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  • 1.
    Andreou, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 1st Department of Psychiatry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.
    Maltreatment, the Oxytocin Receptor Gene, and Conduct Problems Among Male and Female Teenagers2018In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) influences human behavior. The G allele of OXTR rs53576 has been associated with both prosocial and maladaptive behaviors but few studies have taken account of environmental factors. The present study determined whether the association of childhood maltreatment with conduct problems was modified by OXTR rs53576 genotypes. In a general population sample of 1591 teenagers, conduct problems as well as maltreatment were measured by self-report. DNA was extracted from saliva samples. In males, there was a significant positive association between maltreatment and conduct problems independent of the genotype. In females, among G allele carriers, the level of conduct problems was significantly higher among those who had been maltreated as compared to those not maltreated. By contrast, among female AA carriers, conduct problems did not vary between those who were, and who were not, maltreated. The results indicate that OXTR rs53576 plays a role in antisocial behavior in females such that the G allele confers vulnerability for antisocial behavior if they experience maltreatment, whereas the A allele has a protective effect.

  • 2.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Three-way interaction effect of 5-HTTLPR, BDNF Val66Met, and childhood adversity on depression: A replication study2013In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1300-1306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both the serotonin transporter linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms have been shown to interact with unfavourable environment in relation to depression symptoms and to depression diagnosis. Several attempts have been made to study a three-way interaction effect of these factors on depression, however with contradictory results. We aimed to test the hypothesis of a three-way interaction effect and to attempt at replication in an independent population-based sample. Family maltreatment, sexual abuse and depression were self-reported by an adolescent population-based cohort (N=1393) from the county of Västmanland, Sweden. DNA was isolated from saliva, and used for genotyping of the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms. Neither 5-HTTLPR or BDNF genotypes separately, nor in interaction with each other had any relation to depression, however in an environment adjusted model a two-way interaction and a three-way interaction effect was found. Both 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met interacted with unfavourable environment in relation to depressive symptoms (Adj R2=0.19). Depressive symptoms and depression were more common among carriers of either the ss/sl+Val/Val or the ll+Met genotypes in the presence of early-life adversities. This three-way effect was more pronounced among girls. The current study, with a virtually similar set-up compared to previous studies, can partially confirm previous findings and their generalizability. The study also shows the importance of genetic plasticity in individuals with different environmental exposure, for different phenotypic expression.

  • 3.
    Conden, Emelie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Type D personality is a risk factor for psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents2013In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 13, p. 11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type D personality, or the "distressed personality", is a psychosocial factor associated with negative health outcomes, although its impact in younger populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Type D personality and the associations between Type D personality and psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescences. Methods: A population-based, self-reported cross-sectional study conducted in Vastmanland, Sweden with a cohort of 5012 students in the age between 15-18 years old. The participants completed the anonymous questionnaire Survey of Adolescent Life in Vastmanland 2008 during class hour. Psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain were measured through index measuring the presence of symptoms and how common they were. DS14 and its two component subscales of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) were measured as well. Results: There was a difference depending on sex, where 10.4% among boys and 14.6% among girls (p = < 0.001) were defined as Type D personality. Boys and girls with a Type D personality had an approximately 2-fold increased odds of musculoskeletal pain and a 5-fold increased odds of psychosomatic symptoms. The subscale NA explained most of the relationship between Type D personality and psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain. No interaction effect of NA and SI was found. Conclusions: There was a strong association between Type D personality and both psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain where adolescent with a type D personality reported more symptoms. The present study contributes to the mapping of the influence of Type D on psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents.

  • 4.
    Condén, Emelie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Type D personality is associated with sleep problems in adolescents. Results from a population-based cohort study of Swedish adolescents2013In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 290-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Sleep problems are associated with an increased risk of psychiatric and somatic diseases. Type D personality, or the distressed personality, refers to the joint tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression in social interaction. Type D personality is associated with an increased number of health complaints including cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated whether Type D personality was associated with sleep problems among adolescents. Methods: The study was part of the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vastmanland 2008 (SALVe 2008). A total of 5012 adolescents (age 15-18 years old) completed a questionnaire including the Type D measurement DS14 and questions on sleep disturbances, sleep hours during school nights, and sleep hours during weekend nights. Results: Adolescents with a Type D personality had an approximately four times increased risk of having sleep disturbances. Moreover, Type D personality was associated with sleeping fewer hours. Conclusion: As adolescence represents a formative period for development it is critical to identify sleep disorders early. The presence of Type D personality associated with poor sleep demands attention because sleep problems may be an early stage in the development of later diseases.

  • 5.
    Condén, Emelie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Philippe, Wagner
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Type D personality as an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in addition to theFramingham risk score: a prospective cohort-study2014In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Condén, Emelie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Rosenblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Prevalence of Type D Personality and Factorial and Temporal Stability of the DS14 after Myocardial Infarction in a Swedish Population2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 601-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the prevalence of Type D personality and the temporal stability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the DS14 at three time points after myocardial infarction. The prevalence of Type D personality was 14.0% during hospitalization, 25.1% at 1 month, and 19.2% at 12 months. A total of 6.1% of patients were classified as Type D personality at all three assessments, whereas 68.4% were stable non-Type D and 25.6% changed between personality classifications. The DS14 had stable structural validity, but low temporal stability over time, especially from hospitalization to the 1-month and 12-month follow-ups (k = 0.365 and 0.397, respectively).

  • 7.
    Condén, Emelie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Rosenblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Wagner, Philippe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Is type D personality an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients?2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 522-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type D personality refers to a combination of simultaneously high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The present study aimed to examine whether type D personality was independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Methods: Utilising data from the Vastmanland Myocardial Infarction Study, 946 post-acute myocardial infarction patients having data on the DS14 instrument used to measure type D personality were followed-up for recurrent myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality until 9 December 2015. Data were analysed using Cox regression, adjusted for established risk factors. Results: In total, 133 (14.1%) patients suffered from type D personality. During a mean follow-up time for recurrent myocardial infarction of 5.7 (3.2) years, 166 (17.5%) patients were affected by recurrent myocardial infarction, of which 26 (15.7%) had type D personality, while during a mean follow-up time for all-cause mortality of 6.3 (2.9) years, 321 (33.9%) patients died, of which 42 (13.1%) had type D personality. After adjusting for established risk factors, type D personality was not significantly associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. A weak association was found between the social inhibition part of type D personality and a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, but this association was not significant after taking missing data into account in a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions: No support was found for type D personality being independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality.

  • 8.
    Culverhouse, R. C.
    et al.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.;Washington Univ, Sch Med, Div Biostat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Saccone, N. L.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Div Biostat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.;Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Horton, A. C.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Ma, Y.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Anstey, K. J.
    Australian Natl Univ, Ctr Res Ageing Hlth & Wellbeing, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Banaschewski, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Mannheim, Germany..
    Burmeister, M.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Psychiat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Human Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Cohen-Woods, S.
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Psychol, Fac Social & Behav Sci, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Etain, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR S 1144, Paris, France.;AP HP, Grp St Louis Lariboisiere F, Paris, France.;INSERM, U1144, Paris, France..
    Fisher, H. L.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, Social Genet & Dev Psychiat Ctr, London, England..
    Goldman, N.
    Princeton Univ, Off Populat Res, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Guillaume, S.
    Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.;INSERM, Neuropsychiat U1061, Montpellier, France.;CHU Montpellier, Dept Emergency Psychiat & Acute Care, Montpellier, France..
    Horwood, J.
    Univ Otago Christchurch, Dept Psychol Med, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Juhasz, G.
    Semmelweis Univ, Hungarian Acad Sci, MTA SE NAP Genet Brain Imaging Migraine Res Grp B, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, Dept Pharmacodynam, Budapest, Hungary.;Univ Manchester, Neurosci & Psychiat Unit, Manchester, Lancs, England.;Semmelweis Univ, NAP A SE New Antidepressant Target Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary..
    Lester, K. J.
    Univ Sussex, Sch Psychol, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Mandelli, L.
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biomed & NeuroMotor Sci, Bologna, Italy..
    Middeldorp, C. M.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Olie, E.
    Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.;INSERM, Neuropsychiat U1061, Montpellier, France.;CHU Montpellier, Dept Emergency Psychiat & Acute Care, Montpellier, France..
    Villafuerte, S.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Psychiat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Air, T. M.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Araya, R.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Ctr Global Mental Hlth, London, England..
    Bowes, L.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Expt Psychol, Oxford, England..
    Burns, R.
    Australian Natl Univ, Ctr Res Ageing Hlth & Wellbeing, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Byrne, E. M.
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Coffey, C.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Ctr Adolescent Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Coventry, W. L.
    Univ New England, Discipline Psychol, Armidale, NSW, Australia..
    Gawronski, K. A. B.
    Univ Penn, Dept Genet, Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Glei, D.
    Georgetown Univ, Ctr Populat & Hlth, Washington, DC USA..
    Hatzimanolis, A.
    Univ Athens, Sch Med, Eginit Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Athens, Greece.;Theodor Theohari Cozzika Fdn, Neurobiol Res Inst, Athens, Greece..
    Hottenga, J-J
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Jaussent, I.
    INSERM, Neuropsychiat U1061, Montpellier, France..
    Jawahar, C.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Jennen-Steinmetz, C.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Biostat, Mannheim, Germany..
    Kramer, J. R.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Psychiat, Carver Coll Med, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA..
    Lajnef, M.
    INSERM, U955, Creteil, France..
    Little, K.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Sch Psychol Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    zu Schwabedissen, H. M.
    Univ Basel, Dept Pharmaceut Sci, Biopharm, Basel, Switzerland..
    Nauck, M.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Clin Chem & Lab Med, Greifswald, Germany..
    Nederhof, E.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Petschner, P.
    Semmelweis Univ, Dept Pharmacodynam, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, NAP A SE New Antidepressant Target Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, Hungarian Acad Sci, MTA SE Neuropsychopharmacol & Neurochem Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary..
    Peyrot, W. J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;GGZ InGeest, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Schwahn, C.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Prosthet Dent Gerostomatol & Dent Mat, Greifswald, Germany..
    Sinnamon, G.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Stacey, D.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Tian, Y.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Toben, C.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Van der Auwera, S.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Greifswald, Germany..
    Wainwright, N.
    Sch Clin Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Wang, J-C
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Neurosci, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Willemsen, G.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Anderson, I. M.
    Univ Manchester, Neurosci & Psychiat Unit, Manchester, Lancs, England.;Manchester Acad Hlth Sci Ctr, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Arolt, V.
    Univ Munster, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Munster, Germany..
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanland Cty Hosp Västerås, Västerås, Sweden..
    Bagdy, G.
    Semmelweis Univ, Dept Pharmacodynam, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, NAP A SE New Antidepressant Target Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, Hungarian Acad Sci, MTA SE Neuropsychopharmacol & Neurochem Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary..
    Baune, B. T.
    Univ Adelaide, Discipline Psychiat, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Bellivier, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR S 1144, Paris, France.;AP HP, Grp St Louis Lariboisiere F, Paris, France.;INSERM, U1144, Paris, France..
    Boomsma, D. I.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Courtet, P.
    Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.;INSERM, Neuropsychiat U1061, Montpellier, France.;CHU Montpellier, Dept Emergency Psychiat & Acute Care, Montpellier, France..
    Dannlowski, U.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Munster, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Munster, Germany..
    de Geus, E. J. C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;VU Med Ctr Amsterdam, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Deakin, J. F. W.
    Univ Manchester, Neurosci & Psychiat Unit, Manchester, Lancs, England.;Manchester Acad Hlth Sci Ctr, Manchester, Lancs, England..
    Easteal, S.
    Australian Natl Univ, John Curtin Sch Med Res, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Eley, T.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England..
    Fergusson, D. M.
    Univ Otago Christchurch, Dept Psychol Med, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Goate, A. M.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Neurosci, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Gonda, X.
    Semmelweis Univ, Dept Pharmacodynam, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, NAP A SE New Antidepressant Target Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, Hungarian Acad Sci, MTA SE Neuropsychopharmacol & Neurochem Res Grp, Budapest, Hungary.;Semmelweis Univ, Kutvolgyi Clin Ctr, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Budapest, Hungary..
    Grabe, H. J.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Greifswald, Germany..
    Holzman, C.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Johnson, E. O.
    RTI Int, Fellow Program, Res Triangle Pk, NC USA.;RTI Int, Behav Hlth & Criminal Justice Div, Res Triangle Pk, NC USA..
    Kennedy, M.
    Univ Otago, Dept Pathol, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Laucht, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Mannheim, Germany..
    Martin, N. G.
    QIMR Berghofer, Genet Epidemiol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Munafo, M. R.
    Univ Bristol, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England.;Univ Bristol, Sch Expt Psychol, UK Ctr Tobacco & Alcohol Studies, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Nillson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Västmanland Cty Hosp Västerås, Västerås, Sweden..
    Oldehinkel, A. J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Olsson, C. A.
    Deakin Univ Geelong, Ctr Social & Early Emot Dev, Sch Psychol, Fac Hlth, Burwood, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Sch Psychol Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Ctr Adolescent Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Ormel, J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Interdisciplinary Ctr Psychopathol & Emot Regulat, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Otte, C.
    Charite, Klin Psychiat & Psychotherapie Campus Benjamin Fr, Berlin, Germany..
    Patton, G. C.
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Penninx, B. W. J. H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;GGZ InGeest, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ritchie, K.
    INSERM, Neuropsychiat U1061, Montpellier, France..
    Sarchiapone, M.
    Univ Molise, Dept Hlth Sci, Campobasso, Italy..
    Scheid, J. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Psychiat, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Serretti, A.
    Univ Bologna, Dept Biomed & NeuroMotor Sci, Bologna, Italy..
    Smit, J. H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;GGZ InGeest, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Stefanis, N. C.
    Univ Athens, Sch Med, Eginit Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Athens, Greece.;Theodor Theohari Cozzika Fdn, Neurobiol Res Inst, Athens, Greece..
    Surtees, P. G.
    Sch Clin Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Voelzke, H.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Greifswald, Germany..
    Weinstein, M.
    Georgetown Univ, Ctr Populat & Hlth, Washington, DC USA..
    Whooley, M.
    Vet Affairs Hlth Care Syst, San Francisco, CA USA.;Univ Calif San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA..
    Nurnberger, J. I., Jr.
    Indiana Univ Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Inst Psychiat Res, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA.;Indiana Univ Sch Med, Dept Med & Mol Genet, Inst Psychiat Res, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA..
    Breslau, N.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Bierut, L. J.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Collaborative meta-analysis finds no evidence of a strong interaction between stress and 5-HTTLPR genotype contributing to the development of depression2018In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 133-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that the S allele of the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter promoter region is associated with increased risk of depression, but only in individuals exposed to stressful situations, has generated much interest, research and controversy since first proposed in 2003. Multiple meta-analyses combining results from heterogeneous analyses have not settled the issue. To determine the magnitude of the interaction and the conditions under which it might be observed, we performed new analyses on 31 data sets containing 38 802 European ancestry subjects genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and assessed for depression and childhood maltreatment or other stressful life events, and meta-analysed the results. Analyses targeted two stressors (narrow, broad) and two depression outcomes (current, lifetime). All groups that published on this topic prior to the initiation of our study and met the assessment and sample size criteria were invited to participate. Additional groups, identified by consortium members or self-identified in response to our protocol (published prior to the start of analysis) with qualifying unpublished data, were also invited to participate. A uniform data analysis script implementing the protocol was executed by each of the consortium members. Our findings do not support the interaction hypothesis. We found no subgroups or variable definitions for which an interaction between stress and 5-HTTLPR genotype was statistically significant. In contrast, our findings for the main effects of life stressors (strong risk factor) and 5-HTTLPR genotype (no impact on risk) are strikingly consistent across our contributing studies, the original study reporting the interaction and subsequent meta-analyses. Our conclusion is that if an interaction exists in which the S allele of 5-HTTLPR increases risk of depression only in stressed individuals, then it is not broadly generalisable, but must be of modest effect size and only observable in limited situations.

  • 9.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Effects of adolescent online gaming time and motives on depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms2015In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, no 4, p. 263-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To investigate whether adolescent online gaming time and the additive effect of gaming motives were associated with depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. The hypothesis was that adolescents who engage in online gaming with escape motives and increased online gaming time have higher probability for depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms compared to adolescents with other online gaming motives and/or less online gaming time.

    Method. An anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was completed during class hours by 7,757 Swedish adolescents aged 13-18 years. The questionnaire included demographic background, gaming habits, and depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms.Results. It was found that increased online gaming time during weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. However, these relations with time spent gaming were further explained by online gaming motives. Weekday online gaming for more than five hours a day, in combination with escape motives, was associated with an increased probability of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 4.614, 95% CI 3.230-6.590), musculoskeletal symptoms (OR 2.494, 95% CI 1.598-3.892), and psychosomatic symptoms (OR 4.437, 95% CI 2.966-6.637). The probability of ill health decreased when gaming was for fun or had social motives.

    Conclusion. Excessive gaming time and escape motives were found to be associated with increased probability of ill health among adolescents. Gaming motives may identify gamers in need of support to reduce unhealthy gaming behaviour as well as identify individuals at risk for ill health.

  • 10.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Aslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Influences of motives to play and time spent gaming on the negative consequences of adolescent online computer gaming2012In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1379-1387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examined the relation between gaming-time, motives to play, and negative consequences due to playing MMORPGs. A total of 7757 Swedish adolescents (3872 boys and 3885 girls) between 13 and 18 years of age completed a questionnaire during class hours. Results indicated that time spent on gaming was associated with negative consequences. This relation was further explained by motives to play. Gaming for fun and social motives were associated with a reduced risk whereas gaming to escape, to gain status, or due to demands from others were associated with an increased risk of negative consequences. Motives to play should be considered as a prime indicator for negative consequences, even more than time spent gaming. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  • 11.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University.
    Wagner, Philippe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nillson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Aslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Gambling frequency and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to problem gambling among Swedish adolescents: A population-based study2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate the associations between gambling frequency, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and problem gambling among adolescent boys and girls. One hypothesis was that adolescents with increased ADHD symptoms have a higher frequency of gambling compared to adolescents with fewer ADHD symptoms.

    Method: A population-based sample of adolescents (aged 15–18 years) completed a questionnaire on demographics, gambling habits, ADHD symptoms, and problematic gambling; 1412 adolescents (from 4440 sampled) with gambling experience were included in the final sample.

    Results: A zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis revealed that increased ADHD symptoms, higher gambling frequency, and higher age were associated with lower odds for being non-susceptible to gambling problems. Moreover, gambling frequency interacted with ADHD symptoms in predicting probability of being non-susceptible to gambling problems. However, when analysing those already susceptible to problem gambling, ADHD symptoms did not modify the effect of gambling frequency on the expected magnitude of gambling problems. In susceptible individuals, problem gambling increased with both increased ADHD symptoms and increased gambling frequency, but the level of problems due to gambling frequency did not change depending on the ADHD symptom level. There was an interaction effect between sex and gambling frequency in relation to gambling problems.

    Conclusions: Adolescents with ADHD symptoms seem to be more sensitive to gambling, in terms of being susceptible to developing gambling problems. However, once susceptible, adolescents with ADHD symptoms are affected by gambling frequency similarly to other susceptible participants.

  • 12.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Motives for playing and online gaming time in relation to depression, musculoskeletal symptoms and psychosomatic symptoms: a populationbased cross-sectional study of Swedish adolescentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Playing online computer games is one of the most common leisure activities among adolescents. However, frequent computer-related activities have been suggested to be a new health risk factor associated with psychosomatic and physical complaints. The present study examined online gaming time and motives for playing, in relation to depression, musculoskeletal symptoms and psychosomatic symptoms. Methods: A total of 7,757 Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years completed a voluntary, anonymous questionnaire during class hours that included questions about demographic background, depressive symptoms, musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosomatic symptoms and gaming habits. Results: Increased gaming time on weekdays elevated the odds for depression, musculoskeletal symptoms and psychosomatic symptoms. However, the effects of time spent gaming were further explained by motives for playing. Gaming on weekdays for more than five hours a day, in combination with escape motives, revealed the highest odds for depression symptoms (OR = 5.335, p < 0.001), musculoskeletal symptoms (OR = 2.614, p < 0.001), and psychosomatic symptoms (OR = 4.814, p < 0.001). The increases in odds for depression symptoms, musculoskeletal symptoms and psychosomatic symptoms were less obvious among weekend gamers. Conclusion: Motives for playing was the dominant factor in relation to depression, musculoskeletal symptoms and psychosomatic symptoms, whereas the time factor was of less importance. Online gaming motives may identify problem gamers in need of intervention to reduce their unhealthy gaming behaviour. Further research on health issues in relation to online gaming should consider the combined effects of time spent gaming and gaming motives.

  • 13.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Neurodev Disorders, Karolinska Inst KIND, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth,Pediat Neuropsychiat, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Rehn, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, CA 90089-1061, USA;School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Andershed, Henrik
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Associations between the FKBP5 haplotype, exposure to violence and anxiety in females2016In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 72, p. 196-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gene that encodes the FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) is regarded as a candidate for investigating how negative life events interact with a genetic predisposition to stress-related disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Given the role of FKBP5 as an important regulator of stress responses, we aimed to investigate if single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5-in the presence/absence of exposure to violence-are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Data from two community-based samples of adolescents (n=1705) and young adults (n=1800) regarding ratings on depression, anxiety, exposure to violence and FKBP5 genotype were collected. A risk haplogenotype including the minor alleles of seven common SNPs in the FKBP5 (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs7748266, rs1360780, rs9394309, rs9470080 and rs4713916) conferred higher ratings on anxiety among females, but not males, in the presence of violence. Exposure to violence and female sex were associated with higher ratings on both depression and anxiety, with the exception of ratings on depression among young adults, on which sex had no effect. Ratings on depression were not associated with the haplogenotype. These findings may correspond to differences in the regulation of the HPA axis and with the higher vulnerability to anxiety in females.

  • 14.
    Kerstis, Birgitta
    et al.
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, S-72218 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Sonnby, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    More secure attachment to the father and the mother is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in adolescents2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate whether more secure attachment to the father and the mother is associated with less depressive symptoms among adolescents, and to explore possible sex differences.

    Method: A population-based sample of adolescents completed a school-based survey assessing demographic data, attachment to father and mother, as well as depressive symptoms. Participation rate was 80% of the eligible population, and 3,988 adolescents (1,937 boys and 2,051 girls) had complete data for the analyses.

    Results: Paired samples t tests showed that participants rated their attachment to mothers as slightly more secure than their attachment to fathers (t = 15.94, P < 0.001; boys: t = 5.23, P < 0.001; girls: t = 16.16, P < 0.001). In linear regression analyses there was an association between the outcome, number of depressive symptoms, and more secure attachment to the mother for boys (B=-0.532; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.656, -0.407, P < 0.001) and for girls (B = -0.623; 95% CI -0.730, -0.516, P < 0.001). Analogous results were found for more secure attachment to the father for boys (B = -0.499; 95% CI -0.608, -0.391, P < 0.001) and for girls (B = -0.494; 95% CI -0.586, -0.401, P < 0.001).

    Conclusions: Understanding the relationship between attachment to both father and mother and depressive symptoms in adolescent boys and girls is essential for further development of strategies for prevention and treatment of depression.

  • 15.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Dept Anal & Method, Klara Norra Kyrkogata 34, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Solna, Sweden.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Dept Anal & Method, Klara Norra Kyrkogata 34, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Solna, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Svensson, Johan
    Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Dept Anal & Method, Klara Norra Kyrkogata 34, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Solna, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    The increased trend of non-drinking alcohol among adolescents: what role do internet activities have?2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently, an increased trend toward non-drinking among adolescents has been observed in several countries. The aim of the present study is to evaluate a common suggestion in literature, that adolescents do not drink alcohol because they spend more time on the internet, monitored at home, by examining associations between internet activities (social media/chatting and computer gaming) and non-drinking.

    Methods: A health questionnaire was distributed to all 9th graders (1516 years) in a mid-sized Swedish county in 2008, 2010 and 2012. In total, 7089 students returned the questionnaire.

    Results: In contrast to the suggestion, no association was found between total time spent on computers and non-drinking. Social media/chatting was robustly associated with a decreased probability of non-drinking across the three survey years. On the other hand, computer gaming during weekends only (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.132.69) or both on weekdays and weekends increased the probability of non-drinking (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.312.54) in 2012 only. However, neither social media/chatting nor computer gaming was associated with the increased trend of non-drinking from 2008 to 2012.

    Conclusions: Internet activities were in general not associated with non-drinking among adolescents aged 1516 years in Sweden. Although, a weak positive association between computer gaming and non-drinking was found in 2012, this effect benefited the vast majority of the boys. The larger alcohol use among those with extensive social media use/chatting may indicate that these online platforms are arenas where adolescents are exposed for positive alcohol preferences and alcohol advertising without parental supervision.

  • 16.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Box 883, S-72123 Västerås, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    The role of online social network chatting for alcohol use in adolescence: Testing three peer-related pathways in a Swedish population-based sample2017In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 71, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine whether online social network chatting (OSNC) is related to any of three peer-related pathways to alcohol use among adolescents including a stress-exposure pathway, a peer status pathway and a social context pathway. A survey was distributed to a Swedish population based sample of 2439 boys and girls 15-16 years old enrolled in the 9th grade of primary school. Indirect effects, moderating effects, and gender differences were analysed. The results exposed a robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use, but also that OSNC accounted for one-fifth of the association between the peer status pathway and alcohol use. A positive association between the stress exposure pathway and alcohol use was found that was weaker among adolescents who scored high on OSNC whereas a positive association between the social context pathway and alcohol use also was found that was stronger among adolescents who scored high on OSNC. Consequently, OSNC may contribute differently to alcohol use depending on which peer-related pathway that the adolescent follows. The robust positive association between OSNC and alcohol use that remained when the three peer-related pathways were accounted for also indicates that this association is accounted for by other factors.

  • 17.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Box 70412, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Swedish Council Informat Alcohol & Other Drugs CA, Box 70412, SE-10725 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Adolescent non-drinkers: Who are they? Social relations, school performance, lifestyle factors and health behaviours2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no S1, p. S67-S75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    Traditionally, non-drinking adults or young adults have been associated with health deficits rather than health benefits. However, as the proportion of Swedish non-drinking adolescents has doubled since 2000, their health profiles are of interest. The aim of the present study is to examine whether social relations, school characteristics, lifestyle factors or health behaviours distinguish adolescent non-drinkers from adolescent drinkers, and if their health profiles have changed from 2004 to 2012.

    Design and Methods

    Data from the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland, a health survey biennially distributed to all 9th graders (15-16years) in a medium-sized Swedish county, was used. In total, 2872 students in 2004 and 2045 students in 2012 were included.

    Results

    Non-drinkers were distinguished from drinkers in both 2004 and 2012 by elevated parental supervision, a lower rate of school truancy and lower rates of cannabis use, use of other illicit drugs, daily smoking and lower scores on antisocial behaviour, but more problems of getting new friends. No differences between 2004 and 2012 were found.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Non-drinkers presented more adaptive and healthier behaviours than their drinking peers, but it is difficult to determine whether their health benefits were related to their improved alcohol status or to the more general trend towards adaptation that occurred from 2004 to 2012 among adolescents.

  • 18.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Malardalens Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Social Studies, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    How are social capital and sense of coherence associated with hazardous alcohol use?: Findings from a large population-based Swedish sample of adults2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 525-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study examined whether social capital and a sense of coherence are associated with hazardous alcohol use in a large population-based Swedish sample. In particular, the objectives were (a) to examine which of five subdimensions of social capital is associated with hazardous alcohol use, (b) to investigate the moderating role of sense of coherence and (c) to examine possible sex differences. Methods: A postal survey was distributed to a sample of respondents (aged 18-84 years) from five Swedish counties that was stratified by sex, age and city; 40,674 (59.2%) participants responded, of which 45.5% were men and 54.5% were women with a mean +/- SD age of 53.8 +/- 17.9 years. Results: Structural dimensions of social capital were associated with an increased probability of hazardous alcohol use among both men and women, whereas the increased probability associated with cognitive dimensions occurred mostly among women. Sense of coherence was robustly associated with a decreased probability of hazardous alcohol use among both men and women. There were few moderating effects of sense of coherence and sex differences emerged mainly for the cognitive dimension of social capital. Conclusions: Associations between social capital dimensions and hazardous alcohol use were partly sex-specific, whereas the benefits of a sense of coherence accrued to both sexes. Social capital dimensions and sense of coherence were generally unrelated to each other. Only associations between the cognitive dimensions of social capital and hazardous alcohol use differed by sex.

  • 19.
    Lövenhag, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Larm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 489-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Vastmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  • 20.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Genotypes do not confer risk for delinquency but rather alter susceptibility to positive and negative environmental factors: Gene-environment interactions of BDNF Val66Met, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA-uVNTR2015In: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 1461-1457, E-ISSN 1469-5111, Vol. 18, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Previous evidence of gene-by-environment interactions associated with emotional and behavioral disorders is contradictory. Differences in findings may result from variation in valence and dose of the environmental factor, and/or failure to take account of gene-by-gene interactions. The present study investigated interactions between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met), the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) polymorphisms, family conflict, sexual abuse, the quality of the child-parent relationship, and teenage delinquency.

    Methods. In 2006, as part of the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland, Sweden, 1337 high-school students, aged 17-18 years, anonymously completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples for DNA analyses.

    Results. Teenage delinquency was associated with two-, three-, and four-way interactions of each of the genotypes and the three environmental factors. Significant four-way interactions were found for BDNF Val66Met×5-HTTLPR×MAOA-uVNTR×family conflicts, and for BDNF Val66Met×5-HTTLPR×MAOA-uVNTR×sexual abuse. Further, the two genotype combinations that differed the most in expression levels (BDNF Val66Met Val, 5-HTTLPR LL, MAOA-uVNTR LL (girls) and L (boys) vs BDNF Val66Met Val/Met, 5-HTTLPR S/LS, MAOA-uVNTR S/SS/LS) in interaction with family conflict and sexual abuse were associated with the highest delinquency scores. The genetic variants previously shown to confer vulnerability for delinquency (BDNF Val66Met Val/Met×5-HTTLPR S×MAOA-uVNTR S) were associated with the lowest delinquency scores in interaction with a positive child-parent relationship.

    Conclusions. Functional variants of the MAOA-uVNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and BDNF Val66Met, either alone or in interaction with each other, may be best conceptualized as modifying sensitivity to environmental factors that confer either risk or protection for teenage delinquency.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Gene-environment interaction of monoamine oxidase A in relation to antisocial behaviour: current and future directions.2018In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 125, no 11, p. 1601-1626Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the pioneering finding of Caspi and co-workers in 2002 that exposure to childhood maltreatment predicted later antisocial behaviour (ASB) in male carriers of the low-activity MAOA-uVNTR allele, frequent replication studies have been published. Two meta-analyses, one in 2006 and the other in 2014, confirmed the original findings by Caspi and co-workers. In the present paper, we review the literature, note some methodological aspects of candidate gene–environment interaction (cG×E) studies and suggest some future directions. Our conclusions are as follows. (1) The direction of the effect in a cG×E model may differ according to the positive and negative environmental background of the population. (2) There is a predictor-intersection problem such that when measuring one type of maltreatment in a person, other kinds of maltreatment often co-occur. Other forms of abuse are implicitly considered in statistical models; therefore, it is difficult to draw conclusions about the effects of timing and the severity of different forms of stressful life events in relation to ASB. (3) There is also an outcome-intersection problem because of the major intersection of ASB and other forms of mental health problems. It is likely that the G×E with MAOA is related to a common unmeasured factor. (4) For the G×E model, in which the effect of the gene on the outcome variable is dependent on other predictor variables, theoretically, hypothesis-driven statistical modelling is needed.

  • 22.
    Olofsdotter, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    The mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between early and late adolescent levels of anxiety: Specificity and informant effects2018In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 69, p. 118-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The role of parenting behavior is often highlighted in the development of anxiety in youth. However, previous reports are limited in terms of the specificity of relationships between different types of anxiety and parenting behaviors, informant effects on these relationships, and direction of effects.

    METHODS: This study investigates these questions using longitudinal data from 1350 Swedish adolescents and their parents. Adolescents' self-reports of six dimensions of anxiety and adolescents' and parents' reports of six dimensions of parenting behaviors were used in the analyses. Parallel multiple mediation models were employed to analyze specificity and informant effects within a reciprocal effects model.

    RESULTS: Overall, and irrespective of informant, this study found little support for a mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between early and late adolescent levels of anxiety. Evidence for specificity within the parenting-anxiety relationship was scarce with specific mediating effects observed only for panic/agoraphobia and total anxiety through the parenting dimension of rejection.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study concern the un-conditional mediating role of parenting. Parenting behaviors may be more influential among some adolescents, depending on individual differences in other factors related to the development and course of adolescent anxiety. Thus, further research on moderating factors of the influence of parenting on adolescent anxiety is warranted.

  • 23.
    Olofsdotter, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nillson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Interaction between oxytocin gene variants and perceived parenting in relation to social anxiety in adolescents: Evidence for differential susceptibility effects2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 41, p. S72-S72Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Olofsdotter, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nilson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Differential susceptibility effects of oxytocin gene (OXT) polymorphisms and perceived parenting on social anxiety among adolescents2018In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 449-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety is one of the most commonly reported mental health problems among adolescents, and it has been suggested that parenting style influences an adolescent's level of anxiety. A context-dependent effect of oxytocin on human social behavior has been proposed; however, research on the oxytocin gene (OXT) has mostly been reported without considering contextual factors. This study investigated the interactions between parenting style and polymorphic variations in the OXT gene in association with social anxiety symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (n = 1,359). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to OXT, rs4813625 and rs2770378, were genotyped. Social anxiety and perceived parenting style were assessed by behavioral questionnaires. In interaction models adjusted for sex, significant interaction effects with parenting style were observed for both variants in relation to social anxiety. The nature of the interactions was in line with the differential susceptibility framework for rs4813625, whereas for rs2770378 the results indicated a diathesis–stress type of interaction. The findings may be interpreted from the perspective of the social salience hypothesis of oxytocin, with rs4813625 affecting social anxiety levels along a perceived unsafe–safe social context dimension.

  • 25.
    Oreland, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Hallman, Jarmila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Nilsson, Kent
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Epistatic Effects of Bdnf, 5Httlpr and Maoa in Interaction with Environmental Adversity on Adolescent Criminality2013In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 28, no S1, p. 1022-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Vadlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Hellström, Charlotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples2016In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 61, p. 8-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Vastmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N = 1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Vastmanland (N = 242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-333), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa.

  • 27.
    Vadlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nillson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    A longitudinal study of the individual- and group-level problematic gaming and associations with problem gambling among Swedish adolescents2018In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 8, no 4, article id e00949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  The aims of the present study were to investigate the long-term stability of problematic gaming among adolescents and whether problematic gaming at wave 1 (W1) was associated with problem gambling at wave 2 (W2), three years later.

    Methods:  Data from the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland born in 1997 and 1999, were accessed and analyzed in two waves W2, N = 1576; 914 (58%) girls). At W1 the adolescents were 13 and 15 years old, and at W2 they were 16 and 18 years old. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), and gambling frequencies. Stability of gaming was determined using Gamma correlation, Spearman’s rho, and McNemar. Logistic regression analysis and General linear model (GLM) analysis were performed and adjusted for sex, age, and ethnicity, frequency of gambling activities and gaming time at W1, with PGSI as the dependent variable, and GAIT as the independent variable, to investigate associations between problematic gaming and problem gambling.

    Results:  Problematic gaming was relative stable over time, g = 0.739, P £ 0.001, r = 0.555, P £ 0.001, and McNemar P £ 0.001. Furthermore, problematic gaming at W1 increased the probability of having problem gambling three years later, logistic regression OR = 1.886 (95% CI 1.125-3.161), P = 0.016, GLM F = 10.588, h2 = 0.007, P = 0.001.  

    Conclusions: Problematic gaming seems to be relatively stable over time. Although associations between problematic gaming and later problem gambling were found, the low explained variance indicate that problematic gaming in an unlikely predictor for problem gambling within this sample.

  • 28.
    Vadlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Development and content validity of a screening instrument for gaming addiction in adolescents: The Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT)2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 458-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the development of a screening tool for gaming addiction in adolescents - the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Its development was based on the research literature on gaming and addiction. An expert panel comprising professional raters (n=7), experiential adolescent raters (n=10), and parent raters (n=10) estimated the content validity of each item (I-CVI) as well as of the whole scale (S-CVI/Ave), and participated in a cognitive interview about the GAIT scale. The mean scores for both I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 compared with the lowest recommended I-CVI value of 0.78 and the S-CVI/Ave value of 0.90. There were no sex differences and no differences between expert groups regarding ratings in content validity. No differences in the overall evaluation of the scale emerged in the cognitive interviews. Our conclusions were that GAIT showed good content validity in capturing gaming addiction. The GAIT needs further investigation into its psychometric properties of construct validity (convergent and divergent validity) and criterion-related validity, as well as its reliability in both clinical settings and in community settings with adolescents.

  • 29.
    Vadlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Stability of problematic gaming and associations with problematic gambling: A three-year follow-up study of adolescents in the SALVe-cohort2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 41, p. S882-S882Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Vadlin, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Rehn, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Psychometric evaluation of the adolescent and parent versions of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT)2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 726-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT) and its parent version (GAIT-P), in a representative community sample of adolescents and parents in Vastmanland, Sweden. Self-rated and parent-rated gaming addictive symptoms identified by GAIT and GAIT-P were analyzed for frequency of endorsement, internal consistency, concordance, factor structure, prevalence of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), concurrence with the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents, 7-item version (GAS) and the parent version of GAS (GAS-P), and for sex differences. The 12-month prevalence of IGD was found to be 1.3% with GAIT and 2.4% with GAIT-P. Results also indicate promising psychometric results within this population, with high internal consistency, and high concurrent validity with GAS and GAS-P. Concordance between adolescents and parents ratings was high, although moderate in girls. Although exploratory factor analysis indicated poor model fit, it also indicated unidimensionality and high factor loadings in all analyses. GAIT and GAIT-P are suitable for continued use in measuring gaming addiction in adolescents, and, with the additional two items, they now cover all nine IGD criteria.

  • 31.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nordquist, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Self-Reported Family Socioeconomic Status, the 5-HTTLPR Genotype, and Delinquent Behavior in a Community-Based Adolescent Population2013In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twin and adoption studies have demonstrated a significant contribution of both genetic and environmental factors to antisocial and delinquent behavior. Associations have been reported between the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and aggression, and between socioeconomic status (SES), aggression, and serotonergic functions of the brain. We aimed to investigate associations between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and family SES in relation to delinquent behavior among adolescents. A total of 1,467 17- to 18-year-old students in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, anonymously completed a questionnaire and gave a saliva sample. Family SES had a U-shaped relation to delinquency, where adolescents with low and high family SES were the most delinquent. There were curvilinear interactions between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and family SES in relation to delinquency. Among individuals having high family SES, boys with the LL (homozygous for the long allele) or LS (heterozygous) genotypes and girls with the SS (homozygous for the short allele) or LS (heterozygous) genotypes showed the highest delinquency scores. Among individuals having low family SES, boys with the LL (homozygous for the long allele) genotype and girls with the LS (heterozygous) genotype showed the highest delinquency scores. The present study suggests evidence for an interaction between family SES and the 5-HTTLPR genotype in relation to juvenile delinquency.

  • 32.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Larm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    The buffering effect of tangible social support on financial stress: influence on psychological well-being and psychosomatic symptoms in a large sample of the adult general population2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, p. 85-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Financial stress is an important source of distress and is related to poor mental and physical health outcomes. The present study investigated whether tangible social support could buffer the effect of financial stress on psychological and psychosomatic health. Methods: Two separate postal surveys were sent to random samples in five counties in Sweden in 2004 and 2008, with a total of 84 263 respondents. The questionnaires included questions about financial stress, tangible social support, psychosomatic symptoms, and psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12). Results: Individuals with high financial stress and low tangible social support had six to seven times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and many psychosomatic symptoms. By contrast, individuals with high financial stress and high tangible social support had only two to three times increased odds ratios for low psychological well-being and three to four times increased odds ratios for many psychosomatic symptoms, suggesting a buffering effect of tangible social support. Consistent with the buffering hypothesis, there were significant interactions between financial stress and social support, particularly in relation to low psychological well-being. Conclusions: Social support had its strongest effect at high levels of financial stress. The question whether the altering of our social networks may improve physical health is important for the prevention of ill health in people experiencing financial stress. Strengthening social networks may have the potential to influence health-care costs and improve quality of life.

  • 33.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Individual biological sensitivity to environmental influences: testing the differential susceptibility properties of the 5HTTLPR polymorphism in relation to depressive symptoms and delinquency in two adolescent general samples2018In: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 125, no 6, p. 977-993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gene-environment interaction research field in psychiatry has traditionally been dominated by the diathesis-stress framework, where certain genotypes are assumed to confer increased risk for adverse outcomes in a stressful environment. In later years, theories of differential susceptibility, or biological sensitivity, suggest that candidate genes that interact with environmental events do not exclusively confer a risk for behavioural or psychiatric disorders but rather seem to alter the sensitivity to both positive and negative environmental influences. The present study investigates the susceptibility properties of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) in relation to depressive symptoms and delinquency in two separate adolescent community samples: n = 1457, collected in 2006; and n = 191, collected in 2001. Two-, three-, and four-way interactions between the 5HTTLPR, positive and negative family environment, and sex were found in relation to both depressive symptoms and delinquency. However, the susceptibility properties of the 5HTTLPR were distinctly less pronounced in relation to depressive symptoms. If the assumption that the 5HTTLPR induces differential susceptibility to both positive and negative environmental influences is correct, the previous failures to measure and control for positive environmental factors might be a possible explanation for former inconsistent findings within the research field.

  • 34.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden2013In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 12, p. 33-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods: A total of 7757 13-18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results: Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions: Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed.

  • 35.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being in relation to employment status: the influence of social capital in a large cross-sectional study in Sweden2014In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 13, p. 22-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Unemployment is associated with adverse effects on health. Social capital has been suggested as a promoter of health via several causal pathways that are associated with the known health risk factors of being unemployed. This cross-sectional study investigated possible additive-and interaction effects of unemployment and five different measures of social capital in relation to psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being. Methods: A random population sample of 20,538 individuals aged 18-85 years from five counties in Sweden completed a postal survey questionnaire including questions of employment status, psychosomatic symptoms, psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) and social capital. Results: Psychosomatic symptoms and reduced psychological well-being were more frequent among unemployed individuals compared with individuals who were employed. Moreover, low social capital and unemployment had additive effects on ill-health. Unemployed individuals with low social capital-specifically with low tangible social support-had increased ill-health compared with unemployed individuals with high social capital. Moreover, to have low social capital within several different areas magnified the negative effects on health. However, no significant interaction effects were found suggesting no moderating effect of social capital in this regard. Conclusions: Elements of social capital, particularly social support, might be important health-protective factors among individuals who are unemployed.

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