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  • 1.
    Budd, David A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Characterising volcanic magma plumbing systems: A tool to improve eruption forecasting at hazardous volcanoes2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis attempts to develop our understanding of volcanic magma plumbing systems and the magmatic processes that operate within them, such as fractional crystallisation, crustal partial melting, assimilation, and magma mixing. I utilise petrology, rock and mineral geochemistry, and isotope systematics to seek to improve our ability to forecast the eruptive frequency and style of active volcanoes, an aspect often lacking in current volcano monitoring efforts. In particular, magma reservoir dynamics are investigated from a mineral scale at Katla volcano in Iceland, to a sub-mineral scale at Merapi, Kelud, and Toba volcanoes in Indonesia.

    The magma plumbing architecture of Katla volcano on Iceland is explored in the first part of this thesis. Crystalline components within tephra and volcanic rock preserve a record of the physical and chemical evolution of a magma, and are analysed through oxygen isotopic and thermobarometric techniques to temporally constrain changes in reservoir depth and decode the petrogenesis of the lavas. We find both prolonged upper crustal magma storage and shallow level assimilation to be occurring at Katla. The results generated from combining these analytical strands reveal the potential for unpredictable explosive volcanism at this lively Icelandic volcano.

    The second part of this thesis examines the magma plumbing systems of Merapi, Kelud and Toba volcanoes of the Sunda arc in Indonesia at higher temporal and petrological resolution than possible for Katla (e.g., due to the crystal poor character of the rocks). For this part of the thesis, minerals were analysed in-situ to take advantage of sub-crystal scale isotopic variations in order to investigate processes of shallow-level assimilation in the build-up to particular eruptions. We find that intra-crystal analyses reveal an otherwise hidden differentiation history at these volcanoes, and establish a better understanding as to how they may have rapidly achieved a critical explosive state.

    The outcomes of this thesis therefore deepen our knowledge of evolutionary trends in magma plumbing system dynamics, and highlight the importance of understanding the geochemical processes that can prime a volcano for eruption. Lastly, I emphasise the vital contribution petrology can make in current volcano monitoring efforts. 

    List of papers
    1. Persistent multitiered magma plumbing beneath Katla volcano, Iceland
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistent multitiered magma plumbing beneath Katla volcano, Iceland
    2016 (English)In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 966-980Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recent seismic unrest and a persistent Holocene eruption record at Katla volcano, Iceland indicate that a near-future eruption is possible. Previous petrological investigations suggest that Katla is supplied by a simple plumbing system that delivers magma directly from depth, while seismic and geodetic data also point toward the existence of upper-crustal magma storage. To characterize Katla's recent plumbing system, we established mineral-melt equilibrium crystallization pressures from four age-constrained Katla tephras spanning from 8 kyr BP to 1918. The results point to persistent shallow- (≤8 km depth) as well as deep-crustal (ca. 10 – 25 km depth) magma storage beneath Katla throughout the last 8 kyr. The presence of multiple magma storage regions implies that mafic magma from the deeper reservoir system may become gas-rich during ascent and storage in the shallow crust and erupt explosively. Alternatively, it might intersect evolved magma pockets in the shallow-level storage region, and so increase the potential for explosive mixed-magma ash eruptions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2016
    Keywords
    Katla volcano; mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry; persistent multi-tiered magma plumbing system
    National Category
    Geology
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267448 (URN)10.1002/2015GC006118 (DOI)000375144700019 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilThe Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
    Note

    Title in thesis list of papers: Persistent two-tiered magma plumbing beneath Katla volcano, Iceland

    Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2019-09-27Bibliographically approved
    2. Petrogenetic constraints on the Katla rhyolites, South Iceland
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Petrogenetic constraints on the Katla rhyolites, South Iceland
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Geology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267451 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2016-01-13
    3. New augite and enstatite pyroxene standards for SIMS oxygen isotope analysis and their application to Merapi volcano, Sunda arc, Indonesia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>New augite and enstatite pyroxene standards for SIMS oxygen isotope analysis and their application to Merapi volcano, Sunda arc, Indonesia
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267452 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2016-04-27
    4. Sudden Plinian eruption of remnant magmas at Kelud volcano, Java, Indonesia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sudden Plinian eruption of remnant magmas at Kelud volcano, Java, Indonesia
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Geology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267472 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2016-01-13
    5. Magma reservoir dynamics recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magma reservoir dynamics recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Geology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267454 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2016-01-13
    6. Ancient oral tradition describes volcano-earthquake interaction at Merapi volcano, Indonesia.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ancient oral tradition describes volcano-earthquake interaction at Merapi volcano, Indonesia.
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 137-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240752 (URN)10.1111/geoa.12099 (DOI)000350500400010 ()
    Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2019-09-25Bibliographically approved
    7. Traversing nature's danger zone: getting up close with Sumatra's volcanoes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traversing nature's danger zone: getting up close with Sumatra's volcanoes
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Geology Today, ISSN 0266-6979, E-ISSN 1365-2451, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Indonesian island of Sumatra, located in one of the most active zones of the Pacific Ring of Fire, is characterized by a chain of subduction-zone volcanoes which extend the entire length of the island. As a group of volcanic geochemists, we embarked upon a five-week sampling expedition to these exotic, remote, and in part explosive volcanoes (SAGE 2010; Sumatran Arc Geochemical Expedition). We set out to collect rock and gas samples from 17 volcanic centres from the Sumatran segment of the Sunda arc system, with the aim of obtaining a regionally significant sample set that will allow quantification of the respective roles of mantle versus crustal sources to magma genesis along the strike of the arc. Here we document our geological journey through Sumatra's unpredictable terrain, including the many challenges faced when working on active volcanoes in pristine tropical climes.

    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-188509 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2451.2012.00828.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2012-12-17 Created: 2012-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Budd, David A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Ist Nazl Geofis & Vulcanol, Rome, Italy.
    Deegan, Frances M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Geosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jolis, Ester
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Smith, Victoria
    Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Harris, Chris
    Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Freda, Carmela
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome, Italy.
    Hilton, David
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, USA.
    Halldórsson, Sæmundur
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, USA; Univ Iceland, Inst Earth Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Bindeman, Ilya
    Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Oregon, USA.
    Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 40624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core−rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  • 3.
    Budd, David A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Hilton, D.R.
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, California, USA.
    Freda, Carmela
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Roma, Italy.
    Jolis, Ester M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Halldorsson, S.A.
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, California, USA.
    Traversing nature's danger zone: getting up close with Sumatra's volcanoes2012In: Geology Today, ISSN 0266-6979, E-ISSN 1365-2451, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Indonesian island of Sumatra, located in one of the most active zones of the Pacific Ring of Fire, is characterized by a chain of subduction-zone volcanoes which extend the entire length of the island. As a group of volcanic geochemists, we embarked upon a five-week sampling expedition to these exotic, remote, and in part explosive volcanoes (SAGE 2010; Sumatran Arc Geochemical Expedition). We set out to collect rock and gas samples from 17 volcanic centres from the Sumatran segment of the Sunda arc system, with the aim of obtaining a regionally significant sample set that will allow quantification of the respective roles of mantle versus crustal sources to magma genesis along the strike of the arc. Here we document our geological journey through Sumatra's unpredictable terrain, including the many challenges faced when working on active volcanoes in pristine tropical climes.

  • 4.
    Budd, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Dahrén, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Persistent shallow magma storage beneath Katla volcano2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Budd, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Jolis, Ester
    Smith, Victoria
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Harris, Chris
    Freda, Carmela
    Hilton, David
    Halldórsson, Sæmundur
    Bindeman, Ilya
    Magma reservoir dynamics recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartzManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Budd, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Harris, Chris
    Meyer, Romain
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Barker, Abigail
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Petrogenetic constraints on the Katla rhyolites, South IcelandManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Budd, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Jolis, Ester Muños
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Toba super-eruption fuelled by catastrophic roof disintegration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Budd, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Dahrén, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Persistent multitiered magma plumbing beneath Katla volcano, Iceland2016In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 966-980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent seismic unrest and a persistent Holocene eruption record at Katla volcano, Iceland indicate that a near-future eruption is possible. Previous petrological investigations suggest that Katla is supplied by a simple plumbing system that delivers magma directly from depth, while seismic and geodetic data also point toward the existence of upper-crustal magma storage. To characterize Katla's recent plumbing system, we established mineral-melt equilibrium crystallization pressures from four age-constrained Katla tephras spanning from 8 kyr BP to 1918. The results point to persistent shallow- (≤8 km depth) as well as deep-crustal (ca. 10 – 25 km depth) magma storage beneath Katla throughout the last 8 kyr. The presence of multiple magma storage regions implies that mafic magma from the deeper reservoir system may become gas-rich during ascent and storage in the shallow crust and erupt explosively. Alternatively, it might intersect evolved magma pockets in the shallow-level storage region, and so increase the potential for explosive mixed-magma ash eruptions.

  • 9.
    Deegan, Frances M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, SE-104 05, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, SE-104 05, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Budd, David A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Harris, Chris
    Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.
    Geiger, Harri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Hålenius, Ulf
    Department of Geosciences, Swedish Museum of Natural History, SE-104 05, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pyroxene standards for SIMS oxygen isotope analysis and their application to Merapi volcano, Sunda arc, Indonesia2016In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 447, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement of oxygen isotope ratios in common silicate minerals such as olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, garnet, and quartz is increasingly performed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). However, certain mineral groups exhibit solid solution series, and the large compositional spectrum of these mineral phases will result in matrix effects during SIMS analysis. These matrix effects must be corrected through repeated analysis of compositionally similar standards to ensure accurate results. In order to widen the current applicability of SIMS to solid solution mineral groups in common igneous rocks, we performed SIMS homogeneity tests on new augite (NRM-AG-1) and enstatite (NRM-EN-2) reference materials sourced from Stromboli, Italy and Webster, North Carolina, respectively. Aliquots of the standard minerals were analysed by laser fluorination (LF) to establish their δ18O values. Repeated SIMS measurements were then performed on randomly oriented fragments of the same pyroxene crystals, which yielded a range in δ18O less than ± 0.42 and ± 0.58‰ (2σ) for NRM-AG-1 and NRM-EN-2, respectively. Homogeneity tests verified that NRM-AG-1 and NRM-EN-2 do not show any crystallographic orientation bias and that they are sufficiently homogeneous on the 20 μm scale to be used as routine mineral standards for SIMS δ18O analysis. We subsequently tested our new standard materials on recently erupted pyroxene crystals from Merapi volcano, Indonesia. The δ18O values for Merapi pyroxene obtained by SIMS (n = 204) agree within error with the LF-derived δ18O values for Merapi pyroxene but differ from bulk mineral and whole-rock data obtained by conventional fluorination. The bulk samples are offset to higher δ18O values as a result of incorporation of mineral and glass inclusions that in part reflects crustal contamination processes. The Merapi pyroxene SIMS data, in turn, display a frequency peak at 5.8‰, which allows us to estimate the δ18O value of the primary mafic magma at Merapi to ~ 6.1‰ when assuming closed system differentiation.

  • 10.
    Deegan, Frances
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Troll, Valentin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Jolis, Ester Muños
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Freda, C.
    Hilton, D.R.
    Budd, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Gertisser, R.
    Blythe, Lara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Chadwick, J.P.
    Schwarzkopf, L.M.
    Zimmer, M
    The role of CO2-rich basement at Merapi; perspectives from petrology, geochemistry, and experiments2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Troll, Valentin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Jolis, Ester Muños
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Budd, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Dahrén, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Schwarzkopf, L.M.
    Ancient oral tradition describes volcano-earthquake interaction at Merapi volcano, Indonesia.2015In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 137-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Troll, Valentin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Jolis, Ester Muños
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Budd, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Schwarzkopf, L.M.
    Ancient oral tradition describes volcano-earthquake interaction at Merapi volcano, Indonesia2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Troll, Valentin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Klügel, A
    3Institute of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Germany.
    Longpré, M.-A
    Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Canada.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Deegan, Frances
    Laboratory for Isotope Geology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockhom, Sweden..
    Carracedo, J.C
    Dept. of Physics (Geology), GEOVOL, University of Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Wiesmaier, S
    Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität (LMU), Munich, Germany.
    Kueppers, U
    Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität (LMU), Munich, Germany.
    Dahrén, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Blythe, Lara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Hansteen, T. H
    Leibniz-Institute for Oceanography, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany.
    Freda, Carmela
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome, Italy.
    Budd, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Jolis, Ester
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Jonsson, E
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Meade, Fiona
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK.
    Harris, Chris
    Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Berg, Sylvia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Mancini, Lucia
    SYRMEP Group, Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A, Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.
    Polacci, M
    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy.
    Pedroza, Kirsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
    Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption2012In: Solid Earth, ISSN 1869-9510, E-ISSN 1869-9529, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 97-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e. g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment-covered ocean crust (e. g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of "restingolites" indicates that crustal recycling is a relevant process in ocean islands, too, but does not herald the arrival of potentially explosive high-silica magma in the active plumbing system beneath El Hierro.

  • 14.
    Troll, Valentin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Muir, Duncan
    Deegan, Frances
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Budd, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Ellis, Ben
    Jolis, Ester
    Humaida, Hanik
    Utami, Pri
    Saunders, Kate
    Baumgartner, Lukas
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Harris, Chris
    Sudden Plinian eruption of remnant magmas at Kelud volcano, Java, IndonesiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 14 of 14
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