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  • 1.
    Burgi, Matthias
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Res Unit Landscape Dynam, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Bieling, Claudia
    Univ Hohenheim, Societal Transit & Agr 430b, Inst Social Sci Agr, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany..
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Kizos, Thanasis
    Univ Aegean, Dept Geog, Univ Hill 81100, Mytilene, Greece..
    Lieskovsky, Juraj
    Slovak Acad Sci, Inst Landscape Ecol, Akad 2, Nitra 94910, Slovakia..
    Martin, Maria Garcia
    Univ Freiburg, Nat Conservat & Landscape Ecol, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany..
    McCarthy, Sarah
    Landscape Res Grp Ltd, POB 1482, Oxford OX4 9DN, England..
    Muller, Matthias
    Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Res Unit Landscape Dynam, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Palang, Hannes
    Tallinn Univ, Sch Humanities, Ctr Landscape & Culture, EE-10120 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark..
    Printsmann, Anu
    Tallinn Univ, Sch Humanities, Ctr Landscape & Culture, EE-10120 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Processes and driving forces in changing cultural landscapes across Europe2017In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 2097-2112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    Cultural landscapes evolve over time. However, the rate and direction of change might not be in line with societal needs and more information on the forces driving these changes are therefore needed.

    Objectives

    Filling the gap between single case studies and meta-analyses, we present a comparative study of landscape changes and their driving forces based in six regions across Europe conducted using a consistent method.

    Methods

    A LULC analysis based on historical and contemporary maps from the nineteenth and twentieth century was combined with oral history interviews to learn more about perceived landscape changes, and remembered driving forces. Land cover and landscape changes were analysed regarding change, conversions and processes. For all case study areas, narratives on mapped land cover change, perceived landscape changes and driving forces were compiled.

    Results

    Despite a very high diversity in extent, direction and rates of change, a few dominant processes and widespread factors driving the changes could be identified in the six case study areas, i.e. access and infrastructure, political shifts, labor market, technological innovations, and for the more recent period climate change.

    Conclusions

    Grasping peoples’ perception supplements the analyses of mapped land use and land cover changes and allows to address perceived landscape changes. The list of driving forces determined to be most relevant shows clear limits in predictability: Whereas changes triggered by infrastructural developments might be comparatively easy to model, political developments cannot be foreseen but might, nevertheless, leave major marks in the landscape.

  • 2. Kolen, Jan
    et al.
    Crumley, Carole
    Burgers, Gert Jan
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Howard, Peter
    Karro, Krista
    de Kleijn, Maurice
    Löwenborg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    van Manen, Niels
    Palang, Hannes
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Printsmann, Anu
    Renes, Hans
    Scholten, Henk
    Sinclair, Paul
    Veldi, Martti
    Verhagen, Philip
    HERCULES: Studying long-term changes in Europe’s landscapes2015In: Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia, ISSN 0169-7447, p. 209-220Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the outlines of a new EU-fundedresearch program for the long-term history, present-daymanagement and further development of the Europeanlandscapes, including their natural and cultural heritage:HERCULES. One of the subprojects of this program(Work Package 2) links archaeological, historical andhistorical ecological data to the analysis of geo-informationin order to develop models of long-term landscape changein three carefully chosen study regions in the Netherlands,Sweden and Estonia. This is framed theoretically byintegrating insights from landscape biography, historicalecology and complex systems theory. The linking andanalysis of data will be done using a Spatial DataInfrastructure and by means of dynamic modelling.

  • 3.
    Peyroteo Stjerna, Rita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    von Hackwitz, KimUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Ancient Death Ways: Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices. Uppsala, 16–17 May 20132015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ancient Death Ways – proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices, contains articles of the work in progress presented and discussed at the Ancient Death Ways 2013 meeting, which was organised around three main themes: current research, landscapes of death, and defining death. The diversity of case studies and subjects tackled by the participants reflects the richness of the field of archaeological research concerning death studies. This book does not aim to be a treaty on the archaeology of death in 2013, but rather a straightforward outcome of the sessions. The series of eight articles is introduced and closed by two commentary essays from two of the moderators of the workshop.

  • 4.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    D2.2 Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for linking geographical, archaeological, historical, and ecological data and information for the case studies2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The second deliverable of WP2 (D2.2) of the HERCULES project contains the outlines of the Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for retrieving and linking archaeological, historical, and ecological data and geo-information to support the interdisciplinary study of landscape change. It reports on the current state of the infrastructural facility, as the content (data) and functionality (query, analysis and visualization functions) will be refined further in the process of the modelling conducted in three regional case studies (task 2.3) and inter-regional comparisons within the HERCULES project. The SDI outline defines an innovative SDI conceptualization and architecture, grounded in international SDI literature and the functionality and data needs of interdisciplinary research of the long-term development and transformation of cultural landscapes. Furthermore, it describes how the architecture has been implemented in order to achieve a user-centric facility that meets the demands of the WP2 researchers and their societal partners and that enables the SDI to be linked to the Knowledge Hub developed in WP7. The SDI outline subsequently deals with the following topics and issues: 1. A short description of its main aim and its relationship to the work being done in other WPs of the HERCULES project (Section 1); 2. A detailed description of an innovative methodology for the development of a usercentric SDI (Section 2) 3. An elaboration on the SDI architecture (technical components) implemented to support the researchers of WP2 (Section 3) 4. An elaboration on the SDI content (data) with specific reference to the modelling conducted in WP2 (Section 4)

  • 5.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    D3.2 Compiled timelines of cultural landscape change for the study landscapes2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work package (WP) 3 aim is to reconstruct and assess the short-term past changes and dynamics of cultural landscapes, using case study approach. As a more detailed analysis can be carried out in smaller spatial scale, Study Municipalities (SM) were distinguished within Study Landscapes (SL). The aim of this deliverable is to present the results of the task of “Compiled timelines of cultural landscape change (CTCLC)” based on land use / land cover (LULC) change analysis of maps and aerial images since mid-19th century from scales 1:10,000 – 1:50,000 digitised and generalised to 1:50,000 level. The variety of available maps, scales and level of detail for each SM in different natural, physical, political, social and cultural environment is enormous and does not justify cross-SM comparisons on LULC level. Still, some individual conclusions for CTCLC for specific SM can be drawn: 1. Estonia: SL – Vooremaa and Kodavere, SM – Alatskivi and Peipsiääre. Constant struggle with amelioration has reduced the area of wetlands remarkably promoting forest in a marginalised area where otherwise the landscape has been quite stable: massive forest with mosaic village landscapes. 2. Greece: SL – Lesvos, SM – Gera. The most remarkable change from 1960 to 2012 has been the decline of agriculture whereas the grassland and shrubs, especially wooded grasslands and shrubs taking over based on mapping categories. Also the forest and built-up areas are increasing as is the road network. Probably the processes of modernisation and tourist influx have had impact on abandoning agriculture, which in turn may negatively affect tourism industry that is in search for traditional olive landscapes. 3. Switzerland: SL – Obersimmental, SM – Lenk. With the glaciers melting away bare natural rock area grows slowly. No agriculture. Built-up area grows slowly. Grassland and shrubs are decreasing and forest increasing, both fragmented. Linear infrastructures have been modernised from main roads, railways to cable cars. It seems to be a rather natural landscape with forest overgrowth. 4. Spain: SL – Sierra de Guadarrama foothills, SM – Colmenar Viejo. 1946 seems to be the crucial year, agriculture was in large amounts substituted with grasslands and shrubs; forest almost clear cut. Built-up area and quarries spread as it is situated NW from Madrid. The landscape is criss-crossed with infrastructures: highways, railways and channels. A peri-urban landscape that is in constant change. 5. Sweden: SL – Uppland, SM – Börje. Changes in the vicinity of Uppsala city do not seem radical at all. Scattered mosaic land use seems to have found its peri-urban equilibrium, if this is a possibility. Typical mature polarisation is slowly under way: more monolithic fields appear and grasslands and shrubs are taking over – perhaps as the urban way of life creeps into the countryside leaving fields aside, or more ecoaware attitudes have emerged. CTCLC based on LULC change analysis is not landscape, thus this outcome will serve as a basis for “objective” background against which comparison of other methods (e.g. oral history interviews (OHI), major events and driving forces (DF) analysis, public participatory GIS (PP-GIS), terrestrial photos etc.) can be done forming Landscape change trajectories (LCT) as case study approach. The mapping exercise results will be uploaded to Knowledge Hub (KH).

  • 6.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Små båtyxor och äktaminiatyrer under mellanneolitikum i Svealand2012In: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boat axes are one of the main object categories defining the Battle Axe Culture in Sweden (2800–2100 cal BC). Scholars interpret the axes as purely symbolical objects. During the later part of the period, miniatures occur. Their role has been much discussed. The axes have been interpreted as associated with children's graves or related to deposition sites in the landscape and ascribed symbolism. Yet, little research has been devoted to understanding the first appearance of the miniature boat axes and relating them to other changes in the material culture towards the end of theMiddle Neolithic B.

    This study aims to reviewprevious research into the miniature boat axes and to discuss their role inMiddleNeolithic society. The discussion includes a survey of the axes and an analysis of their physical qualities in order to give the group a stringent and practical definition.

    The results suggest that boat axes of miniature size should be seen as a distinct part of Middle Neolithic B material culture. They differ from the full-sized axes in terms of shape, frequency and function.

  • 7.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    The Creation of Regions: An Alternative Approach to Swedish Middle Neolithic Boundaries and Cultures2012In: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 52-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates whether there is an alternative understanding to the presumed coast–inland division that has dominated middle Neolithic research in Sweden. Traditionally, the partition of the landscape is put in relation to two different material cultures said to represent two different ethnic groups: the Pitted Ware Culture and the Boat Axe Culture. An alternative interpretation is presented based on analyses of water catchment areas, naturally formed regions and landscape historicity. The results suggest that the traditional division between the inland and the coast may be questioned since the naturally formed regions include both zones and hence both material groups. For this reason, the difference in the material culture is more likely a consequence of different activities taking place at different locales within a single region, rather than being evidence of various ethnic groups.

  • 8.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Bieling, Claudia
    Bürgi, Matthias
    D3.1 List and documentation of case study landscapesselected for HERCULES2014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    HERCULES develops insights, tools, technologies and strategies and applies and tests theseat regional case studies that span major environmental and land use history gradientsthroughout Europe. As a project that specifically refers to landscapes, the case studies form acornerstone for HERCULES.This report describes the selection of the HERCULES case studies (in the following termedstudy landscapes, SLs) regarding the criteria considered and the process carried out. As asecond part, it contains an overview of all SLs and provides a detailed profile for each area,including cartographic information.Attending to the criteria defined in the HERCULES Description of Work, a five step-processwas carried out to identify the SLs. This encompassed 1) an open call for proposals of SLcandidates among the HERCULES projects partners, 2) the evaluation of the suitability ofproposed SLs by the leaders of those WPs that are active at the SL scale, 3) a decision on theSLs taken by the responsible WP 3 team and the project coordinator, 4) an adjustment processin order to achieve a maximum overlap of the activities of different WPs in the SLs, and 5)the selection of specific focus areas/study municipalities (SMs) within the larger SLs, to bereferred to e.g. for more detailed map analyses or closer stakeholder interaction.This process resulted in the identification of nine SLs: 1) Vooremaa and Kodavere (Estonia),2) Lesvos (Greece), 3) Obersimmental (Switzerland), 4) Grand Parc de Miribel Jonage,Rhône-Alpes area (France), 5) Sierra de Guadarrama foothills (Spain), 6) Parque NaturelRegional d’Armorique (France), 7) South West Devon (United Kingdom), 8) Dutch riverdelta Rhine-Meuse (Netherlands), and 9) Uppland (Sweden). These SLs span a variety ofdifferent characteristics (e.g. the major biogeographical zones of Europe), include bothoutstanding heritage features and everyday landscapes with more hidden historical layers,cover rural and urban areas and are all firmly embedded in the project via a local contactperson who is member of the HERCULES consortium.The case study selection was a joint enterprise to which all HERCULES partners activelycontributed. It involved several typical challenges for Pan-European multi-partner projects,ranging from the homogenisation of material from different languages and administrativesystems to the development of an integrative and well-balanced agreement on the potential ofproposed sites beyond specific personal interests. As such, the successful selection of the SLsproves the capacity of the consortium to work as joint and target-oriented team.

  • 9.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Kolen, Jan
    Crumley, Carole
    Löwenborg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Innovative interdiciplinary protocol for understanding landscape dynamics, based on the rpespective of historical ecology, landscape biography and complex system theory.2014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first deliverable of Work Package 2 (D 2.1) of the HERCULES project contains theoutlines of a protocol for studying the long-term changes in cultural landscapes. It is intendedas a first design of such a protocol, as it has to be tested and refined further in the process ofconducting three regional case studies and inter-regional comparisons within the HERCULESproject. The protocol defines an innovative methodological procedure for understanding thelong-term development and transformation of cultural landscapes, drawing on recent insightsfrom geography, landscape archaeology, (historical) ecology, anthropology and informationscience. The procedure will be informed by the definitions and the conceptual frameworkdeveloped in HERCULES work package 1.The protocol text subsequently deals with the following topics and issues:1. A short description of its main aim and its relationship to the work being done in otherwork packages of the HERCULES project (Section 1);2. An overview of the major concepts and approaches in archaeological and historicallandscape research in both North America and Europe and the major issues raised inlandscape history over the past decades (Section 2). This also defines the necessity ofdeveloping an integrated approach to long-term changes in cultural landscapes(Section 3);3. A set of premises for understanding long-term changes in cultural landscapes (Section4), as well as a number of operational principles for translating these premises toconcrete starting points, procedures, methods and techniques in individual orcomparative landscape projects (section 5). These premises and operational principlesare based on the methodological buildings blocks of the protocol: historical ecology,landscape biography and complex systems theory.4. Starting points for integrating landscape history with the current theory and practice ofgeodesign (Section 6);5. Design of an infrastructural facility for retrieving and linking archaeological,historical and ecological data and geo-information (SDI) to support theinterdisciplinary study of landscape change (Section 7).6. An exploration of concepts and techniques in dynamic modeling that can help betterand more consistently understand the long-term processes that have been operating (orstill are) in cultural landscapes, including outlines and examples of a comparative casestudy approach (Section 8).

  • 10.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology. SSEESS KvA.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, African and Comparative Archaeology.
    Landscapes of Mortuary Practices2015In: Ancient Death Ways: Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices, Uppsala, May 2013 / [ed] Kim von Hackwitz & Rita Peyroteo-Stjerna, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015, p. 143-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    LANDSCAPES OF MORTUARY PRACTICES2015In: Ancient Death Ways : Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices. Uppsala, 16–17 May 2013 / [ed] Kim von Hackwitz & Rita Peyroteo Stjerna, Uppsala: Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia , 2015, p. 143-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free Fulltext in the main post, Ancient Death Ways

    This paper focuses on the question of how a landscape perspective can contribute to the understanding of mortuary practices. By applying basic GIS methodology, we argue that it is possible to add additional dimensions to an understanding of the management of burials. The starting point is that the selection of locations and spatial relations of burials should be considered an expression of the norms and values that were important for the society that created the burials and organised the landscape. To illustrate this we use two case studies: The Passage Graves of Karleby, Falbygden and the Pitted Ware burials in Eastern Middle Sweden, Lake Hjälmaren.

  • 12.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lindström, Jonathan
    Vem är stor och liten, brun och grå? Något om båtyxors fyndkontext, längd och färg.2004In: Aktuell Arkeologi, no 42, p. 21-30Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though several analyses of Boat Axes belonging to the Boat Axe Culture (also referred to as Battle Axe Culture) have already been carried out, it is our opinion that even more can be acknowledged if focus is attended to stray finds. This minor analysis, of 97 Boat Axes from Sweden, illustrates how such a study can be done and what kind of questions can be answered. After analysing Boat Axes with identified, or somewhat identified, contexts we put forward a few suggestions about how to make sense of axes from unknown contexts.

  • 13.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Löwenborg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    HERCULES - Sustainable futures for Europe’s HERitage in CULtural landscapES: Tools for understanding, managing, and protecting landscape functions and values: D2.3 Dynamic models for analyzing long-term landscape change2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Package 2.3 of the HERCULES project brings together a protocol for studying the long-term changes in cultural landscapes and spatial dynamic modelling frameworks and tools. Additionally it presents the possibilities of applying web GIS tools, which are available through HERCULES´s Knowledge Hub (WP7) to publish and share the research results with various actors having different disciplinary backgrounds. The protocol defines an innovative methodological procedure for understanding the long-term development and transformation of cultural landscapes, drawing on recent insights from geography, landscape archaeology, (historical) ecology, anthropology and information science. The protocol subsequently deals with the following topics and issues:  An overview of the major concepts and approaches in archaeological and historical landscape research in both North America and Europe and the major issues raised in landscape history over the past decades (Section 2.1). This also defines the necessity of developing an integrated approach to long-term changes in cultural landscapes (Section 2.2); A set of premises for understanding long-term changes in cultural landscapes (Section 2.3), as well as a number of operational principles for translating these premises to concrete starting points, procedures, methods and techniques in individual or comparative landscape projects (Section 2.4). These premises and operational principles are based on the methodological buildings blocks of the protocol: historical ecology, landscape biography and complex systems theory. Based on the protocol two spatial dynamic modelling frameworks are presented and applied in two carefully selected case study areas (i.e. the Dutch Lower Rhine region and the Swedish Uppland region). The modelling frameworks present innovative methods that allow analyzing past spatial dynamics. The presented modelling frameworks demonstrate the high potential of spatial dynamic modelling framework to better understand past landscape processes. However, it also shows that it is highly complicated to simulate these spatial dynamics. The main problems are the quality and detail of available data, and the uncertainties in assumptions made. Interpreting and using the modelling results must therefore be approached with care and requires additional research. Additionally this deliverable shows the potential of HERCULES’s Knowledge Hub. It shows how the results of one of the modelling frameworks can be interactively presented using advance web mapping technologies (i.e. story telling GIS tools). This does not only allow the research results to be published in a scientific transparent way, it also offers tooling to bridge the gap between academic spatial modelling experts, heritage landscape experts and nonscientific stakeholders.

  • 14.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Stenbäck, Niklas
    Changing Landscapes – A GIS analysis of Neolithic site location and shore displacement in Eastern Central Sweden.2013In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 6, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an attempt to put forward the use of new digital techniques and data for understanding prehistoric landscapes. The starting point is that the specific characteristics of the landscape and of the sites included affect the interpretation. One character is the contemporary landscape and its topographies. Ancient landscapes can be successfully recreated digitally using GIS. By applying GIS methodology, a regression equation and new data, we reinvestigated an hypothesis proposed by Welinder in 1978 concerning the acculturation of the Pitted Ware Culture. The results indicate that a reconstruction of the landscape may alter the understanding of the Neolithic land use and the question of the relocation and termination of the Pitted Ware Culture at the end of Middle Neolithic B.

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