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  • 1. Bajdek, Piotr
    et al.
    Owocki, Krzysztof
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Putative dicynodont coprolites from the Upper Triassic of Poland2014In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 411, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant number (more than 100) of brownto dark and silty, carbonate or pyrite-mineralized, in part organic carbon-rich, spherical or oval-shaped structures have been collected fromthe Upper Triassic (uppermost NorianlowerRhaetian) sediments of the Lipie Śląskie clay-pit at Lisowice near Lubliniec town, Poland. Their geological context, morphology, content, geochemistry and association with skeletal remains suggest they are fecal masses of a sizable herbivorous tetrapod. The only large herbivore known from the site is a giant 5 meter-long dicynodont (Synapsida: Anomodontia), represented by numerous bones and also by large, oval-shaped footprints. The putative dicynodont coprolites were collected from mudstone and siltstone with numerous organic remains that were deposited in anoxic conditions. In addition, REEs and other trace element concentrations suggest that the burial environment and diagenesis of these coprolites were under anoxic conditions. SEM and thin section images of the coprolite matrix show numerous nests with pyrite (probably bacterial in origin) and large amount of mineral particles. The putative dicynodont coprolites contain also amorphous, dark organic matter, poorly preserved palynomorphs, small fragments of plant cuticle. Detailed characteristic of these coprolites reveals possible implications for the ecology and physiology of the source animal species. The δ 13C values of the gymnospermcuticle and dark organic matter measured in three coprolites are −23.4‰, −21.2‰and −20.3‰, all average. The evidence from these coprolites suggests that dicynodonts processed plant soft elements into very small pieces, but wood fragments were found also in a mass accumulation in two coprolites.

  • 2.
    Bajdek, Piotr
    et al.
    Aleja Najswietszej Maryi Panny 20-20A, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Owocki, Krzysztof
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Sennikov, Andrey G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Golubev, Valeriy K.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Residues from the Upper Permian carnivore coprolites from Vyazniki in Russia - key questions in reconstruction of feeding habits2017In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 482, p. 70-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residues of twenty-five coprolite fragments collected from the Upper Permian of Vyazniki (European Russia) were studied in detail. The phosphatic composition, general shape and size, and bone inclusions of these specimens indicate that medium to large-sized carnivores, such as therocephalian therapsids or early archosauriforms, were the most likely coprolite producers. The contents of the examined fossils (i.e. Scale, bone and tooth fragments, mineral grains, and microbial structures) do not differ significantly among the samples, implying fairly comparable feeding habits of their producers. Fragments of large tooth crowns in two of the analyzed samples imply that either (1) the coprolite producer swallowed the cranial elements of its prey or (2) the coprolite producer broke and swallowed its own tooth while feeding (such tooth damage is known in archosaurs that have tooth replacement, e.g. crocodiles and dinosaurs). Indeed, the most complete tooth fragment in these fossils is serrated, most likely belonging to an early archosauriform known from skeletal records from the Late Permian of Vyaznilci. Another coprolite fragment contains the etched tooth of a lungfish, while putative actinopterygian fish remains (scales and small fragments of bones) are abundant in some samples. Mineral particles (mostly quartz grains, feldspars and mica) may have been swallowed accidentally. The preserved microbial colonies (mineralized fossil fungi and bacteria or their pseudomorphs), manifested in the coprolites as Fe-rich mineral structures, seem to have developed on the expelled feces rather than on the items before they were swallowed.

  • 3.
    Blazcjowski, Blazcj
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Boukhalfa, Kamel
    Univ Gabes, Fac Sci, City Riadh Zerig 6029, Gabes, Tunisia..
    Soussi, Mohamed
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Dept Geol, Fac Sci, Tunis 2092, Tunisia..
    Limulitella tejraensis, a new species of limulid (Chelicerata, Xiphosura) from the Middle Triassic of southern Tunisia (Saharan Platform)2017In: Journal of Paleontology, ISSN 0022-3360, E-ISSN 1937-2337, Vol. 91, no 5, p. 960-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous well-preserved remains of a new limulid species from the Anisian-lower Ladinian (Middle Triassic) of the Tejra section of southern Tunisia are described. Comparisons are made with limulids from the Triassic deposits of Europe and Australia. The new specimens are congeneric with the type species of Limulitella, but show some morphological differences. Here we describe Limulitella tejraensis new species, a small limulid with semicircular prosoma, small and triangular opisthosoma, well-defined axial ridge, and pleurae along both ridges of the opisthosoma. The Tunisian Limulitella fossils are associated with conchostracans, bivalves, gastropods, and microconchids. Sedimentological and paleontological data from the Tejra section suggest freshwater to brackish-water conditions during the formation of the fossil-bearing interval and the influence of marine transgression into a playa-like environment. Supposed adaptation to the stressful environment sheds new light on the origin and survival of the extant limulines. This is the first report of limulid body fossils from the Triassic of North Africa and the first documentation of Limulitella in the Middle Triassic of northern Gondwanaland.

  • 4.
    Bremer, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Dec, Marek
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland.
    Kozłowski, Wojciech
    Univ Warsaw, Inst Geol, Zwirki & Wigury 93, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland.
    Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland2018In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 155, no 7, p. 1523-1541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertebrate microremains from the upper Silurian Winnica Formation in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland are described from the Winnica and Rzepin sections. Both sites record the uppermost part of the Supianka Member, but represent different depositional environments. The Winnica samples come from a low-energy environment, while the Rzepin sample was taken from a high-energy, oolitic facies. Both sites contain thelodonts Thelodus parvidens, Thelodus trilobatus, an anaspid cf. Liivilepis and a number of acanthodian scales of 'nostolepid', poracanthodid and 'gomphonchid' types. Notable differences between the sites are the addition of the osteostracan Tahulaspis cf. ordinata, the thelodont Paralogania ludlowiensis and acanthodian scales identified as Nostolepis gracilis in the Rzepin section. Placing the vertebrate faunas within the vertebrate biozonation established for the Silurian proved difficult. The suggested late Ludlow age for the Supianka Member based on sequence stratigraphical and chemostratigraphical correlations cannot be definitely confirmed or refuted, but a late Ludfordian age seems the most plausible based on invertebrate and vertebrate faunas. The much lower abundance of poracanthodid acanthodians in the Rzepin sample supports the notion of Poracanthodes porosus Zone as a deep-water equivalent to a number of vertebrate biozones. The presence of P. ludlowiensis only in the oolitic sample confirms a long temporal range, but restricted environmental distribution for this taxon.

  • 5. Brusatte, Stephen L.
    et al.
    Butler, Richard J.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    Bronowicz, Robert
    Satkunas, Jonas
    First record of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from Lithuania: phytosaurs (Diapsida: Archosauriformes) of probable Late Triassic age, with a review of phytosaur biogeography2013In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 150, no 1, p. 110-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fossils of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from Lithuania and the wider East Baltic region of Europe have previously been unknown. We here report the first Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate fossils from Lithuania: two premaxillary specimens and three teeth that belong to Phytosauria, a common clade of semiaquatic Triassic archosauriforms. These specimens represent an uncrested phytosaur, similar to several species within the genera Paleorhinus, Parasuchus, Rutiodon and Nicrosaurus. Because phytosaurs are currently only known from the Upper Triassic, their discovery in northwestern Lithuania (the Saltiskiai clay-pit) suggests that at least part of the Triassic succession in this region is Late Triassic in age, and is not solely Early Triassic as has been previously considered. The new specimens are among the most northerly occurrences of phytosaurs in the Late Triassic, as Lithuania was approximately 7-10. further north than classic phytosaur-bearing localities in nearby Germany and Poland, and as much as 40. further north than the best-sampled phytosaur localities in North America. The far northerly occurrence of the Lithuanian fossils prompts a review of phytosaur biogeography and distribution, which suggests that these predators were widely distributed in the Triassic monsoonal belt but rarer in more arid regions.

  • 6.
    Gierlinski, Gerard D.
    et al.
    Moab Giants, 112W-SR 313 Moab, Moab, UT 84532 USA;Polish Res Inst, Polish Geol Inst, Rakowiecka 4, PL-00975 Warsaw, Poland.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Lockley, Martin G.
    Moab Giants, 112W-SR 313 Moab, Moab, UT 84532 USA;Univ Colorado Denver, Dinosaur Tracks Museum, POB 173364, Denver, CO 80217 USA.
    Athanassiou, Athanassios
    Ephorate Palaeoanthropol Speleol, Hellen Minist Culture & Sports, Ardittou 34B, GR-11636 Athens, Greece.
    Fassoulas, Charalampos
    Univ Crete, Nat Hist Museum, Iraklion 71409, Greece.
    Dubicka, Zofia
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Geol, Zwirki & Wiguty 93, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland.
    Boczarowski, Andrzej
    Park Sci & Human Evolut, 1 Maja 10, PL-46040 Krasiejow, Poland;Moab Giants, 112W-SR 313 Moab, Moab, UT 84532 USA;Stowarzyszenie Delta Delta Assoc, Sandomierska 4, PL-27400 Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski, Poland;Univ Silesia, Fac Earth Sci, Bedzinska 60, PL-41200 Sosnowiec, Poland.
    Bennett, Matthew R.
    Bournemouth Univ, Inst Studies Landscapes & Human Evolut, Poole BH12 5BB, Dorset, England.
    Ahlberg, Per Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Possible hominin footprints from the late Miocene (c. 5.7 Ma) of Crete?2017In: Proceedings Geological Association, ISSN 0016-7878, Vol. 128, no 5-6, p. 697-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe late Miocene tetrapod footprints (tracks) from the Trachilos locality in western Crete (Greece), which show hominin-like characteristics. They occur in an emergent horizon within an otherwise marginal marine succession of Messinian age (latest Miocene), dated to approximately 5.7 Ma (million years), just prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The tracks indicate that the trackmaker lacked claws, and was bipedal, plantigrade, pentadactyl and strongly entaxonic. The impression of the large and non-divergent first digit (hallux) has a narrow neck and bulbous asymmetrical distal pad. The lateral digit impressions become progressively smaller so that the digital region as a whole is strongly asymmetrical. A large, rounded ball impression is associated with the hallux. Morphometric analysis shows the footprints to have outlines that are distinct from modern non-hominin primates and resemble those of hominins. The interpretation of these footprints is potentially controversial. The print morphology suggests that the trackmaker was a basal member of the Glade Hominini, but as Crete is some distance outside the known geographical range of pre-Pleistocene hominins we must also entertain the possibility that they represent a hitherto unknown late Miocene primate that convergently evolved human-like foot anatomy.

  • 7. Klein, Hendrik
    et al.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Voigt, Sebastian
    Lagnaoui, Abdelouahed
    Hminna, Abdelkbir
    Saber, Hafid
    Schneider, Joerg W.
    The Tetrapod Ichnogenus Protochirotherium Fichter and Kunz 2004, a Characteristic Early Triassic Morphotype of Central Pangea2013In: Ichnos, ISSN 1042-0940, E-ISSN 1563-5236, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early Triassic chirotherian footprint assemblages from Poland, Germany, and Morocco are important for understanding archosaur evolution in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic crisis. However, their ichnotaxonomy is confusing because various authors have interpreted their diversity differently. After an analysis and ichnotaxonomic re-assessment, the presence of the ichnogenera Brachychirotherium, Isochirotherium, and Chirotherium in these assemblages is not supported. Distant similarities with these ichnotaxa are functions of extra morphological variation and substrate-related factors. Instead, Early Triassic chirotherian footprints described under these names are assigned here to the ichnogenus Protochirotherium and to a more slender morphotype identified as Synaptichnium. In particular, Protochirotherium appears to be more widely distributed in central Pangea as a characteristic morphotype reflecting a distinct stage in archosaur evolution. Trackmakers were nonarchosaurian archosauriforms or, alternatively, stem-group crocodylians. Morphologically and temporally these footprints match the hypothetical ancestor of the Chirotherium barthii trackmaker. Chirotherium barthii appears by the beginning of the Middle Triassic. Because of its restricted stratigraphic range, and its wider distribution in central Pangea, Protochirotherium also has biostratigraphic significance for this region and can be considered as an indicator of Early Triassic-aged strata.

  • 8.
    Lebedev, O. A.
    et al.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Moscow 117997, Russia..
    Sennikov, A. G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Golubev, V. K.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Krupina, N. I.
    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Earth Sci Museum, Moscow 119991, Russia..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sulej, T.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    The first find of Permian ceratodontids (Dipnoi, Osteichthyes) in Russia2015In: Paleontological journal, ISSN 0031-0301, E-ISSN 1555-6174, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 1112-1124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A huge dipnoan, Permoceratodus gentilis Krupina, gen. et sp. nov. (order Ceratodontiformes), from the terminal Permian beds (Zhukovian Regional Stage, Vyatkian Stage, Upper Permian) of the Sokovka locality (Vladimir Region) is described. It is characterized by the evolutionarily advanced high extent of fusion of skull roof bones and conservative well defined structures of the seismosensory system of the head. This combination distinguishes the new taxon from other Ceratodontiformes. A set of conservative and advanced characters is observed in many vertebrates of the Vyazniki faunal assemblage. Large tetrapods and fishes characterize the terminal developmental stage of the Permian fauna of Eastern Europe, which was followed by impoverishment of the taxonomic composition accompanied by a decrease in body size. The dipnoan described here, like some other vertebrates of this assemblage, belong to high-rank taxa, which had just appeared in the Paleozoic, but reached flourishing in the Mesozoic.

  • 9. Narkiewicz, Marek
    et al.
    Grabowski, Jacek
    Narkiewicz, Katarzyna
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Retallack, Gregory J.
    Szrek, Piotr
    De Vleeschouwer, David
    Palaeoenvironments of the Eifelian dolomites with earliest tetrapod trackways (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland)2015In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 420, p. 173-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Eifelian dolomites in the Zachelmie Quarry (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland) contain tracicways and tracks of tetrapods 390-391 Ma old, and thus the oldest known so far. The environments of the trackway-bearing beds have been investigated using sedimentological, palaeontological, geochemical and palaeomagnetic methods. The reconstructed tetrapod habitats comprised shallow-water lagoons separated from an open marine basin by sparsely vegetated islands and spits. The lagoonal waters were well-aerated and a few metres deep at most, undergoing periodic desiccation. The dolomitic sediments, primarily of microbial origin, formed in tropical waters of slightly modified marine composition. Oxygen isotope data obtained from the dolomicrites suggest water temperatures around 30 degrees C. The seasonal semi-arid to sub-humid climate, deduced from paleosol characteristics, was probably of a tropical monsoonal type. The degree of restriction of the lagoonal system evolved from relatively open, evaporation-dominated towards increasingly closed, freshwater influenced. The detailed observations of the footprint-bearing beds, as well as the characteristics of the tracks, indicate that they were formed mostly under subaqueous conditions, by wading, walking on the bottom or swimming animals. Lack of tidal indicators in the restricted Zachelmie lagoons argues against previous concept that tidal flats served as a food source for the early tetrapods. Nor is a hypothesis of flooded woodlands confirmed as a habitat promoting the "fish-to-tetrapod" transition. We propose that functional limbs emerged among aqueous animals that acquired their locomotional capabilities in a shallow lagoonal water before attempting longer excursions on land.

  • 10.
    Nesbitt, Sterling J.
    et al.
    Virginia Tech, Dept Geosci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Butler, Richard J.
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Ezcurra, Martin D.
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.;Museo Argentino Ciencias Nat Bernardino Rivadavia, CONICET, Secc Paleontol Vertebrados, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Barrett, Paul M.
    Nat Hist Museum, Dept Earth Sci, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD, England..
    Stocker, Michelle R.
    Virginia Tech, Dept Geosci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA..
    Angielczyk, Kenneth D.
    Field Museum Nat Hist, Integrat Res Ctr, 1400 South Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 USA..
    Smith, Roger M. H.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Evolutionary Studies Inst, PO Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa.;Iziko South African Museum, POB 61, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Sidor, Christian A.
    Univ Washington, Burke Museum, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Biol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sennikov, Andrey G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya Ul 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Charig, Alan J.
    Nat Hist Museum, Dept Earth Sci, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD, England..
    The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan2017In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 544, no 7651, p. 484-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between dinosaurs and other reptiles is well established(1-4), but the sequence of acquisition of dinosaurian features has been obscured by the scarcity of fossils with transitional morphologies. The closest extinct relatives of dinosaurs either have highly derived morphologies(5-7) or are known from poorly preserved(8,9) or incomplete material(10,11). Here we describe one of the stratigraphically lowest and phylogenetically earliest members of the avian stem lineage (Avemetatarsalia), Teleocrater rhadinus gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle Triassic epoch. The anatomy of T. rhadinus provides key information that unites several enigmatic taxa from across Pangaea into a previously unrecognized clade, Aphanosauria. This clade is the sister taxon of Ornithodira (pterosaurs and birds) and shortens the ghost lineage inferred at the base of Avemetatarsalia. We demonstrate that several anatomical features long thought to characterize Dinosauria and dinosauriforms evolved much earlier, soon after the bird-crocodylian split, and that the earliest avemetatarsalians retained the crocodylian-like ankle morphology and hindlimb proportions of stem archosaurs and early pseudosuchians. Early avemetatarsalians were substantially more species-rich, widely geographically distributed and morphologically diverse than previously recognized. Moreover, several early dinosauromorphs that were previously used as models to understand dinosaur origins may represent specialized forms rather than the ancestral avemetatarsalian morphology.

  • 11.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Carboniferous tetrapod footprints from the Lublin Basin, SE Poland2015In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 57-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence of tetrapod footprints is scarce in the Carboniferous rocks of Europe and only a dozen sites have been found. Here is presented the first description of the Carboniferous tetrapod traces collected from the Bogdanka Coal Mine, Lublin Basin, south-eastern Poland. The footprints occur in reddish, white-gray sandstone or black-brown siltstone-mudstone, fluvial and lacustrine in origin, of the Westphalian A and B (about 315 and 310Ma, lower-middle Pennsylvanian) of the Lublin Formation. Based on the study of 19 specimens (isolated and usually poorly preserved manus or pes imprints), I discern two distinct types of tetrapod footprints and also problematic traces (or scratches) made by swimming tetrapods. Footprints are assigned to the two ichnotaxa: Batrachichnus-Limnopus plexus and aff. Pseudobradypus isp. Traces described as Tetrapoda indet. A-C represent poorly preserved footprints, which are similar to the ichnogenera Ichniotherium, Dimetropus and Attenosaurus. The described trace fossils were produced by small amphibians (temnospondyls) and medium-sized amniotes (reptiliomorphs and reptiles). The tetrapod ichnofauna from the Bogdanka Coal Mine is similar in composition to Pennsylvanian ichnofaunas from Europe and North America.

  • 12.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Bajdek, Piotr
    Aleja Najswietszej Maryi Panny 20-20A, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Owocki, Krzysztof
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    An Early Triassic polar predator ecosystem revealed by vertebrate coprolites from the Bulgo Sandstone (Sydney Basin) of southeastern Australia2016In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 464, p. 5-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertebrate trace fossils often provide a measure of cryptic biodiversity, and are especially pertinent when skeletal remnants are exceptionally rare. The Lower Triassic (lower Olenekian) Bulgo Sandstone at Long Reef in the Sydney Basin of southeastern Australia constitutes just such a deposit, having yielded isolated bones of giant capitosaurian temnospondyls and proterosuchid archosauriforms, together with abundant coprolites that are geochemically rich in elemental phosphate and carbon denoting vertebrate predators. Microstructural analysis of these preserved droppings reveals occasional bone fragments, fish scales, insect cuticles, plant material and bacterial traces (pseudomorph voids), as well as silicate mineral particles. REE concentrations indicate that burial and early diagenesis occurred explicitly within fluvial sediments. Furthermore, external morphological characterization permits attribution of spiral coprolites to chondrichthyan or osteichthyan fishes, polygonal, ovoid spherical and typically flattened feces to temnospondyls, and conspicuously large cylindrical droppings to archosauriforms or other amniote apex predators. Collectively, the Bulgo Sandstone coprolite assemblage thus offers new insights into ecosystem structure and palaeoenvironment in what was an earliest Triassic near polar setting. Such data compliments the documented skeletal record, but indicates a greater range of aquatic and possibly terrestrial carnivores the latter being enigmatically sparse in the Australian Triassic and yet detected here via the hitherto underexplored trace fossil evidence of their ecological presence.

  • 13.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Bajdek, Piotr
    Aleja Najswietszej Maryi Panny 20-20A, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Qvarnström, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Sennikov, Andrey G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Golubev, Valeriy K.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Reduction of vertebrate coprolite diversity associated with the end-Permian extinction event in Vyazniki region, European Russia2016In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 450, p. 77-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the paleoecological significance of vertebrate coprolites collected from seven sections and three lithofacies of the uppermost Permian and lowermost Triassic succession from the Vyazniki site in the European part of Russia. The analyzed specimens (coprolites and possibly some cololites) were grouped into nine morphotypes (A-I). The coprolite morphotypes were characterized geochemically and compared to the record of other Permian and Triassic coprolites worldwide. Based on the stratigraphic position, shape, structure and composition, all morphotypes were linked to supposed producers. The phosphatic composition of most of the morphotypes and inclusions of arthropod remains, fish scales and bone fragments, suggest that they were produced by carnivores, but non-phosphatic, carbonate-rich, large and oval-shaped coprolites with impressions after plant remains have also been found. The extinction of terrestrial vertebrates around the Permian-Triassic boundary in Russia is interpreted to have occurred within a few thousands of years. Here, we show a pattern of coprolite morphotypes disappearing across this boundary that is consistent with a relatively sudden change in the vertebrate faunal composition across this interval.

  • 14.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Bojanowski, Maciej
    A Supposed Eupelycosaur Body Impression from the Early Permian of the Intra-Sudetic Basin, Poland2012In: Ichnos, ISSN 1042-0940, E-ISSN 1563-5236, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 150-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a new specimen of a supposed Paleozoic tetrapod body impression from the Lower Permian Slupiec Formation in the Intra-Sudetic Basin, Poland. The size, integument morphology of belly and part of tail imprints, and the morphology of a well-preserved pes track diagnose the specimen and readily distinguish it from other described specimens of body impressions of Paleozoic tetrapods. The eupelycosaur identity of this new specimen is based on the identification of the footprint Dimetropus leisnerianus (Geinitz, 1863), which is connected with the inferred body imprint. The morphology of integument impressions indicates the presence of the various-sized square or rectangular-shaped scales on the bottom part of the belly and tail of this eupelycosaurid trackmaker.

  • 15.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Brusatte, Stephen L.
    American Museum of Natural History.
    Butler, Richard J.
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen.
    Prorotodactylus and Rotodactylus tracks: an ichnological record of dinosauromorphs from the Early-Middle Triassic of Poland2013In: Geological Society Special Publication, ISSN 0305-8719, E-ISSN 2041-4927, Vol. 379, p. 319-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first comprehensive description of Prorotodactylus and Rotodactylus dinosauromorph tracks from the Early and Middle Triassic of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. We describe and comprehensively figure tracks that have been mentioned briefly in previous accounts as well as new, recently discovered material, and analyse the variation and stratigraphic distribution of these specimens. Tracks have been recorded from four sites – Koszary, Stryczowice,Wiory and Baranow – which span the early Olenekian–early Anisian (c. 250–246 Ma).These tracks therefore represent an ichnological record of the evolutionary succession of early dinosauromorphs during the earliest part of their evolutionary history. Recognized track types include cf. Prorotodactylus isp., Prorotodactylus isp., Prorotodactylus mirus, Rotodactylus cursorius, Rotodactylus isp. and cf. Rotodactylus isp. At least three distinct Early and early Middle Triassic early dinosauromorph ichnofaunas can be recognized. The oldest, which is early Olenekianin age, is characterized by the presence of Prorotodactylus isp., cf. Prorotodactylus isp.and non-archosaurian archosauromorph or archosaur tracks (e.g. Synaptichnium isp., Protochirotherium isp.), recorded at the Stryczowice and Koszary sites. The following assemblage, recorded at the late Olenekian Wiory site, displays the highest ichnodiversity of dinosauromorphs, with fourtrack types present (Prorotodactylus isp., Prorotodactylus mirus, Rotodactylus cursorius and cf. Rotodactylus isp.). The youngest site, Baranow, includes Rotodactylus isp., as well as other larger dinosauromorph tracks. The first body fossil evidence of dinosauromorphs is a few million years younger than the youngest Polish tracks, so Prorotodactylus and Rotodactylus tracks currently provide the oldest record of dinosauromorph morphology, biology and evolution.

  • 16.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Brusatte, Stephen L.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    Butler, Richard J.
    Basal dinosauriform and theropod dinosaurs from the middle-late Norian (Late Triassic) of Poland: implications for Triassic dinosaur evolution and distribution2014In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 1121-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of dinosaurs during the Triassic is a widely studied evolutionary radiation, but there are still many unanswered questions about early dinosaur evolution and biogeography that are hampered by an unevenly sampled Late Triassic fossil record. Although very common in western North America and parts of South America, dinosaur (and more basal dinosauriform) remains are relatively rare in the Upper Triassic deposits of Europe, making any new discoveries critically important. One of the most diverse dinosauriform assemblages from Europe comes from the Poreba site in Poland, a recently described locality with exposures of the Zbazszynek Beds, which have a palynomorph assemblage characteristic for the mid–late Norian in the biostratigraphic schemes of the Germanic Basin. Using a synapomorphy-based approach, we evaluate several isolated dinosauriform specimens from Porezba. This assemblage includes a silesaurid, a herrerasaurid and remains of another type of theropod (potentially a neotheropod). The Poreba herrerasaurid is the first record of this rare group of primitive dinosaurs from Europe and one of the youngest records worldwide, whereas the silesaurid is the youngest record of a silesaurid from Europe. These findings indicate that silesaurids persisted alongside true dinosaurs into the mid–late Norian of Europe and that silesaurid–herrerasaurid–neotheropod assemblages (which are also known from the Norian of North America, at low latitudes) were more widespread geographically and latitudinally than previously thought. Silesaurid–herrerasaurid–neotheropod assemblages may have been a common ecological structuring of dinosaurs during their early evolution, and their widespread distribution may indicate weak palaeolatitudinal controls on early dinosaur biogeography during the latest Triassic.

  • 17.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Budziszewska-Karwowska, Ewa
    Univ Silesia, Museum Earth Sci, Fac Earth Sci, Bedzinska 60 St, PL-41200 Sosnowiec, Poland.
    A new occurrence of the Late Triassic archosaur Smok in southern Poland2018In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 703-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two isolated teeth, a dorsal vertebra, fragments of a humerus and femur, a fragmentary pubic "boot" and part of an ischium shaft, identified here as belonging to a large predatory archosaur were discovered in the Upper Triassic site at Marciszow near Zawiercie (southern Poland). Comparisons of the new fossils from Marciszow with the dorsal vertebrae, pubic "boot", ischium and femur of the theropod-like Smok wawelski from Lisowice (Silesia) reveal that the two taxa are very similar. Nevertheless, due to the lack of more diagnostic elements (e.g., braincase or cranial elements), we prefer to consider all described specimens from Marciszow as Smok sp. Smok sp. shares a low mound-like, anterior trochanter with trochanteric shelf on the femur, a massive pubic "boot" with a distinct depression (= bevelled area), and a transversely lenticular ischium shaft in cross-section with S. wawelski. Some observed characters of the dorsal vertebra (e.g., lack of some lamina, shape and position of zygapophyses), however, are different from S. wawelski and may also suggest that the new findings represent a second species of the genus in the Upper Triassic of Poland. The discovery of Smok sp. at Marciszow is significant because it is the second example of the co-occurrence of this genus with: (i) bones of a large dicynodont; and (ii) record of gnawed tetrapod bones. The discovery of Smok sp. and the lack of significant morphologic divergence from S. wawelski suggest that this taxon is the only large-bodied predator currently known from the Upper Triassic of Poland. This new evidence expands the record of the genus and contributes, in some measure, to our knowledge of the stratigraphical distribution of large predatory archosaurs from the Polish Upper Triassic bone-bearing levels.

  • 18.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Narkiewicz, Marek
    Natl Res Inst, Polish Geol Inst, PL-00975 Warsaw, Poland.
    Szrek, Piotr
    Natl Res Inst, Polish Geol Inst, PL-00975 Warsaw, Poland.
    Middle Devonian invertebrate trace fossils from the marginal marine carbonates of the Zachełmie tetrapod tracksite, Holy Cross Mountains, Poland2014In: Bulletin of Geosciences, ISSN 1214-1119, E-ISSN 1802-8225, Vol. 89, no 3, p. 593-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dolomitic deposits of the Middle Devonian Wojciechowice Formation exposed at the tetrapod tracksite in the Zachełmie Quarry in the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland) are characterised by a low diversity of invertebrate trace fossilassociation. Four ichnoassemblages can be identified in the track-bearing, lower part of the succession. The most conspicuous are trace fossils produced by arthropods (probably crustaceans), which can form distinctive and large horizontal burrows. The described ichnotaxa (cf. Skolithos isp., cf. Balanoglossites isp., Alcyonidiopsis isp., Spongeliomorpha isp., Gordia isp., and Rhizocorallium isp.) are well known from typical marginal-marine and shallow-marine deposits. Nevertheless, the studied assemblages were found in sparsely distributed horizons and are dominated by a single or a few ichnotaxa with locally high trace-densities. Distribution and composition of the trace fossil assemblages probably reflects occurrence of the impoverished, stressed Cruziana ichnofacies. It was affected by changes in water depth with intermittent periods of subaerial exposure connected with salinity fluctuations. The invertebrate trace fossil assemblage, tetrapod tracks and associated sedimentological features point to deposition in a marginal-marine, mostly peritidal and lagoonal environment with minor terrestrial influences.

  • 19.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Pienkowski, Grzegorz
    Polish Geological Institute.
    A dinosaur track assemblage from the Upper Hettangian (Lower Jurassic) marginal-marine deposits of Zapniów, Holy Cross Mountains, Poland.2016In: Geological Quarterly, ISSN 1641-7291, E-ISSN 2082-5099, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 840-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Upper Hettangian (Lower Jurassic) marginal-marine Przysucha Ore-bearing Formation exposed at Zapniów mine and clay-pit (northwestern part of the Holy Cross Mountains area, central Poland) revealed an interesting assemblage of dinosaur tracks. Although mostly yielding poorly preserved and isolated tracks probably left in shallow water conditions, the site never the less indicates a diversity of early saurischian (theropods and sauropodomorphs) and ornithischian (thyreophorans) dinosaur trackmakers. This new assemblage is partly consistent with the Lower-Middle Hettangian ichnorecord from the same region. The tracks are preserved in sediments of a barrier-foreshore origin within a barrier/lagoonal depositional system, belonging to the highstand systems tract, located below a marked erosional surface (sequence boundary), which is associated with a substantial fall in sea level at the end of Hettangian times. Here we de scribed all previously and newly collected or observed in the field dinosaur tracks from both surface and underground exposures at Zapniów. Fourichnospecies: Grallator isp., Anchisauripus isp., cf. Tetrasauropus isp., and cf. Anomoepus isp. were identified. The theropod and ornithischian tracks show distinct similarities to those described from the richest in this region and most famous Gliniany Las dino saur track assemblage, in age approximately coeval to Zapniów. Two sizes of theropod tracks (small and medium) indicate the presence of two different size classes or species of predators in this area. The described cf.Tetrasauropus isp. from Zapniów is the first unquestioned evidence of basal sauropodomorphs in the Upper Hettangian ofthe Holy Cross Moun tains and first record of this ichnotaxa in the Lower Jurassic of Poland. Additionally, two theropod trackways (Anchisauripus isp.) show evidence for trotting. The new finds suggest similarities be tween marginal-marine environments (delta-plain and fore shore-barrier/lagoon lithofacies) association of dinosaurs containing low-browsing thyreophorans accompanied by small or juvenile sauropodomorphs and small to medium sized theropods. Presence of the ornithischian footprints suggests their prominent role as a major component in Middle-Upper Hettangian dinosaur faunas in marginal-marine environments dominating in the region.

  • 20.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sennikov, Andrey
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Profsoyuznaya 123, Moscow 117997, Russia.;Kazan Fed Univ, Kremlyovskaya 18, Kazan 420008, Russia..
    Brusatte, Stephen L.
    Univ Edinburgh, Sch GeoSci, Grant Inst, Kings Bld, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Midlothian, Scotland..
    The osteology and systematic position of Dongusuchus efremovi Sennikov, 1988 from the Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Russia2016In: Historical Biology, ISSN 0891-2963, E-ISSN 1029-2381, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 550-570Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Russia has yielded several fragmentary but potentially important archosauriform specimens from the Middle Triassic, but these have been only briefly described in the literature. One of these puzzling taxa is Dongusuchus efremovi Sennikov, 1988, described from the Donguz Svita. We present a redescription of Dongusuchus efremovi, which includes the first photographic atlas and thorough anatomical description of the holotype and referred specimens. This taxon is shown to be a gracile, probably fast-running species with elongate and slender limbs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Dongusuchus efremovi as an early-diverging, non-archosaurian archosauriform. Previous work had suggested that this taxon was a rauisuchid'. The gracile proportions of the femur and somewhat wedge-shaped head, however, are unusual for basal archosauriforms and are similar to the plesiomorphic state in crocodile and avian-line crown archosaurs. Several Early-Middle Triassic basal archosauriforms and early members of the crocodile and avian lineages were gracile with elongate, slender limbs. This suggests that the limb morphology of Dongusuchus efremovi may be plesiomorphic for Archosauria and proximal clades.

  • 21.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Dzik, Jerzy
    Polish Academy of Sciences.
    A large predatory archosaur from the Late Triassic of Poland2012In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 267-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a new large predatory archosaur, Smok wawelski gen. et sp. nov., from the latest Triassic (latest Norian–early Rhaetian; approximately 205–200 Ma) of Lisowice (Lipie Śląskie clay−pit) in southern Poland. The length of the reconstructed skeleton is 5–6 m and that of the skull 50–60 cm, making S. wawelski larger than any other known predatory archosaur from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of central Europe (including theropod dinosaurs and “rauisuchian” crurotarsans). The holotype braincase is associated with skull, pelvic and isolated limb−bones found in close proximity (within 30 m), and we regard them as belonging to the same individual. Large, apparently tridactyl tracks that occur in the same rock unit may have been left by animals of the same species. The highly autapomorphic braincase shows large attachment areas for hypertrophied protractor pterygoideus muscles on the lateral surface and a wide, funnel−like region between the basal tubera and basipterygoid processes on the ventral surface. The skeleton (cranial and postcranial) possesses some features similar to those in theropod dinosaurs and others to those in large crocodile−line archosaurs (“rauisuchians”), rendering phylogenetic placement of S. wawelski difficult at this time.

  • 22.
    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Soussi, Mohamed
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Fac Sci, Dept Geol, Tunis 2092, Tunisia..
    Boukhalfa, Kamel
    Univ Gabes, Fac Sci Gabes, City Riadh Zerig 6029, Gabes, Tunisia..
    Gierlinski, Gerard D.
    Polish Geol Inst, Natl Res Inst, Rakowiecka 4, PL-00975 Warsaw, Poland..
    Middle-Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic tetrapod track assemblages of southern Tunisia, Sahara Platform2017In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 1464-343X, E-ISSN 1879-1956, Vol. 129, p. 31-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three tetrapod track assemblages from the early-middle Mesozoic of southern Tunisia are reported. The strata exposed at the Tejra 2 clay-pit near the Medenine and Rehach site, located in the vicinity of Kirchaou, contain the first tetrapod tracks found in the Triassic of Tunisia. The Middle Jurassic (early Aalenian) dinosaur tracks are reported from the Mestaoua plain near Tataouine. In the Middle Triassic outcrop of the Tejra 2 clay-pit, tridactyl tracks of small and medium-sized dinosauromorphs, were discovered. These tracks represent the oldest evidence of dinosaur-lineage elements in the Triassic deposits of Tunisia. Similar tracks have been described from the Middle Triassic of Argentina, France and Morocco. An isolated set of the manus and pes of a quadrupedal tetrapod discovered in Late Triassic Rehach tracksite is referred to a therapsid tracemaker. The Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mestaoua plain reveal small and large tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks (Theropoda track indet. A-C). Based on comparison with the abundant record of Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Europe and North America, the ichnofauna described here indicates the presence of a therapsid-dinosauromorph ichnoassociation (without typical Chirotheriidae tracks) in the Middle and Late Triassic, which sheds light on the dispersal of the Middle-Upper Triassic tetrapod ichnofaunas in this part of Gondwana. The reported Middle Jurassic ichnofauna show close similarities to dinosaur track assemblages from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northwestern Africa, North America, Europe and also southeastern Asia. Sedimentological and lithostratigraphic data of each new tracksite have been defined on published data and new observations. Taken together, these discoveries present a tantalizing window into the evolutionary history of tetrapods from the Triassic and Jurassic of southern Tunisia. Given the limited early Mesozoic tetrapod record from the region, these discoveries are of both temporal and geographic significance.

  • 23. Owocki, K.
    et al.
    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sennikov, A. G.
    Golubev, V. K.
    Janiszewska, K.
    Sulej, T.
    Upper permian vertebrate coprolites from Vyazniki and Gorokhovets, Vyatkian regional stage, Russian platform2013In: Palaios, ISSN 0883-1351, E-ISSN 1938-5323, Vol. 27, no 11-12, p. 867-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous coprolites have been found in the Vyazniki and Gorokhovets localities of European Russia. Five identified coprolite-bearing horizons occur in the upper Permian deposits of the Vyatkian Regional Stage. Coprolites were collected from mudstone with a coprolite breccia-like layer and also from intraformational conglomerates that were deposited in a floodplain and overbank environment. Two coprolite morphotypes (A and B) are recognized from size and shape analysis of 32 specimens. Morphotype A has long, nonsegmented feces. Smaller, cylindrical or tubular-shaped coprolites of morphotype B are commonly segmented. SEM images of the coprolite matrix show spheres and thin-walled vesicles with diameters 0.5-4 μm. Electron Micro Probe (EMP) analyses of polished thin sections show microcrystalline carbonate-fluoride-bearing calcium phosphate with small amounts of calcium replaced in the crystal lattice. Optical microscopy and EMP investigations show that iron and manganese oxides are responsible for elevated iron and manganese concentrations in the bulk mass of coprolites. Other metals (V, Ni) can be associated with oxides forming spheroids with diameters 3-10 μm. REEs (rare earth elements, U, and other trace element concentrations suggest significant eolian sediment input to the burial environment of the coprolites. The scats contain fish scales and bones of tetrapods (amphibians or reptiles). In one large-sized coprolite, a small fragment of therapsid bone was also found. Both morphotypes are matched to carnivorous taxa within the Archosaurus rossicus zone of the Eastern Europe. The size and shape of the best-preserved specimens suggest that they were possibly produced by a large therapsid, anthracosaur, or early archosauromorph predator.

  • 24.
    Piechowski, Rafal
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Warsaw, Poland;Univ Warsaw, Dept Palaeobiol & Evolut, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Fac Biol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Talanda, Mateusz
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Palaeobiol & Evolut, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Fac Biol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Unexpected bird-like features and high intraspecific variation in the braincase of the Triassic relative of dinosaurs2019In: Historical Biology, ISSN 0891-2963, E-ISSN 1029-2381, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1065-1081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silesaurus opolensis Dzik, 2003 from the Late Triassic (late Carnian) of Poland is a key taxon for understanding the evolution of early dinosaurs. High intraspecific variation observed in the S. opolensis braincase brings caution in taxonomic and diversity studies of early dinosauromorphs. The external and internal osteology of three almost complete braincases of S. opolensis show that this taxon shares several similarities with other early dinosauriforms, which supports a close relationship among these forms. However, the paroccipital processes of S. opolensis are directed ventrally like in birds, reaching the level of the ventral margin of the basioccipital condyle. In dinosauromorphs, these processes usually have an almost horizontal orientation (presumed to be the plesiomorphic condition). Modifications observed in birds and S. opolensis have resulted in the dorsoventral expansion of M. complexus and M. depressor mandibulae, which occupy the dorsolateral part of the posterior side of the skull. In adult birds, these muscles act strongly on the initial upstroke of the head during drinking. Therefore, the inferred condition of these muscles in S. opolensis may imply that Silesauridae evolved toward bird-like feeding behaviour.

  • 25. Pienkowski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Branski, Pawel
    Climatic reversals related to the Central Atlantic magmatic province caused the end-Triassic biotic crisis: evidence from continental strata in Poland2014In: Geological Society of America, Special Paper, ISSN 0072-1077, Vol. 505, p. 263-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight climatic events can be distinguished in the Triassic–Jurassic (ca. 201 Ma) continental strata of Poland. These events are distinguished by kaolinite/illite ratio, chemical index of alteration (CIA), color of sediments, and palynomorphs. The first transition to wetter climate, evidenced by a shift from smectite- to kaolinite dominated mudrocks, coincides with the earlier (“precursor”) Rhaetian negative δ13Corg excursion, which means that the beginning of climate perturbations predates the oldest known Central Atlantic magmatic province fl ood basalts by some 100–200 k.y. The later global, late Rhaetian “initial” negative δ13Corg excursion is divided into two subpeaks, each corresponding to hot and humid events, separated by a cooler and drier event. The upper subpeak is also associated with perturbation of the osmium isotope system (attributed to volcanic fallout), and darkened miospores, pointing to acid rains. Between the “initial” excursion and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval, five climatic fluctuations are inferred from the changing kaolinite/illite ratio, the last two of which are also associated with an Os isotope perturbation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) occurrences, a “spore peak,” and darkened miospores. A series of periodic atmospheric loading events by CO2, CH4, or alternatively by SO2, sulfate aerosols, and toxic compounds, is inferred to have caused this series of rapid climatic reversals and resulting extinction of many less-adapted forms. Just above thepalynofloral extinction level, appearance of new forms commenced Jurassic palynofloral recovery. Tetrapod evolution events in the end-Triassic–earliest Jurassic were related to the extinction of the Pseudosuchia, Dicynodontia, Capitosauroidea, Plagiosaroidea, and Rhynchosauria, while appearance of highly diversifi ed tetrapod ichnofauna in the earliest Jurassic strata indicates a rapid recovery and refi ll of ecological niches by dinosaurs.

  • 26.
    Qvarnström, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Tyrannosaurid-like osteophagy by a Triassic archosaur2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present evidence for osteophagy in the Late Triassic archosaur Smok wawelski Niedzwiedzki, Sulej and Dzik, 2012, a large theropod-like predator from Poland. Ten medium to large-sized coprolites are matched, by their dimensions and by association with body fossils and footprints, to S. wawelski. The coprolites contain fragments of large serrated teeth as well as up to 50 percent by volume of bone fragments, with distinct fragmentation and angularity, from several prey taxa. This suggests pronounced osteophagy. Further evidence for bone-crushing behaviour is provided by isolated worn teeth, bone-rich regurgitalites (fossil regurgitates) and numerous examples of crushed or bite-marked dicynodont bones, all collected from the same bone-bearing beds in the Lipie Slaskie clay-pit. Several of the anatomical characters related to osteophagy, such as a massive head and robust body, seem to be shared by S. wawelski and the tyrannosaurids, despite their wide phylogenetic separation. These large predators thus provide evidence of convergence driven by similar feeding ecology at the beginning and end of the age of dinosaurs.

  • 27.
    Qvarnström, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Tafforeau, Paul
    European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, 71 Ave Martyrs,CS40200, F-38043 Grenoble, France..
    Zigaite, Zivile
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Synchrotron phase-contrast microtomography of coprolites generates novel palaeobiological data2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 2723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coprolites (fossil faeces) reveal clues to ancient trophic relations, and contain inclusions representing organisms that are rarely preserved elsewhere. However, much information is lost by classical techniques of investigation, which cannot find and image the inclusions in an adequate manner. We demonstrate that propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SR mu CT) permits high-quality virtual 3D-reconstruction of coprolite inclusions, exemplified by two coprolites from the Upper Triassic locality Krasiejow, Poland; one of the coprolites contains delicate beetle remains, and the other one a partly articulated fish and fragments of bivalves.

  • 28.
    Qvarnström, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Zigaite, Zivile
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Vertebrate coprolites (fossil faeces): An underexplored Konservat-Lagerstatte2016In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 162, p. 44-57Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fossilized soft tissues of animals (e.g. muscles, hair and feathers) are valuable sources of palaeobiological information, but a poor preservation potential makes them undesirably scarce in the fossil record. The aim of this review is to summarize main findings, current progress and the analytical constraints of detecting fossilized soft tissues in coprolites from, mainly, freshwater and terrestrial carnivorous vertebrates. We conclude that soft-tissue inclusions in coprolites are sources of two important lines of information: the fossils can be put in a direct palaeoecological context, and characters of extinct taxa are more likely preserved in the phosphate-rich taphonomic microenvironment of coprolites than elsewhere. As a result, it is possible to unravel the deep-time origins of host-parasite relations, to understand ancient trophic food webs and detect new soft-tissue characters of different animal groups. Examples of the latter include muscle tissues from a tyrannosaurid prey, tapeworm eggs (including a developing embryo) in a Permian shark coprolite, as well as hair from multituberculates and, probably, from stem-mammals (Therapsids). Additionally, the use of coprolites in an archaeological context is briefly reviewed with focus on key aspects that may become implemented in studies of pre-Quaternary specimens as well. In summary, there is a wide range of information that can be extracted from coprolites, which has not yet been fully explored in palaeontological studies.

  • 29.
    Qvarnström, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    A new charophyte flora from the Upper Triassic of Skane (Sweden) and implications on biostratigraphy, taphonomy and the palaeoenvironment2018In: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, ISSN 0034-6667, E-ISSN 1879-0615, Vol. 249, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The record of fossil charophytes from Sweden was previously restricted to the Ladinian-earliest Carnian Falsterbo Formation. Here, we present a charophyte assemblage from the Upper Triassic KAgerod Formation exposed at the Balteberga Gorge (Sickle, southern Sweden) from the perspectives of taxonomy, taphonomy, palaeoecology and biostratigraphy. The microfossils originate from an interval of reddish sandy mudstone and are represented by rare fossil thalli, calcium carbonate encrustations of thalli and numerous calcified fructifications, called gyrogonites. The assemblage is relatively diverse, comprising six species belonging to four genera of the family Porocharaceae (Auerbachichara cf. rhaetica, Porochara sp., Stellatochara germanica, Stellatochara aff. subsphaerica, Stenochara aff. donetziana, Stenochara aff. kisielevskyi). Both the sedimentological context and the preservation of the charophyte remains point to an autochthonous origin for the charophyte-bearing strata. An autochthonous origin together with the habitat of modern charophytes, infer that the charophyte interval was deposited in shallow ephemeral pond or lake in a terrestrial setting. Their occurrence is also indicative of low amount of nutrients and the numerous thalli encrustations suggest a rather alkaline water composition. Some of the described species (Auerbachichara cf. rhaetica and Stellatochara aff. subsphaerica) are useful for biostratigraphical correlations which attributes the assemblage to the Auerbachichara rhaetica Range zone (sensu Bilan, 1991) in the proposed Germanic Triassic charophyte zonation. This range zone is assigned to a latest Carnian to late Norian age, strengthened by an interlayering with rocks containing a characteristic assemblage of palynomorphs (Corollina meyeriana subzone a and b) in the Upper Triassic of the Polish part of the Germanic Basin. The findings of the first Triassic thalli further strengthen the suggestion that the early Mesozoic fossil record of charophytes is not solely composed of oospores and gyrogonites. A better understanding of vegetative fossil remains (silicified thalli and encrustations) of charophytes may provide important future palaeoecological implications and links between recent and extinct forms. Our findings also provide evidence that charophyte occurrences in the ICagerod Formation are strictly controlled by palaeoenvironmental factors. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Qvarnström, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Szrek, Piotr
    Natl Res Inst, Polish Geol Inst, Rakowiecka 4 St, PL-00075 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Non-marine palaeoenvironment associated to the earliest tetrapod tracks2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opinions differ on whether the evolution of tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) from lobe-finned fishes was directly linked to terrestrialization. The earliest known tetrapod fossils, from the Middle Devonian (approximately 390 million years old) of Zachelmie Quarry in Poland, are trackways made by limbs with digits; they document a direct environmental association and thus have the potential to help answer this question. However, the tetrapod identity of the tracks has recently been challenged, despite their well-preserved morphology, on account of their great age and supposedly shallow marine (intertidal or lagoonal) depositional environment. Here we present a new palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the track-bearing interval from Zachelmie, showing that it represents a succession of ephemeral lakes with a restricted and non-marine biota, rather than a marginal marine environment as originally thought. This context suggests that the trackmaker was capable of terrestrial locomotion, consistent with the appendage morphology recorded by the footprints, and thus provides additional support for a tetrapod identification.

  • 31.
    Qvarnström, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Vikberg Wernström, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Piechowski, Rafal
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland;Univ Warsaw, Dept Palaeobiol & Evolut, Fac Biol, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Zwirki & Wigury 101, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland.
    Talanda, Mateusz
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Palaeobiol & Evolut, Fac Biol, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Zwirki & Wigury 101, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Beetle-bearing coprolites possibly reveal the diet of a Late Triassic dinosauriform2019In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 181042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diets of extinct animals can be difficult to analyse if no direct evidence, such as gut contents, is preserved in association with body fossils. Inclusions from coprolites (fossil faeces), however, may also reflect the diet of the host animal and become especially informative if the coprolite producer link can be established. Here we describe, based on propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRμCT), the contents of five morphologically similar coprolites collected from two fossil-bearing intervals from the highly fossiliferous Upper Triassic locality at Krasiejow in Silesia, Poland. Beetle remains, mostly elytra, and unidentified exoskeleton fragments of arthropods are the most conspicuous inclusions found in the coprolites. The abundance of these inclusions suggests that the coprolite producer deliberately targeted beetles and similar small terrestrial invertebrates as prey, but the relatively large size of the coprolites shows that it was not itself a small animal. The best candidate from the body fossil record of the locality is the dinosauriform Silesaurus opolensis Dzik, 2003, which had an anatomy in several ways similar to those of bird-like neotheropod dinosaurs and modern birds. We hypothesize that the beak-like jaws of S. opolensis were used to efficiently peck small insects off the ground, a feeding behaviour analogous to some extant birds.

  • 32.
    Scholze, Frank
    et al.
    TU Bergakad Freiberg, Geol Inst, Freiberg, Germany; Kazan Fed Univ, Inst Geol & Petr Technol, Kazan, Russia.
    Golubev, Valeriy K.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Moscow, Russia; Kazan Fed Univ, Inst Geol & Petr Technol, Kazan, Russia.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Schneider, Joerg W.
    TU Bergakad Freiberg, Geol Inst, Freiberg, Germany; Kazan Fed Univ, Inst Geol & Petr Technol, Kazan, Russia.
    Sennikov, Andrey G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Borissiak Paleontol Inst, Moscow, Russia; Kazan Fed Univ, Inst Geol & Petr Technol, Kazan, Russia.
    Late Permian conchostracans (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) from continental deposits in the Moscow Syneclise, Russia2019In: Journal of Paleontology, ISSN 0022-3360, E-ISSN 1937-2337, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 72-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Moscow Syneclise on the East European Platform is an important area for the study of the continental biota of late Permian to Early Triassic age in continuous sections. This study attempts a taxonomic description of the late Permian conchostracan fauna of this area. The rich, new material was collected, bed by bed, during geological and paleontological excavations of lacustrine and fluvial deposits of the Obnora Formation and Vokhma Formation of the late Permian Zhukovian Regional Stage near the towns of Vyazniki and Gorokhovets. The conchostracan fauna of the Zhukovian Regional Stage consists predominantly of Pseudestheria and less frequently of Palaeolimnadiopsis. In the earliest Triassic Vokhmian Regional Stage, a more diverse fauna including Euestheria, Magniestheria, Cornia, Palaeolimnadiopsis, and Rossolimnadiopsis was already recorded. The preliminary taxonomic determination of the pseudestheriids from the Zhukovian Regional Stage is intended to serve as a prerequisite for future studies of late Permian conchostracan biostratigraphy on the regional to interregional scale.

  • 33. Scholze, Frank
    et al.
    Golubev, Valeriy K.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sennikov, Andrey G.
    Schneider, Joerg W.
    Silantiev, Vladimir V.
    Early Triassic Conchostracans (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) from the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary sections in the Moscow syncline2015In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 429, p. 22-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Permian-Triassic boundary marks the greatest mass extinction in Earth's history. In order to understand the real causes of this severe extinction event, multidisciplinary investigations around the globe are required. Here, the terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary sections in the Vladimir region, Central Russia, were sampled bed-by-bed for conchostracan study. In the Early Triassic intervals the following taxa were recognized for the first time: Cornia germari (Beyrich, 1857), Euestheria gutta (Lutkevitch, 1937), Magniestheria mangaliensis (Jones, 1862), Palaeolimnadiopsis vilujensis Varentsov, 1955, and Rossolimnadiopsis Novozhilov, 1958. The wide distribution of C germari demonstrates their high value for biostratigraphy, since this species was also reported from the Lower Buntsandstein Subgroup in the Germanic Basin as well as from Early Triassic deposits in Hungary, Greenland and Siberia. The assumption of an Early Triassic age of the studied sections is also supported by associated Tupilakosaurus bone fragments, which point to the Tupilakosaurus wedugensis Zone in the earliest Triassic.

  • 34.
    Skawinski, Tomasz
    et al.
    Univ Wroclaw, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Conservat Vertebrates, Fac Biol Sci, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Ziegler, Maciej
    Glogowska 227c, PL-60111 Poznan, Poland..
    Czepinski, Lukasz
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Palaeobiol & Evolut, Fac Biol, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Szermanski, Marcin
    Siemiradzkiego 19-23, PL-43300 Bielsko Biala, Poland..
    Talanda, Mateusz
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Palaeobiol & Evolut, Fac Biol, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Surmik, Dawid
    Univ Silesia, Fac Earth Sci, Sosnowiec, Poland..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    A re-evaluation of the historical "dinosaur' remains from the Middle-Upper Triassic of Poland2017In: Historical Biology, ISSN 0891-2963, E-ISSN 1029-2381, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 442-472Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called historical Polish discoveries of Triassic dinosaurs' have been repeatedly cited in papers and popular science books. Here, we re-evaluate each historical and purported Triassic dinosaur find from Poland. Additionaly, we describe several supposed dinosaur' bones collected by Polish geologists but only briefly mentioned: in regional geological journals, on collection labels, or in field notes. We attempt to assign all investigated specimens to the least inclusive taxon possible. Our revision indicates that part of this material represents non-dinosaur archosauromorph taxa. Most of the analysed specimens are fragmentary bones or isolated teeth and are indistinguishable from skeletal elements described from other well-known Triassic archosauromorph taxa. We conclude that fossils of dinosauriforms are present in the Upper Triassic of Silesia and Holy Cross Mountains. New analysis of Velocipes guerichi von Huene, 1932 holotype specimen from Kocury shows that it is the proximal part of fibula of a medium-sized theropod (or even neotheropod). Formally undescribed part of dinosauriform limb bone from the Holy Cross Mountains and V. guerichi from Silesia are the only identifiable dinosauromorph skeletal remains recognised in the Polish Triassic discovered prior to the description of Silesaurus opolensis Dzik, 2003 from the Upper Carnian of Krasiejow.

  • 35.
    Skrzycki, Piotr
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Talanda, Mateusz
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Palaeobiol & Evolut, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Fac Biol, Zwirki & Wigury 101, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland..
    Dipnoan remains from the Lower-Middle Triassic of the Holy Cross Mountains and northeastern Poland, with remarks on dipnoan palaeobiogeography2018In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 496, p. 332-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present a revision of dipnoans from the Middle-Upper Buntsandstein and the Lower Muschelkalk (Lower-Middle Triassic) of the Holy Cross Mountains (southeastern Poland) and from the Middle Buntsandstein of northeastern Poland. Two genera are identified: Arganodus and Ptychoceratodus. Specimens resemble synchronous species from the European part of Russia. It is the first Middle Triassic finding of Arganodus worldwide. Ptychoceratodus is reported for the first time from the Lower Triassic of Poland. It is its oldest known occurrence in Europe. The Holy Cross Mountains stands between the area of European Russia and the Central European Basin which were both inhabited by Arganodus and Ptychoceratodus in the Early-Middle Triassic. Resulting from a summary of palaeobiogeographic data of these two genera their distributional patterns are hypothesized herein. In the Early Triassic both genera often co-occurred in many regions. Starting from the Middle Triassic their ranges split into two almost separate ones. They reflect the palaeolatitudinal belts in the Late Triassic with Arganodus in the northern tropic belt and Ptychoceratodus along the palaeolatitudes 30 degrees.

  • 36.
    Soussi, Mohamed
    et al.
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Fac Sci, Dept Geol, Tunis 2092, Tunisia..
    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Talanda, Mateusz
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Biol, Dept Paleobiol & Evolut, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Zwirki & Wigury 101, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland..
    Drozdz, Dawid
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Biol, Dept Paleobiol & Evolut, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Zwirki & Wigury 101, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland.;Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Sulej, Tomasz
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Boukhalfa, Kamel
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Fac Sci, Dept Geol, Tunis 2092, Tunisia.;Univ Gabes, Fac Sci Gabes, Zerig 6029, Gabes, Tunisia..
    Mermer, Janusz
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Biol, Dept Paleobiol & Evolut, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Zwirki & Wigury 101, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland..
    Blazejowski, Blazej
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Middle Triassic (Anisian-Ladinian) Tejra red beds and Late Triassic (Carnian) carbonate sedimentary records of southern Tunisia, Saharan Platform: Biostratigraphy, sedimentology and implication on regional stratigraphic correlations2017In: MARINE AND PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, ISSN 0264-8172, Vol. 79, p. 222-256Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The "red beds" of the Triassic succession outcropping at Tejra-Medenine (southern Tunisia, Saharan Platform) have yielded rich fossil assemblages of both freshwater and brackish-marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The new discovered fauna indicates an Anisian-Lower Ladinian age for the Tejra section. Its lowermost part is considered as equivalent of Ouled Chebbi Formation, while the medium and upper parts are considered as equivalent of the Kirchaou Formation. Both sedimentological characteristics and fossil assemblages indicate the increasing marine influences within the middle part of the section and the migration of brackish and freshwater fauna into the lacustrine/playa environment at the top. The marine fauna-rich interval of the Tejra section correlates well with the well-known Myophoria-rich carbonate stratigraphic marker confirming the Middle Triassic (Ladinian) major transgression well recorded eastward in the Tunisian Jeffara basin and in Libya. The use of this Ladinian stratigraphic event in addition to the Carnian carbonate transgressive events of the Jeffara escarpment outcrops was of great help for regional lithostratigraphic correlations between the Triassic outcropping series and those currently buried in Ghadames and Berkine basins. The age of the sandstones of "Trias Argilo-Greseux Inferieur" (TAGI) which forms the main oil and gas reservoir in the Saharan domain is attributed to the Anisian-Carnian and considered as coeval of Ouled Chebbi and Kirchaou Formations of the Dahar escarpment. An updated synthetic stratigraphic chart is proposed for the Triassic of Saharan Platform domain on the basis of the compilation of the new obtained results and the subsurface data taken from published literature.

  • 37.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    et al.
    Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    A new large capitosaurid temnospondyl amphibian from the Early Triassic of Poland2013In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Early Triassic record of the large capitosaurid amphibian genus Parotosuchus is supplemented by new material fromfluvial deposits of Wióry, southern Poland, corresponding in age to the Detfurth Formation (Spathian, Late Olenekian) ofthe Germanic Basin. The skull of the new capitosaurid shows an “intermediate” morphology between that of Parotosuchus helgolandicus from the Volpriehausen−Detfurth Formation (Smithian, Early Olenekian) of Germany and theslightly younger Parotosuchus orenburgensis from European Russia. These three species may represent an evolutionary lineage that underwent a progressive shifting of the jaw articulation anteriorly. The morphology of the Polish form is distinct enough from other species of Parotosuchus to warrant erection of a new species. The very large mandible of Parotosuchus ptaszynskii sp. nov. indicates that this was one of the largest tetrapod of the Early Triassic. Its prominent anatomical features include a triangular retroarticular process and an elongated base of the hamate process.

  • 38.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    et al.
    PAS, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    An elephant-sized Late Triassic synapsid with erect limbs2019In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 363, no 6422, p. 78-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we describe the dicynodont Lisowicia bojani, from the Late Triassic of Poland, a gigantic synapsid with seemingly upright subcursorial limbs that reached an estimated length of more than 4.5 meters, height of 2.6 meters, and body mass of 9 tons. Lisowicia is the youngest undisputed dicynodont and the largest nondinosaurian terrestrial tetrapod from the Triassic. The lack of lines of arrested growth and the highly remodeled cortex of its limb bones suggest permanently rapid growth and recalls that of dinosaurs and mammals. The discovery of Lisowicia overturns the established picture of the Triassic megaherbivore radiation as a phenomenon restricted to dinosaurs and shows that stem-group mammals were capable of reaching body sizes that were not attained again in mammalian evolution until the latest Eocene.

  • 39. Sulej, Tomasz
    et al.
    Wolniewicz, Andrzej
    Bonde, Niels
    Błażejowski, Blazej
    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Tałanda, Mateusz
    New perspectives on the Late Triassic vertebrates of East Greenland: preliminary results of a Polish−Danish palaeontological expedition2014In: Polish Polar Research, ISSN 0138-0338, E-ISSN 2081-8262, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 541-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fleming Fjord Formation (Jameson Land, East Greenland) documents a diverse assemblage of terrestrial vertebrates of Late Triassic age. Expeditions from the turn of the 21st century have discovered many important fossils that form the basis of our current knowledge of Late Triassic Greenlandic faunas. However, due to the scarcity and incompleteness of the fossils and their insufficient study, our understanding of the taxonomic diversity of the Fleming Fjord Formation is hindered. Here, we report the preliminary findings of a Polish−Danish expedition to the Fleming Fjord Formation that took place in 2014. Three areas were visited – the fairly well known MacKnight Bjerg and Wood Bjerg and the virtually unexplored Liasryggen. MacKnigth Bjerg and Liasryggen yielded fossils which promise to significantly broaden our knowledge of vertebrate evolution in the Late Triassic. Stem−mammal remains were discovered at Liasryggen. Other fossils found at both sites include remains of actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, temnospondyl amphibians and various archosaurs (including early dinosaurs). Numerous vertebrate trace fossils, including coprolites, pseudosuchian footprints, theropod and sauropodomorph dinosaur tracks, were also discovered. Newly discovered skeletal remains as well as abundant trace fossils indicate higher tetrapod diversity in the Late Triassic of Greenland than previously thought. Trace fossils also allow inferences of early theropod and sauropodomorph dinosaur behaviour.

  • 40. Swilo, Marlena
    et al.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    Mammal-like tooth from the Upper Triassic of Poland2014In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 815-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent Triassic discoveries have extended the record of near-mammals (Mammaliaformes) back to the Norian, about 215 Ma, and reveal a significant diversity of Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) forms. We now add to this Late Triassic diversity a nearly complete double-rooted right lower molariform tooth (ZPAL V.33/734) from the Polish Upper Triassic that is significant because it comes from uppermost Norian–lower Rhaetian rocks and is the first discovery of a mammal-like tooth in the Mesozoic of Poland. The described tooth shows transitional dental morphology between advanced cynodonts and mammaliaforms and it appears to represent a basal mammaliaform (genus Hallautherium), probably belonging to Morganucodonta.

  • 41. Szrek, Piotr
    et al.
    Dec, Marek
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    The first placoderm fish from the Lower Devonian of Poland2015In: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, ISSN 0272-4634, E-ISSN 1937-2809, Vol. 35, no 3, article id e930471Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Szrek, Piotr
    et al.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Dec, Marek
    Storm origin of bone-bearing beds in the Lower Devonian placoderm sandstone from Podlazie Hill (Holy Cross Mountains, central Poland)2014In: Geological Quarterly, ISSN 1641-7291, E-ISSN 2082-5099, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 795-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The placoderm sandstone (Emsian, Holy Cross Mountains) exposed in the abandoned quarry at Podlazie Hill was revisited and excavated during fieldwork conducted in 2011–2013. Bone-bearing breccias were studied in details for the first time at this site and subjected to taphonomic analysis. Vertebrate remains are dominated by heterostracans, while true placoderm compose less than 20% of the total vertebrate assemblage. The high degree of fragmentation of the bones and low degree of abrasion indicate that the remains were reworked and transported be fore final burial. This is consistent with the mixed character of the bone accumulations, which comprise both open-shelf forms (acanthodians, chondrichthyans) as well as those related to marginal-marine environments (placoderms and sarcopterygians). The bone-bearing succession has been subdivided into five depositional facies attributed to a coastal lagoon influenced by stormy, possibly tidal conditions. The occurrence of the invertebrate trace fossil Ilmenichnus sp. accompanied by Lockeia and Monomorphichnus supports this interpretation.

  • 43.
    Szrek, Piotr
    et al.
    Polish Geol Inst, Natl Res Inst, Rakowiecka 4 St, PL-00075 Warsaw, Poland. Polish Geol Inst, Natl Res Inst, Holy Cross Mt Branch, Zgoda 21 St, PL-00075 Kielce, Poland..
    Salwa, Sylwester
    Holy Cross Mountains Branch of the Polish Geological Institute—National Research Institute, Zgoda 21 Street, 00-075 Kielce, Poland.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Dec, Marek
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Uchman, Alfred
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Geol Sci, Oleandry 2a, PL-30063 Krakow, Poland..
    A glimpse of a fish face: An exceptional fish feeding trace fossil from the Lower Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland2016In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 454, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An exceptionally well-preserved assemblage of numerous invertebrate and vertebrate trace fossils is described from the Lower Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains, southern Poland. Two trace-bearing horizons occur in the shallow-marine sequence that is exposed in a small outcrop near Ujazd village. One of the trace fossils is preserved as a bilobate, generally elliptical, epichnial pit is described as Osculichnus tarnowskae isp. nov. and interpreted as a unique example of praedichnia. Neoichnologic experiments and observations indicate that the ichnogenus Osculichnus was produced by feeding fish. The fish producing O. tarnowskae probably hunted bivalves, polychaetes and arthropods, which are represented by invertebrate trace fossils in the same horizons. The overall shape and morphological details of O. tarnowskae suggest that it was made by a lungfish broadly similar to Dipnorhynchus. The trace provides the first direct evidence for Devonian lungfish feeding behaviour, as well as the first record of three-dimensional soft-tissue morphology of the snout area of an Emsian representative of this group. The trace fossils from Ujazd provide new insight into the palaeoecology and taphonomy of the Lower Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains.

  • 44.
    Talanda, Mateusz
    et al.
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Biol, Dept Paleobiol & Evolut, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Zwirki & Wigury 101, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland..
    Bajdek, Piotr
    Aleja Najswietszej Maryi Panny 20-20A, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Sulej, Tomasz
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland..
    Upper Triassic freshwater oncoids from Silesia (southern Poland) and their microfossil biota2017In: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaontologie - Abhandlungen, ISSN 0077-7749, Vol. 284, no 1, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oncoids are rare components of Keuper sediments across Europe. The exceptions are localities linked to the Upper Triassic "Wozniki Limestone" (formally Limestone Member from Wozniki) in Silesia, southern Poland. Numerous oncoids occur in breccia-like deposits in the Lipie Slaskie clay pit at Lisowice. The oncoid-bearing level is underlying by organic-rich carbonaceous mudstone and siltstone and covered by non-carbonaceous sandstone and grey wacke sandstone-mudstone heterolithic deposits. The oncoids are of various shapes and are built by agglutinated or skeletal stromatolites composed of a rhythmically grown dendroid micropeloidal framework. The agglutinated stromatolites are poor in microfabrics. The oncoids consist of a smooth or granular outer part and distinct core (carbonate, carbon-rich or phosphate), which may be a fossil (bivalve shell, wood fragment, charcoal piece, carbon-rich coprolite or hone fragment). Dark laminae of the cortex are carbonate-rich, whereas the light ones are silica-rich. They exhibit remains of bacterial/cyanobacterial filaments, as well as some rare and not well-discernible palynomorphs. Ostracods (cf. Darwinula sp.), small fragments of vertebrate bones (mainly fish remains), fragments of wood, plant cuticles and fragments of unionoid bivalves are associated with the oncoid accumulations. Thus, they may have been formed in a shallow freshwater environment and were buried by rapid flood events or mud runoff.

  • 45. Xing, Li-Da
    et al.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Lockley, Martin G.
    Zhang, Jian-Ping
    Cai, Xiong-Fei
    Persons IV, W. Scott
    Ye, Yong
    Asianopodus-type footprints from the Hekou Group of Honggu District, Lanzhou City, Gansu, China and the “heel” of large theropod tracks2014In: Palaeoworld, ISSN 1871-174X, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 304-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of dinosaur tracksites have been reported from the Cretaceous Hekou Group deposits of the Lanzhou-Minhe Basin in theGansu Province region. These include small sites such as the Huazhuang tracksite, from the Honggu District reported here, the Zhongpu tracksitewith multiple track levels but few well-preserved tracks, other small tracksites currently under investigation, and the large and diverse LiujixiaNational Dinosaur Geopark site at Yanguoxia, where intensive study is ongoing. Collectively these sites reveal that ichnofaunas in the HekouGroup are widespread and diverse. The Huazhuang tracksite yields a small assemblage of moderately well-preserved theropod tracks assigned toAsianopodus. This is the first report of Asianopodus from the Hekou Group. Huazhuang Asianopodus belongs to the Eubrontes morphotype. Thelarge theropod tracks from Lanzhou-Minhe Basin were left by large theropod trackmakers with the same general foot morphology. The specimensare described in detail and compared with other theropod track morphotypes from the Lower Cretaceous of China and elsewhere. In general,although the metatarsophalangeal pads of some Jurassic Eubrontes-type tracks are aligned with the axis of digit III, this feature appears mostcommon in the Early Cretaceous theropod (Eubrontes-type) tracks.

  • 46.
    Zaton, Michal
    et al.
    Univ Silesia, Fac Earth Sci, Bedzinska 60, PL-41200 Sosnowiec, Poland..
    Broda, Krzysztof
    Univ Silesia, Fac Earth Sci, Bedzinska 60, PL-41200 Sosnowiec, Poland..
    Qvarnström, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    The first direct evidence of a Late Devonian coelacanth fish feeding on conodont animals2017In: The Science of Nature: Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 104, no 3-4, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the first known occurrence of a Devonian coelacanth specimen from the lower Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland, with a conodont element preserved in its digestive tract. A small spiral and phosphatic coprolite (fossil excrement) containing numerous conodont elements and other unrecognized remains was also found in the same deposits. The coprolite is tentatively attributed to the coelacanth. Although it is unclear whether the Late Devonian coelacanth from Poland was an active predator or a scavenger, these finds provide the first direct evidence of feeding on conodont animals by early coelacanth fish, and one of the few evidences of feeding on these animals known to date. It also expands our knowledge about the diet and trophic relations between the Paleozoic marine animals in general.

  • 47.
    Zaton, Michal
    et al.
    Univ Silesia, Fac Earth Sci, Bedzinska 60, PL-41200 Sosnowiec, Poland.;KNOW Leading Natl Res Ctr, Ctr Polar Studies, Sosnowiec, Poland..
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Boreal earliest Triassic biotas elucidate globally depauperate hard substrate communities after the end-Permian mass extinction2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The end-Permian mass extinction constituted the most devastating biotic crisis of the Phanerozoic. Its aftermath was characterized by harsh marine conditions incorporating volcanically induced oceanic warming, widespread anoxia and acidification. Bio-productivity accordingly experienced marked fluctuations. In particular, low palaeolatitude hard substrate communities from shallow seas fringing Western Pangaea and the Tethyan Realm were extremely impoverished, being dominated by monogeneric colonies of filter-feeding microconchid tubeworms. Here we present the first equivalent field data for Boreal hard substrate assemblages from the earliest Triassic (Induan) of East Greenland. This region bordered a discrete bio-realm situated at mid-high palaeolatitude (> 30 degrees N). Nevertheless, hard substrate biotas were compositionally identical to those from elsewhere, with microconchids encrusting Claraia bivalves and algal buildups on the sea floor. Biostratigraphical correlation further shows that Boreal microconchids underwent progressive tube modification and unique taxic diversification concordant with changing habitats over time. We interpret this as a post-extinction recovery and adaptive radiation sequence that mirrored coeval subequatorial faunas, and thus confirms hard substrate ecosystem depletion as a hallmark of the earliest Triassic interval globally.

  • 48. Zaton, Michal
    et al.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Marynowski, Leszek
    Benzerara, Karim
    Pott, Christian
    Cosmidis, Julie
    Krzykawski, Tomasz
    Filipiak, Pawel
    Coprolites of Late Triassic carnivorous vertebrates from Poland: An integrative approach2015In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 430, p. 21-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertebrate coprolites derived from Upper Triassic terrestrial deposits of southern Poland have been subjected to various analytical methods in order to retrieve information about their composition, producer's diet and nature of the microscopic structures preserved in the groundmass. Morphologically, the coprolites have been classified into four morphotypes, of which only three were further analysed due to their good state of preservation. Their groundmass are composed of francolite, a carbonate-rich apatite, in which abundant coccoid structures are preserved. Based on various microscopic and organic geochemical techniques, they are interpreted as fossilized bacteria which could have mediated the phosphatization of the faeces. The thin sectioning revealed that the coprolites consist of those containing exclusively bone remains, and those preserving both bone and plant remains. Those coprolites preserving only vertebrate remains are suggestive for exclusive carnivorous diet of the producers. However, the interpretation of coprolites consisting of both vertebrate and plant remains is more debatable. Although they may attest to omnivory, it cannot be excluded that potential producers were carnivorous and occasionally ingested plants, or accidentally swallowed plant material during feeding. The latter may involve predation or scavenging upon other herbivorous animals. The potential producers may have been animals that foraged in or near aquatic habitats, such as semi-aquatic archosaurs and/or temnospondyls. This is supported by the presence of ostracode and other aquatic arthropod remains, and fish scales within the coprolites, as well as by the presence of specific biomarkers such as phytanic and pristanic acids, which are characteristic constituents of fish oil. The preservation of such labile organic compounds as sterols, palmitin, stearin or levoglucosan attests for rapid, microbially-mediated mineralization of the faeces at very early stages of diagenesis.

  • 49.
    Zaton, Michal
    et al.
    Univ Silesia Katowice, Fac Earth Sci, Bedzinska 60, PL-41200 Sosnowiec, Poland.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Rakocinski, Michal
    Univ Silesia Katowice, Fac Earth Sci, Bedzinska 60, PL-41200 Sosnowiec, Poland.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Earliest Triassic metazoan bioconstructions from East Greenland reveal a pioneering benthic community in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian mass extinction2018In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 167, p. 87-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine benthic ecosystems collapsed during the catastrophic end-Permian mass extinction, and subsequently endured a protracted phase of biotic recovery under harsh environmental conditions. In particular, metazoan reef communities almost totally disappeared and were replaced by microbe-dominated mounds during the latest Permian-earliest Triassic. Here we report the stratigraphically oldest exclusively metazoan bioconstructions from earliest Triassic (mid-Induan) strata in East Greenland - these formed within the first ca 300 ka after the Permian-Triassic boundary. Unlike the multitaxic sponge-microbe and bivalve-based buildups recorded from the Early Triassic peri-paleoequatorial Panthalassan and Tethyan margins, the East Greenland bioaccumulations developed within a restricted Boreal mid-paleolatitude seaway, and comprised a monospecific primary framework of microconchid 'lophophorate tubes with shell fragments and phosphatic debris cemented by biogenic calcite. Prostrate growth of the microconchids likely facilitated their accretion into successive sheet-like biostromes and small bioherms. These are associated with a regional paleoenvironmental shift towards well-oxygenated bottom waters, and locally punctuated sedimentation that created a favorable habitat. Although microconchids were both abundant and geographically widespread throughout the earliest Triassic, such buildups formed solely by these metazoans have not been reported from that time frame outside the Boreal Realm. These apparently flourished in the absence of more stable complex communities, and suggest that a locally variable, rather than ubiquitously sequential revival of metazoan bioconstruction activity took place in the immediate aftermath of the end-Permian extinction. However, these may also suggest that ecological recovery of benthic marine ecosystems following the end-Permian mass extinction might have started earlier in higher paleolatitudes.

  • 50. Zyla, Dagmara
    et al.
    Wegierek, Piotr
    Owocki, Krzysztof
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Insects and crustaceans from the latest Early-early Middle Triassic of Poland2013In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 371, p. 136-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two stratigraphical horizons in the Palegi clay-pit, a new Triassic paleontological site within Buntsandstein deposits (latest Olenekian-early Anisian in age) in the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland), have yielded arthropod faunas comprising ca. 400 fossil specimens assigned to two subphyla: Crustacea (class Branchiopoda and Maxillopoda) and Hexapoda (class Insecta). The Palegi arthropod assemblage is similar to that described from the Middle Triassic of France and Germany but is dominated by remains of conchostracans and cockroaches. This new fauna expands our knowledge of the latest Early-early Middle Triassic diversity of insects and freshwater arthropods in the Germanic Basin. The newly discovered fauna represents one of the oldest Mesozoic records of insects described from the Buntsandstein fades of Europe, and provides important information to better appreciate the process of ecosystem recovery after the Permian-Triassic extinction.

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