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  • 1.
    Alogheli, Hiba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Computational Studies of Macrocycles and Molecular Modeling of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease Inhibitors2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational tools are utilized in the drug discovery process to discover, design, and optimize new therapeutics. One important approach is structure-based drug design which relies on knowledge about the 3D structure of the biological target. The first part of this work focuses on applying structure-based drug design for binding mode prediction of HCV NS3 protease inhibitors. The NS3 protease is a challenging target from a computational perspective as it contains an extended binding site. Binding mode predictions were performed for various classes of new acyclic and macrocyclic HCV NS3 protease inhibitors and was used in the design of new inhibitors. None of the synthetized inhibitors have been co-crystallized yet, which has made the evaluation of the suggested binding mode predictions challenging.

    Macrocycles are an interesting compound class in drug discovery due to their unique structural architecture, which can enable access to new chemical space. Macrocycles can successfully modulate difficult therapeutic targets, as exemplified in the development of protease inhibitors. Furthermore they can improve drug-like properties, such as cell permeability and bioavailability. The second part of this thesis focuses on macrocycles from a computational point of view. A data set of 47 clinically relevant macrocycles was compiled and used in these studies. First, two different docking protocols rigid docking of pre-generated conformers and flexible docking in Glide were evaluated and compared. The results showed that flexible docking in Glide was sufficient for docking of macrocycles with respect to accuracy and speed.

    The aim of the second study was to evaluate and compare the performance of the more general conformational analysis tools, MCMM and MTLMOD, with the recently developed macrocycle-specialized conformational sampling tools, Prime-MCS and MMBS. In most cases, the general conformational analysis tools (with enhanced parameter settings) performed equally well as compared to the macrocycle-specialized conformational sampling techniques. However, MMBS was superior at locating the global energy minimum conformation.

    Finally, calculation of the conformational energy penalty of protein-bound macrocycles was performed. The macrocycle data set was complemented with linear analogues that are similar either with respect to physicochemical properties or 2D fingerprints. The conformational energy penalties of these linear analogues were calculated and compared to the conformational energy penalties of the macrocycles. The complete data set of macrocycles and non-macrocycles in this study differ from previously published work addressing conformational energy penalties, since it covers a more extended area of chemical space. Furthermore, there was a weak correlation between the calculated conformational energy penalties and the flexibility of the structures.

    List of papers
    1. Pan-NS3 protease inhibitors of hepatitis C virus based on an R3-elongated pyrazinone scaffold
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pan-NS3 protease inhibitors of hepatitis C virus based on an R3-elongated pyrazinone scaffold
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0223-5234, E-ISSN 1768-3254, Vol. 148, p. 453-464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we present the design and synthesis of 2(1H)-pyrazinone based HCV NS3 protease inhibitors and show that elongated R-3 urea substituents were associated with increased inhibitory potencies over several NS3 protein variants. The inhibitors are believed to rely on beta-sheet mimicking hydrogen bonds which are similar over different genotypes and current drug resistant variants and correspond to the beta-sheet interactions of the natural peptide substrate. Inhibitor 36, for example, with a urea substituent including a cyclic imide showed balanced nanomolar inhibitory potencies against genotype la, both wild-type (K-i=30 nM) and R155K (K-i=2 nM), and genotype 3a (K-i=5 nM).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Hepatitis C, NS3, Genotype 3, Resistance, Pyrazinone
    National Category
    Medicinal Chemistry
    Research subject
    Medicinal Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340862 (URN)10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.02.032 (DOI)000428824700036 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, D0571301
    Available from: 2018-02-04 Created: 2018-02-04 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
    2. A study of conformational energy penalties of protein-bound macrocycles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of conformational energy penalties of protein-bound macrocycles
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Medicinal Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340863 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-02-04 Created: 2018-02-04 Last updated: 2018-02-04
    3. Conformational Analysis of Macrocycles: Comparing General and Specialized Methods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conformational Analysis of Macrocycles: Comparing General and Specialized Methods
    2020 (English)In: Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, ISSN 0920-654X, E-ISSN 1573-4951, Vol. 34, p. 231-252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Macrocycles represent an important class of medicinally relevant small molecules due to their interesting biological properties. Therefore, a firm understanding of their conformational preferences is important for drug design. Given the importance of macrocycle-protein modelling in drug discovery, we envisaged that a systematic study of both classical and recent specialized methods would provide guidance for other practitioners within the field. In this study we compare the performance of the general, well established conformational analysis methods Monte Carlo Multiple Minimum (MCMM) and Mixed Torsional/Low-Mode sampling (MTLMOD) with two more recent and specialized macrocycle sampling techniques: MacroModel macrocycle Baseline Search (MD/LLMOD) and Prime macrocycle conformational sampling (PRIME-MCS). Using macrocycles extracted from 44 macrocycle-protein X-ray crystallography complexes, we evaluated each method based on their ability to (i) generate unique conformers, (ii) generate unique macrocycle ring conformations, (iii) identify the global energy minimum, (iv) identify conformers similar to the X-ray ligand conformation after Protein Preparation Wizard treatment (X-ray(ppw)), and (v) to the X-ray(ppw) ring conformation. Computational speed was also considered. In addition, conformational coverage, as defined by the number of conformations identified, was studied. In order to study the relative energies of the bioactive conformations, the energy differences between the global energy minima and the energy minimized X-ray(ppw) structures and, the global energy minima and the MCMM-Exhaustive (1,000,000 search steps) generated conformers closest to the X-ray(ppw) structure, were calculated and analysed. All searches were performed using relatively short run times (10,000 steps for MCMM, MTLMOD and MD/LLMOD). To assess the performance of the methods, they were compared to an exhaustive MCMM search using 1,000,000 search steps for each of the 44 macrocycles (requiring ca 200 times more CPU time). Prior to our analysis, we also investigated if the general search methods MCMM and MTLMOD could also be optimized for macrocycle conformational sampling. Taken together, our work concludes that the more general methods can be optimized for macrocycle modelling by slightly adjusting the settings around the ring closure bond. In most cases, MCMM and MTLMOD with either standard or enhanced settings performed well in comparison to the more specialized macrocycle sampling methods MD/LLMOD and PRIME-MCS. When using enhanced settings for MCMM and MTLMOD, the X-ray(ppw) conformation was regenerated with the greatest accuracy. The, MD/LLMOD emerged as the most efficient method for generating the global energy minima. Graphic abstract

    National Category
    Medicinal Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340864 (URN)10.1007/s10822-020-00277-2 (DOI)000515183900002 ()31965404 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 521-2014-6711
    Available from: 2018-02-04 Created: 2018-02-04 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
    4. Docking of Macrocycles: Comparing Rigid and Flexible Docking in Glide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Docking of Macrocycles: Comparing Rigid and Flexible Docking in Glide
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, ISSN 1549-9596, E-ISSN 1549-960X, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 190-202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in using macrocyclic compounds for drug discovery and development. For docking of these commonly large and flexible compounds to be addressed, a screening and a validation set were assembled from the PDB consisting of 16 and 31 macrocycle-containing protein complexes, respectively. The macrocycles were docked in Glide by rigid docking of pregenerated conformational ensembles produced by the macrocycle conformational sampling method (MCS) in Schrödinger Release 2015-3 or by direct Glide flexible docking after performing ring-templating. The two protocols were compared to rigid docking of pregenerated conformational ensembles produced by an exhaustive Monte Carlo multiple minimum (MCMM) conformational search and a shorter MCMM conformational search (MCMM-short). The docking accuracy was evaluated and expressed as the RMSD between the heavy atoms of the ligand as found in the X-ray structure after refinement and the poses obtained by the docking protocols. The median RMSD values for top-scored poses of the screening set were 0.83, 0.80, 0.88, and 0.58 Å for MCMM, MCMM-short, MCS, and Glide flexible docking, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the performance between rigid docking of pregenerated conformations produced by the MCS and direct docking using Glide flexible docking. However, the flexible docking protocol was 2-times faster in docking the screening set compared to that of the MCS protocol. In a final study, the new Prime-MCS method was evaluated in Schrödinger Release 2016-3. This method is faster compared that of to MCS; however, the conformations generated were found to be suboptimal for rigid docking. Therefore, on the basis of timing, accuracy, and ease of set up, standard Glide flexible docking with prior ring-templating is recommended over current gold standard protocols using rigid docking of pregenerated conformational ensembles.

    National Category
    Medicinal Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-318050 (URN)10.1021/acs.jcim.6b00443 (DOI)000395226100010 ()28079375 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 521-2014-6711
    Available from: 2017-03-23 Created: 2017-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
    5. Vinylated linear P2 pyrimidinyloxyphenylglycine based inhibitors of the HCV NS3/4A protease and corresponding macrocycles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vinylated linear P2 pyrimidinyloxyphenylglycine based inhibitors of the HCV NS3/4A protease and corresponding macrocycles
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0968-0896, E-ISSN 1464-3391, Vol. 22, no 23, p. 6595-6615Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With three recent market approvals and several inhibitors in advanced stages of development, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease represents a successful target for antiviral therapy against hepatitis C. As a consequence of dealing with viral diseases in general, there are concerns related to the emergence of drug resistant strains which calls for development of inhibitors with an alternative binding-mode than the existing highly optimized ones. We have previously reported on the use of phenylglycine as an alternative P2 residue in HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors. Herein, we present the synthesis, structure-activity relationships and in vitro pharmacokinetic characterization of a diverse series of linear and macrocyclic P2 pyrimidinyloxyphenylglycine based inhibitors. With access to vinyl substituents in P3, P2 and P1' positions an initial probing of macrocyclization between different positions, using ring-closing metathesis (RCM) could be performed, after addressing some synthetic challenges. Biochemical results from the wild type enzyme and drug resistant variants (e.g., R155 K) indicate that P3-P1' macrocyclization, leaving the P2 substituent in a flexible mode, is a promising approach. Additionally, the study demonstrates that phenylglycine based inhibitors benefit from p-phenylpyrimidinyloxy and m-vinyl groups as well as from the combination with an aromatic P1 motif with alkenylic P1' elongations. In fact, linear P2-P1' spanning intermediate compounds based on these fragments were found to display promising inhibitory potencies and drug like properties.

    Keywords
    HCV, NS3, Protease inhibitors, Macrocyclization, Phenylglycine, Metathesis
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-239738 (URN)10.1016/j.bmc.2014.10.010 (DOI)000345287300007 ()
    Available from: 2014-12-31 Created: 2014-12-30 Last updated: 2018-02-04Bibliographically approved
    6. Novel Peptidomimetic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors Spanning the P2–P1′ Region
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel Peptidomimetic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors Spanning the P2–P1′ Region
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-5875, E-ISSN 1948-5875, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 249-254Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, novel hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitors based on a P2 pyrimidinyloxyphenylglycine in combination with various regioisomers of an aryl acyl sulfonamide functionality in P1 are presented. The P1′ 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl side chain was shown to be particularly beneficial in terms of inhibitory potency. Several inhibitors with Ki-values in the nanomolar range were developed and included identification of promising P3-truncated inhibitors spanning from P2–P1′. Of several different P2 capping groups that were evaluated, a preference for the sterically congested Boc group was revealed. The inhibitors were found to retain inhibitory potencies for A156T, D168V, and R155K variants of the protease. Furthermore, in vitro pharmacokinetic profiling showed several beneficial effects on metabolic stability as well as on apparent intestinal permeability from both P3 truncation and the use of the P1′ 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl side chain.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221229 (URN)10.1021/ml400217r (DOI)000333006200005 ()
    Available from: 2014-03-26 Created: 2014-03-26 Last updated: 2018-02-04Bibliographically approved
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  • 2.
    Alogheli, Hiba
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Olanders, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Schaal, Wesley
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Brandt, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Anders, Karlén
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Docking of Macrocycles: Comparing Rigid and Flexible Docking in Glide2017In: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, ISSN 1549-9596, E-ISSN 1549-960X, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 190-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in using macrocyclic compounds for drug discovery and development. For docking of these commonly large and flexible compounds to be addressed, a screening and a validation set were assembled from the PDB consisting of 16 and 31 macrocycle-containing protein complexes, respectively. The macrocycles were docked in Glide by rigid docking of pregenerated conformational ensembles produced by the macrocycle conformational sampling method (MCS) in Schrödinger Release 2015-3 or by direct Glide flexible docking after performing ring-templating. The two protocols were compared to rigid docking of pregenerated conformational ensembles produced by an exhaustive Monte Carlo multiple minimum (MCMM) conformational search and a shorter MCMM conformational search (MCMM-short). The docking accuracy was evaluated and expressed as the RMSD between the heavy atoms of the ligand as found in the X-ray structure after refinement and the poses obtained by the docking protocols. The median RMSD values for top-scored poses of the screening set were 0.83, 0.80, 0.88, and 0.58 Å for MCMM, MCMM-short, MCS, and Glide flexible docking, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the performance between rigid docking of pregenerated conformations produced by the MCS and direct docking using Glide flexible docking. However, the flexible docking protocol was 2-times faster in docking the screening set compared to that of the MCS protocol. In a final study, the new Prime-MCS method was evaluated in Schrödinger Release 2016-3. This method is faster compared that of to MCS; however, the conformations generated were found to be suboptimal for rigid docking. Therefore, on the basis of timing, accuracy, and ease of set up, standard Glide flexible docking with prior ring-templating is recommended over current gold standard protocols using rigid docking of pregenerated conformational ensembles.

  • 3.
    Belfrage, Anna Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Design and Discovery.
    Abdurakhmanov, Eldar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Åkerblom, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Design and Discovery.
    Brandt, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Design and Discovery.
    Alogheli, Hiba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Design and Discovery.
    Neyts, Johan
    Rega Institute, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Danielson, U. Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Johansson, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Design and Discovery.
    Pan-NS3 protease inhibitors of hepatitis C virus based on an R3-elongated pyrazinone scaffold2018In: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0223-5234, E-ISSN 1768-3254, Vol. 148, p. 453-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we present the design and synthesis of 2(1H)-pyrazinone based HCV NS3 protease inhibitors and show that elongated R-3 urea substituents were associated with increased inhibitory potencies over several NS3 protein variants. The inhibitors are believed to rely on beta-sheet mimicking hydrogen bonds which are similar over different genotypes and current drug resistant variants and correspond to the beta-sheet interactions of the natural peptide substrate. Inhibitor 36, for example, with a urea substituent including a cyclic imide showed balanced nanomolar inhibitory potencies against genotype la, both wild-type (K-i=30 nM) and R155K (K-i=2 nM), and genotype 3a (K-i=5 nM).

  • 4.
    Gising, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Belfrage, Anna Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Alogheli, Hiba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Ehrenberg, Angelica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Åkerblom, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Svensson, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Artursson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Anders, Karlén
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Danielsson, U. Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sandström, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Achiral Pyrazinone-Based Inhibitors of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease and Drug-Resistant Variants with Elongated Substituents Directed Toward the S2 Pocket2014In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 1790-1801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we describe the design, synthesis, inhibitory potency, and pharmacokinetic properties of a novel class of achiral peptidomimetic HCV NS3 protease inhibitors. The compounds are based on a dipeptidomimetic pyrazinone glycine P3P2 building block in combination with an aromatic acyl sulfonamide in the P1P1′ position. Structure–activity relationship data and molecular modeling support occupancy of the S2 pocket from elongated R6 substituents on the 2(1H)-pyrazinone core and several inhibitors with improved inhibitory potency down to Ki = 0.11 μM were identified. A major goal with the design was to produce inhibitors structurally dissimilar to the di- and tripeptide-based HCV protease inhibitors in advanced stages of development for which cross-resistance might be an issue. Therefore, the retained and improved inhibitory potency against the drug-resistant variants A156T, D168V, and R155K further strengthen the potential of this class of inhibitors. A number of the inhibitors were tested in in vitro preclinical profiling assays to evaluate their apparent pharmacokinetic properties. The various R6 substituents were found to have a major influence on solubility, metabolic stability, and cell permeability.

  • 5.
    Lampa, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Alogheli, Hiba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Ehrenberg, Angelica E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Åkerblom, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Svensson, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Artursson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Danielson, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sandström, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Vinylated linear P2 pyrimidinyloxyphenylglycine based inhibitors of the HCV NS3/4A protease and corresponding macrocycles2014In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0968-0896, E-ISSN 1464-3391, Vol. 22, no 23, p. 6595-6615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With three recent market approvals and several inhibitors in advanced stages of development, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease represents a successful target for antiviral therapy against hepatitis C. As a consequence of dealing with viral diseases in general, there are concerns related to the emergence of drug resistant strains which calls for development of inhibitors with an alternative binding-mode than the existing highly optimized ones. We have previously reported on the use of phenylglycine as an alternative P2 residue in HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors. Herein, we present the synthesis, structure-activity relationships and in vitro pharmacokinetic characterization of a diverse series of linear and macrocyclic P2 pyrimidinyloxyphenylglycine based inhibitors. With access to vinyl substituents in P3, P2 and P1' positions an initial probing of macrocyclization between different positions, using ring-closing metathesis (RCM) could be performed, after addressing some synthetic challenges. Biochemical results from the wild type enzyme and drug resistant variants (e.g., R155 K) indicate that P3-P1' macrocyclization, leaving the P2 substituent in a flexible mode, is a promising approach. Additionally, the study demonstrates that phenylglycine based inhibitors benefit from p-phenylpyrimidinyloxy and m-vinyl groups as well as from the combination with an aromatic P1 motif with alkenylic P1' elongations. In fact, linear P2-P1' spanning intermediate compounds based on these fragments were found to display promising inhibitory potencies and drug like properties.

  • 6.
    Lampa, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Svahn Gustafsson, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Alogheli, Hiba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Åkerblom, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Lindeberg, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Svensson, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Artursson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Danielsson, Helena U.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sandström, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Novel Peptidomimetic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors Spanning the P2–P1′ Region2014In: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-5875, E-ISSN 1948-5875, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 249-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, novel hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitors based on a P2 pyrimidinyloxyphenylglycine in combination with various regioisomers of an aryl acyl sulfonamide functionality in P1 are presented. The P1′ 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl side chain was shown to be particularly beneficial in terms of inhibitory potency. Several inhibitors with Ki-values in the nanomolar range were developed and included identification of promising P3-truncated inhibitors spanning from P2–P1′. Of several different P2 capping groups that were evaluated, a preference for the sterically congested Boc group was revealed. The inhibitors were found to retain inhibitory potencies for A156T, D168V, and R155K variants of the protease. Furthermore, in vitro pharmacokinetic profiling showed several beneficial effects on metabolic stability as well as on apparent intestinal permeability from both P3 truncation and the use of the P1′ 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl side chain.

  • 7. Odell, Adam F
    et al.
    Odell, Luke R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Askham, Jon M
    Alogheli, Hiba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan
    Hollstein, Monica
    A Novel p53 Mutant Found in Iatrogenic Urothelial Cancers Is Dysfunctional and Can Be Rescued by a Second-site Global Suppressor Mutation2013In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 288, no 23, p. 16704-16714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to herbal remedies containing the carcinogen aristolochic acid (AA) has been widespread in some regions of the world. Rare A→T TP53 mutations were recently discovered in AA-associated urothelial cancers. The near absence of these mutations among all other sequenced human tumors suggests that they could be biologically silent. There are no cell banks with established lines derived from human tumors with which to explore the influence of the novel mutants on p53 function and cellular behavior. To investigate their impact, we generated isogenic mutant clones by integrase-mediated cassette exchange at the p53 locus of platform (null) murine embryonic fibroblasts and kidney epithelial cells. Common tumor mutants (R248W, R273C) were compared with the AA-associated mutants N131Y, R249W, and Q104L. Assays of cell proliferation, migration, growth in soft agar, apoptosis, senescence, and gene expression revealed contrasting outcomes on cellular behavior following introduction of N131Y or Q104L. The N131Y mutant demonstrated a phenotype akin to common tumor mutants, whereas Q104L clone behavior resembled that of cells with wild-type p53. Wild-type p53 responses were restored in double-mutant cells harboring N131Y and N239Y, a second-site rescue mutation, suggesting that pharmaceutical reactivation of p53 function in tumors expressing N131Y could have therapeutic benefit. N131Y is likely to contribute directly to tumor phenotype and is a promising candidate biomarker of AA exposure and disease. Rare mutations thus do not necessarily point to sites where amino acid exchanges are phenotypically neutral. Encounter with mutagenic insults targeting cryptic sites can reveal specific signature hotspots.

  • 8.
    Olanders, Gustav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Design and Discovery.
    Alogheli, Hiba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Design and Discovery.
    Brandt, Peter
    Med Chem, Res,Early Dev Cardiovascular,Renal,Metab, BioPharmaceuticals R&D,AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Design and Discovery.
    Conformational Analysis of Macrocycles: Comparing General and Specialized Methods2020In: Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, ISSN 0920-654X, E-ISSN 1573-4951, Vol. 34, p. 231-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macrocycles represent an important class of medicinally relevant small molecules due to their interesting biological properties. Therefore, a firm understanding of their conformational preferences is important for drug design. Given the importance of macrocycle-protein modelling in drug discovery, we envisaged that a systematic study of both classical and recent specialized methods would provide guidance for other practitioners within the field. In this study we compare the performance of the general, well established conformational analysis methods Monte Carlo Multiple Minimum (MCMM) and Mixed Torsional/Low-Mode sampling (MTLMOD) with two more recent and specialized macrocycle sampling techniques: MacroModel macrocycle Baseline Search (MD/LLMOD) and Prime macrocycle conformational sampling (PRIME-MCS). Using macrocycles extracted from 44 macrocycle-protein X-ray crystallography complexes, we evaluated each method based on their ability to (i) generate unique conformers, (ii) generate unique macrocycle ring conformations, (iii) identify the global energy minimum, (iv) identify conformers similar to the X-ray ligand conformation after Protein Preparation Wizard treatment (X-ray(ppw)), and (v) to the X-ray(ppw) ring conformation. Computational speed was also considered. In addition, conformational coverage, as defined by the number of conformations identified, was studied. In order to study the relative energies of the bioactive conformations, the energy differences between the global energy minima and the energy minimized X-ray(ppw) structures and, the global energy minima and the MCMM-Exhaustive (1,000,000 search steps) generated conformers closest to the X-ray(ppw) structure, were calculated and analysed. All searches were performed using relatively short run times (10,000 steps for MCMM, MTLMOD and MD/LLMOD). To assess the performance of the methods, they were compared to an exhaustive MCMM search using 1,000,000 search steps for each of the 44 macrocycles (requiring ca 200 times more CPU time). Prior to our analysis, we also investigated if the general search methods MCMM and MTLMOD could also be optimized for macrocycle conformational sampling. Taken together, our work concludes that the more general methods can be optimized for macrocycle modelling by slightly adjusting the settings around the ring closure bond. In most cases, MCMM and MTLMOD with either standard or enhanced settings performed well in comparison to the more specialized macrocycle sampling methods MD/LLMOD and PRIME-MCS. When using enhanced settings for MCMM and MTLMOD, the X-ray(ppw) conformation was regenerated with the greatest accuracy. The, MD/LLMOD emerged as the most efficient method for generating the global energy minima. Graphic abstract

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