E-ISSN 1473-5644, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 50-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of pan-resistance in bacterial pathogens poses a threat to human health. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a serious challenge, causing nosocomial infection and community-acquired outbreaks in hospitals globally, including in Pakistan. We collected 90 Acinetobacter isolates from patients with secondary or nosocomial infections from different hospitals in Pakistan and screened for carbapenem-resistant strains. Of the 90 isolates, 59 were resistant to carbapenems. Among oxacillinase -encoding genes, blaOXA-51-like was common in all isolates, including in combination with blaOXA-23-like in 14 isolates; however, blaOXA-24-like and blaOXA-58-like were completely absent. Among metallo-β-lactamase-encoding genes, only blaNDM-1 was found in one isolate, while the other three genes, blaIMP, blaVIM and blaSIM, were completely absent. None of the isolates was found to harbour the blaCTX-M gene. The isolates were also tested for susceptibilities to a panel of different antibiotics belonging to several classes. Of all the drugs tested, tigecycline was the most effective with 80 % sensitivity amongst isolates, followed by colistin with 50 % sensitivity. Three categories of resistance were found in these isolates: extreme drug resistance in 26, pan-drug resistance in 19 and multidrug resistance in 87 isolates. The isolates exhibited a high resistance to cephalosporins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and β-lactam antibiotics, followed by tetracycline and β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitor combination, fluoroquinolone and aminoglycosides. The results show a prominent level of antibiotic-resistance phenotypes in A. baumannii and strongly suggest the need for full-scale national surveillance of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii with particular emphasis on the newly identified NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1).

  • 14.
    Hasan, Badrul
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Sandegren, Linus
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Melhus, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin, Klinisk bakteriologi.
    Drobni, Mirva
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Hernandez, Jorge
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Alam, Munirul
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli in Wild Birds and Free-range Poultry, Bangladesh2012Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 2055-2058Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidrug resistance was found in 22.7% of Escherichia coli isolates from bird samples in Bangladesh; 30% produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases, including clones of CTX-M genes among wild and domestic birds. Unrestricted use of antimicrobial drugs in feed for domestic birds and the spread of resistance genes to the large bird reservoir in Bangladesh are growing problems.

  • 15.
    Johura, Fatema-Tuz
    et al.
    Bangladesh (Icddr,b), International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research.
    Parveen, Rozina
    Bangladesh (icddr,b), International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research.
    Islam, Atiqul
    Bangladesh (icddr,b), International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research.
    Sadique, Abdus
    Bangladesh (icddr,b), International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research.
    Rahim, Md Niaz
    Bangladesh (icddr,b), International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research.
    Monira, Shirajum
    Bangladesh (icddr,b), International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research.
    Khan, Anisur R.
    University of Dhaka, Department of Microbiology.
    Ahsan, Sunjukta
    University of Dhaka, Department of Microbiology.
    Ohnishi, Makoto
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo.
    Watanabe, Haruo
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo.
    Chakraborty, Subhra
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
    George, Christine M.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
    Cravioto, Alejandro
    Bangladesh (icddr,b), International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research.
    Navarro, Armando
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Alam, Munirul
    Bangladesh (Icddr,b), International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research.
    Occurrence of Hybrid Escherichia coli Strains Carrying Shiga Toxin and Heat-Stable Toxin in Livestock of Bangladesh2017Ingår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 4, artikel-id UNSP 287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are important causes of diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. Although ruminant animals are the main source of STEC, diarrhea due to this pathotype is very low in Bangladesh where ETEC remains the predominant group associated with childhood diarrhea. In the present study, E. coli strains (n = 35) isolated from Bangladesh livestock (goats, sheep, and cattle) and poultry (chicken and ducks) were analyzed for the presence of major virulence factors, such as Shiga toxins (STX-1 and STX-2), heat-labile toxin, and heat-stable toxins (STa and STb). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction results revealed 23 (66%) E. coli strains to be virulent possessing either sta (n = 5), stx (stx1, n = 8; stx2, n = 2), or both (n = 8) genes in varying combinations. Thirty-four percent (8/23) of strains from livestock were hybrid type that carried both stx (either stx1 or stx2) and ETEC-specific enterotoxin gene sta. Serotyping results revealed that the ETEC strains belonged to five serotypes, namely O36: H5, O174: H-, O152: H8, O109: H51, and O8: H21, while the STEC-producing strains belonged to serotypes O76: H19 (n = 3), O43: H2 (n = 2), O87: H16 (n = 2), OR: H2 (n = 1), O110: H16 (n = 1), and O152: H8 (n = 1). The STEC-ETEC hybrid strains belonged to serotypes O76: H19 (n = 3), O43: H2 (n = 2), O87: H16, OR: H2, and O152: H8. Forty percent (2/5) of the ETEC and 20% (2/10) of the STEC strains were multidrug resistant with the highest drug resistance (50%) being found in the hybrid strains. Molecular fingerprinting determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and cluster analyses by dendrogram revealed that, genetically, STEC-ETEC hybrid strains were highly heterogeneous. Multidrug-resistant E. coli STEC-ETEC hybrid strains in domesticated animals pose a public health threat for humans in Bangladesh.

  • 16.
    Järhult, Josef D
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Wahlgren, John
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Salaneck, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Mallard or chicken?: Comparing the isolation of avian influenza A viruses in embryonated Mallard and chicken eggs2015Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 5, artikel-id 28458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To date, the most efficient and robust method for isolating avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) is using embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). It is known that low-pathogenic avian IAVs undergo rapid genetic changes when introduced to poultry holdings, but the factors driving mutagenesis are not well understood. Despite this, there is limited data on the effects of the standard method of virus isolation of avian-derived viruses, that is, whether isolation in ECEs causes adaptive changes in avian IAVs. Eggs from a homologous species could potentially offer an isolation vessel less prone to induce adaptive changes.

    METHODS: We performed eight serial passages of two avian IAVs isolated from fecal samples of wild Mallards in both ECEs and embryonated Mallard eggs, and hemagglutination assay titers and hemagglutinin sequences were compared.

    RESULTS: There was no obvious difference in titers between ECEs and embryonated Mallard eggs. Sequence analyses of the isolates showed no apparent difference in the rate of introduction of amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin gene (three substitutions in total in embryonated Mallard eggs and two substitutions in ECEs).

    CONCLUSION: Embryonated Mallard eggs seem to be good isolation vessels for avian IAVs but carry some practical problems such as limited availability and short egg-laying season of Mallards. Our study finds isolation of Mallard-derived avian IAVs in ECEs non-inferior to isolation in embryonated Mallard eggs, but more research in the area may be warranted as this is a small-scale study.

  • 17.
    Kaarme, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin, Klinisk bakteriologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Rashid, Mahmudur
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Zero Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Among Swedish Preschool Children2015Ingår i: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 65-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Enterococci are a natural part of the bacterial flora of humans, animals, and insects and are frequently found in the community. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as a growing problem, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of VRE among healthy Swedish preschool children and ascertain whether they constitute a reservoir for the bacteria.

    Methods: In total, 313 individual diapers were collected from preschools in Uppsala, Sweden. Fecal samples were screened by analyzing the color change in a broth followed by polymerase chain reaction for vanA and vanB genes, which are associated with vancomycin resistance.

    Results: Neither vanA nor vanB genes could be detected from the samples.

    Conclusions: Preschool children in Uppsala do not constitute a reservoir for VRE. The zero prevalence is consistent with the overall decline in VRE prevalence in Sweden during the last years.

  • 18. Kashem, M A
    et al.
    Hashem, M A
    Kabir, M H B
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Performances of two commercially available Newcastle disease vaccines in Bangladesh: A case-control study2011Ingår i: Bangladesh journal of microbiology, ISSN 1011-9981, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 88-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study was conducted to test the performances of two commercially available live vaccines named BCRDV1 (VG/GA strain) and BCRDV2 (F-strain). A total of 90 day-old broiler birds were divided into three different groups and the serum samples were collected at day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35; mean±SD of Haemgglutination Inhibition (HI) titres (log2) were found as 8±0.00, 7.2±0.89, 6.1±0.9, 7.1±0.75, 5.7±0.72, 4.1±0.68 and 8±0.00, 6.0±0.76, 4.8±0.81, 5.8±0.83, 4.9±0.86, 3.8±0.77 in group I and group II respectively, which was significant (P< 0.01). In control (group III) the mean±SD was found to be 8±0.00, 5.8±0.87, 4.9±0.69, 4.1±0.48, 3.0±0.56 and <2±0 respectively. The titres of control group infer that the maternal antibody usually had a tendency to decline and may pose a risk of infection. In protection test, 100% mortality were found in control group (III) but in group I and group II the mortality of birds were 6.67% and 10%, respectively. The analysis of HI titres with the target to determine the performance of two vaccines revealed that BCRDV1 vaccinated groups was able to maintain significantly higher HI titres than BCRDV2 vaccinated group. Key Words: BCRDV, HI test, Newcastle disease, Broiler birds

  • 19.
    Rashid, Mahmudur
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar. 1984.
    Rakib, Mufti Mahmud
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Badrul, Hasan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionssjukdomar.
    Antimicrobial-resistant and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in different ecological niches in Bangladesh2015Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 5, artikel-id 26712Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    The rapid and wide-scale environmental spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in different ecosystems has become a serious issue in recent years.

    OBJECTIVES:

    To investigate the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in Bangladeshi wild birds and aquatic environments, samples were taken from Open Bill Stork (Anastomus oscitans) (OBS) and the nearby water sources.

    METHODS:

    Water and fresh fecal samples were collected from several locations. All samples were processed and cultured for Escherichia coli and tested for antibiotic susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics. ESBL producers were characterized at genotypic level using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, multilocus sequence typing, and rep-PCR.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

    A total of 76 E. coli isolates from the 170 OBS and 8 E. coli isolates from three river sources were isolated. In total, 29% of E. coli isolated from OBS and all of the E. coli isolated from water sources were resistant to at least one of the tested antimicrobials. Resistant phenotypes were observed with all antimicrobials except tigecycline, gentamicin, imipenem, and chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance was observed in 2.6% of OBS and 37.5% of the water isolates. Also, 1.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from OBS, whereas 50% of the E. coli isolated from water sources were ESBL producers possessing the CTX-M-15 gene. The most concerning aspect of our findings was the presence of human-associated E. coli sequence types in the water samples, for example, ST156-complex156, ST10-complex10 and ST46.

    CONCLUSION:

    This study reports the presence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli in OBSs and nearby aquatic sources in Bangladesh

  • 20. Stedt, Johan
    et al.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Hernandez, Jorge
    McMahon, Barry J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Hasan, Badrul
    UCD School of Agriculture & Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.
    Olsen, Björn
    UCD School of Agriculture & Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.
    Drobni, Mirva
    UCD School of Agriculture & Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries2014Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 4, s. 21565-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of antibiotic resistant faecal indicator bacteria from humans and food production animals has increased over the last decades. In Europe, resistance levels in Escherichia coli from these sources show a south-to-north gradient, with more widespread resistance in the Mediterranean region compared to northern Europe. Recent studies show that resistance levels can be high also in wildlife, but it is unknown to what extent resistance levels in nature conform to the patterns observed in human-associated bacteria.

    METHODS: To test this, we collected 3,158 faecal samples from breeding gulls (Larus sp.) from nine European countries and tested 2,210 randomly isolated E. coli for resistance against 10 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine.

    RESULTS: Overall, 31.5% of the gull E. coli isolates were resistant to ≥1 antibiotic, but with considerable variation between countries: highest levels of isolates resistant to ≥1 antibiotic were observed in Spain (61.2%) and lowest levels in Denmark (8.3%). For each tested antibiotic, the Iberian countries were either the countries with the highest levels or in the upper range in between-country comparisons, while northern countries generally had a lower proportion of resistant E. coli isolates, thereby resembling the gradient of resistance seen in human and food animal sources.

    CONCLUSION: We propose that gulls may serve as a sentinel of environmental levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli to complement studies of human-associated microbiota.

  • 21.
    Vredenburg, Jana
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Varela, Ana Rita
    Hasan, Badrul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Limnologi.
    Olsen, Björn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Klinisk mikrobiologi och infektionsmedicin.
    Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Stedt, Johan
    Martins da Costa, Paulo
    Manaia, Célia M.
    Quinolone resistant E. coli isolated from birds of prey in Portugal are genetically distinct from those isolated from water environments in gulls in Portugal, Spain and Sweden2014Ingår i: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 995-1004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of geographic distribution and type of habitat on the molecular epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli was investigated. Ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli from wastewater, urban water with faecal contamination and faeces of gulls, pigeons and birds of prey, from Portugal, Spain and Sweden were compared based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and quinolone resistance genetic determinants. Multi-locus sequence typing allowed the differentiation of E. coli lineages associated with birds of prey from those inhabiting gulls and waters. E. coli lineages of clinical relevance, such as the complex ST131, were detected in wastewater, streams and gulls in Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Quinolone resistance was due to gyrA and parC mutations, although distinct mutations were detected in birds of prey and in wastewater, streams and gulls isolates. These differences were correlated with specific MLST lineages, suggesting resistance inheritance. Among the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, only aac(6 ')-ib-cr and qnrS were detected in wastewater, streams and gulls isolates, but not in birds of prey. The horizontal transfer of the gene aac(6 ')-ib-cr could be inferred from its occurrence in different MLST lineages.

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