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  • 1.
    Burdon, Rosalie C. F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Junker, Robert R.
    Scofield, Douglas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Bacteria colonising Penstemon digitalis show volatile and tissue-specific responses to a natural concentration range of the floral volatile linalool2018In: Chemoecology, ISSN 0937-7409, E-ISSN 1423-0445, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Burdon, Rosalie C. F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Raguso, Robert A.
    Cornell Univ, Dept Neurobiol & Behav, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA..
    Kessler, Andre
    Cornell Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Spatiotemporal floral scent variation of Penstemon digitalis2015In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 641-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variability in floral volatile emissions can occur temporally through floral development, during diel cycles, as well as spatially within a flower. These spatiotemporal patterns are hypothesized to provide additional information to floral visitors, but they are rarely measured, and their attendant hypotheses are even more rarely tested. In Penstemon digitalis, a plant whose floral scent has been shown to be under strong phenotypic selection for seed fitness, we investigated spatiotemporal variation in floral scent by using dynamic headspace collection, respectively solid-phase microextraction, and analyzed the volatile samples by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total volatile emission was greatest during flowering and peak pollinator activity hours, suggesting its importance in mediating ecological interactions. We also detected tissue and reward-specific compounds, consistent with the hypothesis that complexity in floral scent composition reflects several ecological functions. In particular, we found tissue-specific scents for the stigma, stamens, and staminode (a modified sterile stamen common to all Penstemons). Our findings emphasize the dynamic nature of floral scents and highlight a need for greater understanding of ecological and physiological mechanisms driving spatiotemporal patterns in scent production.

  • 3.
    Burdon, Rosalie C.F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Junker, Robert R.
    Univ Salzburg, Dept of Organ Biol, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Floral volatiles suppress Penstemon digitalis microorganismsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Burdon, Rosalie C.F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Raguso, Robert A.
    Cornell Univ, Dept Neurobiol & Behav, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA..
    Kessler, Andre
    Cornell Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA..
    Gegear, Robert J.
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Dept of Biol and Biotech, Worcester, MA, 01609, USA .
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Honest signalling of nectar scent depends on inflorescence not flower scaleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Burdon, Rosalie C.F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Scofield, Douglas G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Pierce, Ellen
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Dept of Biol and Biotech, Worcester, MA, 01609, USA .
    Gegear, Robert J.
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Dept of Biol and Biotech, Worcester, MA, 01609, USA .
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Multimodal signal honesty in Penstemon digitalis enhances bumblebee foragingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Caruso, Christina M.
    et al.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Do Plants Eavesdrop on Floral Scent Signals?2016In: Trends in Plant Science, ISSN 1360-1385, E-ISSN 1878-4372, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 9-15Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants emit a diverse array of volatile organic compounds that can function as cues to other plants. Plants can use volatiles emitted by neighbors to gain information about their environment, and respond by adjusting their phenotype. Less is known about whether the many different volatile signals that plants emit are all equally likely to function as cues to other plants. We review evidence for the function of floral volatile signals and conclude that plants are as likely to perceive and respond to floral volatiles as to other, better-studied volatiles. We propose that eavesdropping on floral volatile cues is particularly likely to be adaptive because plants can respond to these cues by adjusting traits that directly affect pollination and mating.

  • 7.
    Junker, Robert R.
    et al.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Kuppler, Jonas
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Amo, Luisa
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Dept Anim Ecol, NL-6700 EH Wageningen, Netherlands;CSIC, Museo Nacl Ciencias Nat, Dept Evolutionary Ecol, E-28006 Madrid, Spain.
    Blande, James D.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Environm & Biol Sci, Kuopio 70211, Finland.
    Borges, Renee M.
    Indian Inst Sci, Ctr Ecol Sci, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka, India.
    van Dam, Nicole M.
    Halle Jena Leipzig Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Deutsch Pl 5e, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Dicke, Marcel
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Dötterl, Stefan
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Ehlers, Bodil K.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Biosci, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Etl, Florian
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria;Univ Vienna, Dept Bot & Biodivers Res, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Gershenzon, Jonathan
    Max Planck Inst Chem Ecol, Dept Biochem, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Glinwood, Robert
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, Box 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gols, Rieta
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Groot, Astrid T.
    Univ Amsterdam, IBED, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands;Max Planck Inst Chem Ecol, Dept Entomol, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Heil, Martin
    CINVESTAV Irapuato, Dept Ingn Genet, Irapuato 36821, Mexico.
    Hoffmeister, Mathias
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Holopainen, Jarmo K.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Environm & Biol Sci, Kuopio 70211, Finland.
    Jarau, Stefan
    Ulm Univ, Inst Neurobiol, Helmholtzstr 10-1, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    John, Lena
    Ulm Univ, Inst Neurobiol, Helmholtzstr 10-1, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Kessler, Andre
    Cornell Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Knudsen, Jette T.
    Lund Univ, Deptartment Biol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden;Nattaro Labs AB, S-22381 Lund, Sweden.
    Kost, Christian
    Max Planck Inst Chem Ecol, Res Grp Expt Ecol & Evolut, D-07745 Jena, Germany;Univ Osnabruck, Sch Biol Chem, Dept Ecol, D-49074 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Larue-Kontic, Anne-Amelie C.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Leonhardt, Sara Diana
    Wurzburg Univ, Dept Anim Ecol & Trop Biol, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Lucas-Barbosa, Dani
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Majetic, Cassie J.
    St Marys Coll, Dept Biol, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.
    Menzel, Florian
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Zool, D-55128 Mainz, Germany.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Pasquet, Remy S.
    IRD, Dept ECOBIO, 44 Bd Dunkerque, F-13572 Marseille 02, France.
    Poelman, Erik H.
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Raguso, Robert A.
    Cornell Univ, Dept Neurobiol & Behav, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Ruther, Joachim
    Univ Regensburg, Inst Zool, Univ Str 31, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany.
    Schiestl, Florian P.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Systemat & Evolutionary Bot, Zollikerstr 107, CH-8008 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Schmitt, Thomas
    Wurzburg Univ, Dept Anim Ecol & Trop Biol, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Tholl, Dorothea
    Virginia Tech, Dept Biol Sci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA.
    Unsicker, Sybille B.
    Max Planck Inst Chem Ecol, Dept Biochem, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Verhulst, Niels
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Visser, Marcel E.
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Dept Anim Ecol, NL-6700 EH Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Weldegergis, Berhane T.
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Köllner, Tobias G.
    Max Planck Inst Chem Ecol, Dept Biochem, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Covariation and phenotypic integration in chemical communication displays: biosynthetic constraints and eco-evolutionary implications2018In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 220, no 3, p. 739-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical communication is ubiquitous. The identification of conserved structural elements in visual and acoustic communication is well established, but comparable information on chemical communication displays (CCDs) is lacking. We assessed the phenotypic integration of CCDs in a meta-analysis to characterize patterns of covariation in CCDs and identified functional or biosynthetically constrained modules. Poorly integrated plant CCDs (i.e. low covariation between scent compounds) support the notion that plants often utilize one or few key compounds to repel antagonists or to attract pollinators and enemies of herbivores. Animal CCDs (mostly insect pheromones) were usually more integrated than those of plants (i.e. stronger covariation), suggesting that animals communicate via fixed proportions among compounds. Both plant and animal CCDs were composed of modules, which are groups of strongly covarying compounds. Biosynthetic similarity of compounds revealed biosynthetic constraints in the covariation patterns of plant CCDs. We provide a novel perspective on chemical communication and a basis for future investigations on structural properties of CCDs. This will facilitate identifying modules and biosynthetic constraints that may affect the outcome of selection and thus provide a predictive framework for evolutionary trajectories of CCDs in plants and animals.

  • 8. Junker, Robert R.
    et al.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Working Towards a Holistic View on Flower Traits-How Floral Scents Mediate Plant-Animal Interactions in Concert with Other Floral Characters2015In: Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, ISSN 0970-4140, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 43-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flowers are complex structures, synchronously displaying both olfactory and visual signals/cues in the context of a particular floral morphology, that also vary in resource quantity and quality. Despite or possibly because of this complexity, many studies focus on a single or few traits rather than studying floral phenotypes in a more integrated fashion. However, each of these distinct trait classes (signals/cues, morphology and resources) mediates interactions with floral visitors, demanding a more holistic view of flowers. In our review, we integrate floral scents into the broader context of the whole-flower phenotype. We discuss the functions of scent bouquets, colouration, morphology and rewards in flower visitor interactions from an ecological and evolutionary perspective in isolation and taken together. Studies demonstrate that floral scent bouquets can act additively or synergistically with other modalities, and that their effects on flower visitors are context-dependent. We also present field study results showing that reward levels modulate dose-dependent responses to volatiles by honeybees. To motivate studies examining complex floral phenotypes, we outline statistical approaches suited to deal with the complex multivariate datasets generated by these studies. We conclude with a discussion on why flowers display multimodal traits and suggest future research efforts. Our aim is to foster a fresh view on integrated floral phenotypes and stimulate studies exploring the combined effects of olfactory, visual, morphological and nutritional traits on flower animal interactions.

  • 9.
    Moritz, Kim K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bjorkman, Christer
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Plant sex effects on insect herbivores and biological control in a Short Rotation Coppice willow2017In: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 115, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wild, plant sex can affect plant-herbivore interactions and higher trophic levels, including natural enemies of the herbivores. However, the possibility of manipulating plant sex to improve biological control and reduce herbivory in domesticated dioecious crops remains unexplored. The dioecious bioenergy crop, Salix viminalis, is often planted in monoclonal, and thus monosexual, fields. We investigated whether using plant clones of either sex, or mixing plants of both sexes, reduced the performance and abundance of the herbivorous pest insect Phratora vulgatissima and its main natural enemy, Anthocoris nemorum, and whether predation was affected. The herbivore laid more eggs, and the predator survived longer, on female plants in the lab. However, these effects did not translate into differences in predation rates in laboratory experiments or differential insect abundances on plants of either sex or plantation sex composition in the field. Plant genotype did have a significant effect on insect abundances, but this was due to plant traits other than sex. The results indicate that manipulating plant sex will not lead to improved biological control or reduced insect herbivory in S. viminalis energy forestry, but suggest that a focus on plant genotypic differences offers promise for improving management practices.

  • 10.
    Moritz, Kim K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, POB 102, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Female Salix viminalis are more severely infected by Melampsora spp. but neither sex experiences associational effects2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1154-1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associational effects of plant genotype or species on plant biotic interactions are common, not least for disease spread, but associational effects of plant sex on interactions have largely been ignored. Sex in dioecious plants can affect biotic interactions with herbivores and pollinators; however, its effects on plant-pathogen interactions are understudied and associational effects are unknown. In a replicated field experiment, we assessed Melampsora spp. leaf rust infection in monosexual and mixed sex plots of dioecious Salix viminalis L. to determine whether plant sex has either direct or associational effects on infection severity. We found no differences in Melampsora spp. infection severity among sexual monocultures and mixtures in our field experiment. However, female plants were overall more severely infected. In addition, we surveyed previous studies of infection in S.viminalis clones and reevaluated the studies after we assigned sex to the clones. We found that females were generally more severely infected, as in our field study. Similarly, in a survey of studies on sex-biased infection in dioecious plants, we found more female-biased infections in plant-pathogen pairs. We conclude that there was no evidence for associational plant sex effects of neighboring conspecifics for either females or males on infection severity. Instead, plant sex effects on infection act at an individual plant level. Our findings also suggest that female plants may in general be more severely affected by fungal pathogens than males.

  • 11.
    Moritz, Kim K.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Biol, POB 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland..
    Björkman, Christer
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, POB 7044, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ayres, Matthew P.
    Dartmouth Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Hanover, NH 03755 USA..
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, POB 102, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Roe deer prefer mixed-sex willow stands over monosexual stands but do not discriminate between male and female plants2018In: Environmental and Experimental Botany, ISSN 0098-8472, E-ISSN 1873-7307, Vol. 146, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male and female plants of dioecious species often experience differential herbivory, possibly due to differences in defences such as secondary metabolite composition or nutritional quality. These plant sex effects on herbivory have been extensively studied for plant individuals, but not for stands/populations. For mobile herbivores, such as deer, stands may be a more relevant scale to study than individual plants. We predicted that male Salts viminalis plants should be subject to more extensive roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) browsing than female plants due to weaker defence in male plants. Furthermore, we expected that mixed-sex stands should experience more damage than monosexual stands due to positive effects of diet mixing on browsing by generalists. We tested for differences in roe deer browsing in plots that were either monosexual male or female, or a mix of male and female plants in a replicated field experiment. Roe deer browsing was estimated after one growth season with heavy herbivory. We also measured plant secondary metabolite concentrations and nitrogen content in leaves from all experimental clones to test the assumption that the sexes differed in defence or nutrients. Mixed-sex plots were more extensively browsed than monosexual plots. However, there was no difference in browsing between male and female plant individuals within mixed-sex plots or between monosexual plots. Plant secondary metabolite profiles differed between male and female plants, while nitrogen content did not. Our findings suggest that the diversified plant secondary metabolite contents of mixed-sex plots may have led to more extensive herbivory. Higher browsing of plant sex mixes may impact both natural and commercial S. viminalis stands with different sex ratios.

  • 12.
    Muola, Anne
    et al.
    Abo Akad Univ, Environm & Marine Biol, Turku, Finland.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Weber, Daniela
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Malm, Lisa E.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Egan, Paul A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Glinwood, Robert
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Protect Biol, Alnarp, Sweden..
    Direct and Pollinator-Mediated Effects of Herbivory on Strawberry and the Potential for Improved Resistance2017In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 8, article id 823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global decline in pollinators has partly been blamed on pesticides, leading some to propose pesticide-free farming as an option to improve pollination. However, herbivores are likely to be more prevalent in pesticide-free environments, requiring knowledge of their effects on pollinators, and alternative crop protection strategies to mitigate any potential pollination reduction. Strawberry leaf beetles (SLB) Galerucella spp. are important strawberry pests in Northern Europe and Russia. Given that SLB attack both leaf and flower tissue, we hypothesized pollinators would discriminate against SLB-damaged strawberry plants (Fragaria vesca, cultivar 'Rügen'), leading to lower pollination success and yield. In addition we screened the most common commercial cultivar 'Rugen' and wild Swedish F. vesca genotypes for SLB resistance to assess the potential for inverse breeding to restore high SLB resistance in cultivated strawberry. Behavioral observations in a controlled experiment revealed that the local pollinator fauna avoided strawberry flowers with SLB-damaged petals. Low pollination, in turn, resulted in smaller more deformed fruits. Furthermore, SLB-damaged flowers produced smaller fruits even when they were hand pollinated, showing herbivore damage also had direct effects on yield, independent of indirect effects on pollination. We found variable resistance in wild woodland strawberry to SLB and more resistant plant genotypes than the cultivar 'Rugen' were identified. Efficient integrated pest management strategies should be employed to mitigate both direct and indirect effects of herbivory for cultivated strawberry, including high intrinsic plant resistance.

  • 13.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    New Synthesis: The Evolutionary Ecology of Floral Volatiles2014In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 859-859Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Burdon, Rosalie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ragusso, Robert
    Cornell.
    Kessler, Andre
    Cornell.
    Natural selection on floral volatile production in Penstemon digitalis: Highlighting the role of linalool2013In: Plant Signalling & Behavior, ISSN 1559-2316, E-ISSN 1559-2324, Vol. 8, no 1, p. e22704-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural selection is thought to have shaped the evolution of floral scent; however, unlike other floral characters, we have a rudimentary knowledge of how phenotypic selection acts on scent. We found that floral scent was under stronger selection than corolla traits such as flower size and flower color in weakly scented Penstemon digitalis. Our results suggest that to understand evolution in floral phenotypes, including scent in floral selection, studies are crucial. For P. digitalis, linalool was the direct target of selection in the scent bouquet. Therefore, we determined the enantiomeric configuration of linalool because interacting insects may perceive the enantiomers differentially. We found that P. digitalis produces only (S)-(+)-linalool and, more interestingly, it is also taken up into the nectar. Because the nectar is scented and flavored with (S)-(+)-linalool, it may be an important cue for pollinators visiting P. digitalis flowers.

  • 15.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Interpreting local adaptation studies2013In: Ideas in Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 1918-3178, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 37-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Caruso, Christina M.
    Campbell, Stuart A.
    Kessler, André
    Lobelia siphilitica Plants That Escape Herbivory in Time Also Have Reduced Latex Production2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, p. e37745-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flowering phenology is an important determinant of a plant's reproductive success. Both assortative mating and niche construction can result in the evolution of correlations between phenology and other reproductive, functional, and life history traits. Correlations between phenology and herbivore defence traits are particularly likely because the timing of flowering can allow a plant to escape herbivory. To test whether herbivore escape and defence are correlated, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlations between flowering phenology and latex production in greenhouse-grown Lobelia siphilitica L. (Lobeliaceae). Lobelia siphilitica plants that flower later escape herbivory by a specialist pre-dispersal seed predator, and thus should invest fewer resources in defence. Consistent with this prediction, we found that later flowering was phenotypically and genetically correlated with reduced latex production. To test whether herbivore escape and latex production were costly, we also measured four fitness correlates. Flowering phenology was negatively genetically correlated with three out of four fitness estimates, suggesting that herbivore escape can be costly. In contrast, we did not find evidence for costs of latex production. Generally, our results suggest that herbivore escape and defence traits will not evolve independently in L. siphilitica.

  • 17.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Cook-Patton, Susan C.
    McArt, Scott H.
    Neighbours matter: natural selection on plant size depends on the identity and diversity of the surrounding community2014In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1139-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant diversity can affect ecological processes such as competition and herbivory, and these ecological processes can act as drivers of evolutionary change. However, surprisingly little is known about how ecological variation in plant diversity can alter selective regimes on members of the community. Here, we examine how plant diversity at two different scales (genotypic and species diversity) impacts natural selection on a focal plant species, the common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Because competition is frequently relaxed in both genotypically and species rich plant communities, we hypothesized that increasing diversity would weaken selection on competitive ability. Changes in plant diversity can also affect associated arthropod communities. Therefore, we hypothesized that diversity would alter selection on plant traits mediating these interactions, such as herbivory related traits. We grew 24 focal O. biennis genotypes within four different neighbourhoods: genotypic monocultures or polycultures of O. biennis, and species monocultures or polycultures of old-field species that commonly co-occur with O. biennis. We then measured genotypic selection on nine plant traits known to be ecologically important for competition and herbivory. Focal O. biennis plants were smaller, flowered for shorter periods of time, had lower fitness, and experienced greater attack from specialist predispersal seed predators when grown with conspecifics versus heterospecifics. While neither conspecific nor heterospecific diversity altered trait means, both types of diversity altered the strength of selection on focal O. biennis plants. Specifically, selection on plant biomass was stronger in conspecific monocultures versus polycultures, but weaker in heterospecific monocultures versus polycultures. We found no evidence of selection on plant traits that mediate insect interactions, despite differences in arthropod communities on plants surrounded by conspecifics versus heterospecifics. Our data demonstrate that plant genotypic and species diversity can act as agents of natural selection, potentially driving evolutionary changes in plant communities.

  • 18.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lajuenesse, Marc J.
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa.
    Adapting with the enemy: local adaptation in plant-herbivore interactions2012In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 193, no 2, p. 294-296Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Univ New Brunswick, Dept Biol, Fredericton, Canada.
    Manson, Jessamyn S
    Univ Virginia, Dept Biol, Charlottesville, VA USA.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Univ New Brunswick, Dept Biol, Fredericton, Canada.
    Evolutionary ecology of nectar2019In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 247-261Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Floral nectar is an important determinant of plant–pollinator interactions and an integral component of pollination syndromes, suggesting it is under pollinator-mediated selection. However, compared to floral display traits, we know little about the evolutionary ecology of nectar. Combining a literature review with a meta-analysis approach, we summarize the evidence for heritable variation in nectar traits and link this variation to pollinator response and plant fitness. We further review associations between nectar traits and floral signals and discuss them in the context of honest signalling and targets of selection.

    Scope: Although nectar is strongly influenced by environmental factors, heritable variation in nectar production rate has been documented in several populations (mean h2 = 0.31). Almost nothing is known about heritability of other nectar traits, such as sugar and amino acid concentrations. Only a handful of studies have quantified selection on nectar traits, and few find statistically significant selection. Pollinator responses to nectar traits indicate they may drive selection, but studies tying pollinator preferences to plant fitness are lacking. So far, only one study conclusively identified pollinators as selective agents on a nectar trait, and the role of microbes, herbivores, nectar robbers and abiotic factors in nectar evolution is largely hypothetical. Finally, there is a trend for positive correlations among floral cues and nectar traits, indicating honest signalling of rewards.

    Conclusions: Important progress can be made by studies that quantify current selection on nectar in natural populations, as well as experimental approaches that identify the target traits and selective agents involved. Signal–reward associations suggest that correlational selection may shape evolution of nectar traits, and studies exploring these more complex forms of natural selection are needed. Many questions about nectar evolution remain unanswered, making this a field ripe for future research.

  • 20.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Raguso, Robert A.
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University.
    Kessler, André
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University.
    Phenotypic selection to increase floral scent emission, but not flower size or colour in bee-pollinatedPenstemon digitalis2012In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 195, no 3, p. 667-675Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Manson, Jessamyn
    The chemical ecology of plant pollinator interactions: recent advances and future direction2015In: Current Opinion in Insect Science, Vol. 8, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floral chemistry mediates plant–pollinator interactions through floral scents and reward components. Although improved techniques have increased interest in studying floral volatiles and nectar chemistry, these two foci have generally been studied in isolation. The ecological functions of floral chemistry have been relatively well studied and focused on pollinator behaviour. While studies comparing chemistry between plant parts and across phylogenies are increasing, work on the evolution of floral chemistry and the importance of community context in mediating pollinator responses is lacking. Future research should concentrate on more holistic studies that include both signal and reward chemistry to understand the relative contribution of these complex and dynamic floral traits to the ecology and evolution of plants and their pollinators.

  • 22.
    Saunders, Manu E.
    et al.
    Univ New England, UNE Business Sch, Sch Environm & Rural Sci, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia..
    Duffy, Meghan A.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Heard, Stephen B.
    Univ New Brunswick, Dept Biol, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada..
    Kosmala, Margaret
    Harvard Univ, Dept Organism & Evolutionary Biol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Leather, Simon R.
    Harper Adams Univ, Crop & Environm Sci, Newport TF10 8NB, Shrops, England..
    McGlynn, Terrence P.
    Calif State Univ Dominguez Hills, Dept Biol, Carson, CA 90747 USA.;Nat Hist Museum Los Angeles Cty, Dept Entomol, Los Angeles, CA 90007 USA..
    Ollerton, Jeff
    Univ Northampton, Fac Arts Sci & Technol, Ave Campus, Northampton NN2 6JD, England..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Bringing ecology blogging into the scientific fold: measuring reach and impact of science community blogs2017In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, no 10, article id 170957Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of science blogging has increased in recent years, but the number of academic scientists who maintain regular blogs is limited. The role and impact of science communication blogs aimed at general audiences is often discussed, but the value of science community blogs aimed at the academic community has largely been overlooked. Here, we focus on our own experiences as bloggers to argue that science community blogs are valuable to the academic community. We use data fromour own blogs (n=7) to illustrate some of the factors influencing reach and impact of science community blogs. We then discuss the value of blogs as a standalone medium, where rapid communication of scholarly ideas, opinions and short observational notes can enhance scientific discourse, and discussion of personal experiences can provide indirect mentorship for junior researchers and scientists from underrepresented groups. Finally, we argue that science community blogs can be treated as a primary source and provide some key points to consider when citing blogs in peer-reviewed literature.

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