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  • 1.
    Eckerbom, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Hansell, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Bjerner, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Weis, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Liss, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Intravoxel Incoherent Motion MR Imaging of the Kidney: Pilot Study2013In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0065-2598, E-ISSN 2214-8019, Vol. 765, p. 55-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MR examinations (Achieva 3 T, Philips, Best, The Netherlands) were performed at five different occasions in a healthy volunteer (male 60 years) and in one renal cancer patient (male 78 years) with normal renal function (creatinine 88 μmol/L). Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) coefficients D + D* were measured using respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted spin-echo echo-planar imaging. Perfusion data of the patient were acquired using a saturation-recovery gradient-echo sequence and with the bolus of Gd-BOPTA (Multihance). D + D* were computed by monoexponential fitting of MR signal intensity attenuation versus b for b = 0, 50, 100, 150 s/mm2. Perfusion parameters were evaluated with “NordicICE” software. The map of D + D* was compared qualitatively with the perfusion map computed from the Gd scan. D + D* values of the cortex and medulla were in the range 2.3–2.7 and 1.1–1.6 × 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. In conclusion, in this pilot study a good qualitative relation between IVIM variables D + D* and renal perfusion has been found.

  • 2.
    Eckerbom, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Hansell, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Cox, Eleanor
    Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Buchanan, Charlotte
    Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Weis, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology, Integrative Physiology.
    Francis, Susan
    Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Liss, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Multiparametric assessment of renal physiology in healthy volunteers using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging2019In: American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology, ISSN 1931-857X, E-ISSN 1522-1466, Vol. 316, no 4, p. F693-F702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-invasive methods of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can quantify parameters of kidney function. The main purpose of this study was to determine baseline values of such parameters in healthy volunteers. In 28 healthy volunteers (15 females, 13 males), Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) to estimate regional renal perfusion, Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) transverse relaxation rate (R2*) to estimate oxygenation, and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), true diffusion (D) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) to estimate tissue properties were determined bilaterally in the cortex, outer and inner medulla. Additionally, phase contrast (PC) MRI was applied in the renal arteries to quantify total renal blood flow. The results demonstrated profound gradients of perfusion, ADC and D with highest values in the kidney cortex and a decrease towards the inner medulla. R2* and T1 were lowest in kidney cortex and increased towards the inner medulla. Total renal blood flow correlated with body surface area, body mass index and renal volume. Similar patterns in all investigated parameters were observed in females and males. In conclusion, non-invasive MRI provides useful tools to evaluate intra renal differences in blood flow, perfusion, diffusion, oxygenation and structural properties of the kidney tissue. As such, this experimental approach has the potential to advance our current understanding regarding normal physiology and the pathological processes associated with acute and chronic kidney disease.

  • 3.
    Liss, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Cox, Eleanor F.
    Eckerbom, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Francis, Sue T.
    Imaging of intrarenal haemodynamics and oxygen metabolism2013In: Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology, ISSN 0305-1870, E-ISSN 1440-1681, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 158-167Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interruption of blood flow results in impaired oxygenation and metabolism. This can lead to electrophysiological changes, functional impairment and symptoms in quick succession. Quantitative measures of organ perfusion, perfusion reserve and tissue oxygenation are crucial to assess normal tissue metabolism and function. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a number of quantitative methods to assess physiology in the kidney. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI provides a method for the assessment of oxygenation. Blood flow to the kidney can be assessed using phase contrast MRI. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and arterial spin labelling (ASL) provide methods to assess tissue perfusion, ASL using the magnetization of endogenous water protons and thus providing a non-invasive method to assess perfusion. The application of diffusion-weighted MRI allows molecular motion in the kidney to be measured. Novel techniques can also be used to assess oxygenation in the renal arteries and veins and, combined with flow measures, provide an estimation of oxygen metabolism. Magnetic resonance imaging provides a synergy of non-invasive techniques to study renal function and the demand for these techniques is likely to be driven by the incentive to avoid the use of contrast media, to avoid radiation and to avoid complications with intervention procedures.

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