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  • 1.
    He, Peng
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Iodine Isotopes and their Species in Surface Water from the North Sea to the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Huge amounts of anthropogenic 129I have been and still are released to the environment through liquid and gaseous discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities worldwide and in particular the ones in Europe. Most of this 129I signal has been accumulated in the marine environment which plays a major role in the iodine natural pool.  In this thesis, an overview of available 129I concentrations in waters of the oceans and marginal seas together with new data about 129I and 127I spatial distribution in surface seawater along a transect between the North Sea and the northeastern Atlantic Ocean are presented. After comprehensive chemical separation, the concentrations of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) and their species (iodide and iodate) were analysed using accelerator mass spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that, generally, changes in the 127I and 127I-/127IO3- are comparable to data from other marine waters which are related to natural distribution patterns. A considerable variation of 129I along the transect is observed with the highest values occurring in the eastern English Channel and relatively low values obtained in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Inventory estimations of 129I in the North Sea and the English Channel are 147 kg and 78 kg, respectively, where more than 90% resides in the Southern Bight and the eastern English Channel. Iodate is the dominant iodine species for both 127I and 129I in most seawater samples from the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. 129I species variability suggests a slow process of 129I- oxidation in the open sea. It takes at least 10 years for the 129I-/129IO3- pair to reach their natural equilibrium as the water is transported from the English Channel. The results suggest a main transport of 129I from the western English Channel via the Biscay Bay into the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Further, high 129I/127I and distinctive 129I-/129IO3- values south of 40°N indicate possible contribution of 129I through Mediterranean Outflow Water. The environmental radioactive impact of 129I and possible applications in ecosystem studies are also discussed.

    List of papers
    1. A summary of global 129I in marine waters
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A summary of global 129I in marine waters
    2013 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 537-541Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the many investigations concerning the occurrence of anthropogenic iodine-129 in the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine environments, there is a lack of a comprehensive collection of data on the distribution of the isotope in marine waters. The temporal and spatial variability of anthropogenic 129I is strongly linked to the major point sources in the Irish Sea and the English Channel and the global marine spreading pathways are partly outlined from these sources. The temporal evolution is still, however, not well defined when transport and dissipation are considered in the different oceans and ocean compartments. We here summarize available published literature data on 129I temporal and spatial distribution in the global marine water. The results show presence of numerous data sets for the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans where strong variability in terms of water depth, time and location also occur. Scarcity of data on 129I from the Pacific, Indian and South Atlantic Oceans demonstrates gaps in the coverage of the isotope spatial extent. These shortcomings in the spatial coverage may relate to the understanding that the anthropogenic 129I signal will take a long time to be transported, if at all, from the North Atlantic into other oceans. Data from recent expeditions in the Southern oceans and the Geotraces ocean profiling will reveal additional information about 129I distribution in the marine waters.

    Keywords
    129I, Distribution, Global oceans
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-193889 (URN)10.1016/j.nimb.2012.08.036 (DOI)000313234300103 ()
    Conference
    Twelfth International Conference on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Wellington, New Zealand, 20-25 March 2011
    Available from: 2013-02-12 Created: 2013-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Temporal variation of iodine isotopes in the North Sea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal variation of iodine isotopes in the North Sea
    2014 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 1419-1425Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206705 (URN)10.1021/es402047s (DOI)000331015100010 ()
    Available from: 2013-09-03 Created: 2013-09-03 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Iodine isotopes in the English Channel: a source region of 129I
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iodine isotopes in the English Channel: a source region of 129I
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206708 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-03 Created: 2013-09-03 Last updated: 2014-01-23
    4. Radioactive 129I in surface water of the Celtic Sea
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radioactive 129I in surface water of the Celtic Sea
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206709 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-09-03 Created: 2013-09-03 Last updated: 2014-01-23
    5.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
  • 2.
    He, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Aldahan, A.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Hou, X. L.
    A summary of global 129I in marine waters2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 294, p. 537-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the many investigations concerning the occurrence of anthropogenic iodine-129 in the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine environments, there is a lack of a comprehensive collection of data on the distribution of the isotope in marine waters. The temporal and spatial variability of anthropogenic 129I is strongly linked to the major point sources in the Irish Sea and the English Channel and the global marine spreading pathways are partly outlined from these sources. The temporal evolution is still, however, not well defined when transport and dissipation are considered in the different oceans and ocean compartments. We here summarize available published literature data on 129I temporal and spatial distribution in the global marine water. The results show presence of numerous data sets for the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans where strong variability in terms of water depth, time and location also occur. Scarcity of data on 129I from the Pacific, Indian and South Atlantic Oceans demonstrates gaps in the coverage of the isotope spatial extent. These shortcomings in the spatial coverage may relate to the understanding that the anthropogenic 129I signal will take a long time to be transported, if at all, from the North Atlantic into other oceans. Data from recent expeditions in the Southern oceans and the Geotraces ocean profiling will reveal additional information about 129I distribution in the marine waters.

  • 3.
    He, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Temporal variation of iodine isotopes in the North Sea2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 1419-1425Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    He, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Goran
    Radioactive I-129 in surface water of the Celtic Sea2014In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 299, no 1, p. 249-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively large amounts of radioactive iodine 129I (T 1/2  = 15.7 Ma) have been documented in seawater such as the English Channel, the Irish Sea and the North Sea. Data on the concentration of the iodine isotopes in waters of the Celtic Sea are missing. Aiming to provide first 129I data in the Celtic Sea and compare them with levels in the other close-by seawater bodies, surface seawater samples were analyzed for the determination of 127I and 129I concentrations. The results revealed a high level of 129I in these waters and suggest strong influence by liquid discharges from La Hague and Sellafield reprocessing facilities. 127I concentrations are rather constant while the 129I/127I ratio reaches up to 2.8 × 10−8 (ranging from 10−10 to 10−8), which is 2–4 orders of magnitude higher than pre-nuclear era natural level. Transport of 129I to the Celtic Sea is difficult to depict accurately since available data are sparse. Most likely, however, that discharges originated from La Hague may have more influence on the Celtic Sea 129I concentrations than the Sellafield. Comprehensive surface water and depth profiles 129I data will be needed in the future for assessment of environmental impact in the region.

  • 5.
    He, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Yi, Peng
    Iodine isotopes species fingerprinting environmental conditions in surface water along the northeastern Atlantic Ocean2013In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, p. 2685-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (I-127 and I-129) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic I-129 in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations of the isotope in the Atlantic Ocean are, however, still unknown. We here present first data on I-129 and I-127, and their species (iodide and iodate) in surface water transect along the northeastern Atlantic between 30 degrees and 50 degrees N. The results show iodate as the predominant species in the analyzed marine waters for both I-127 and I-129. Despite the rather constant ratios of I-127(-)/(IO3-)-I-127, the I-129(-)/(IO3-)-I-129 values reveal variations that apparently response to sources, environmental conditions and residence time. These findings provide a new tracer approach that will strongly enhance the application of anthropogenic I-129 in ocean environments and impact on climate at the ocean boundary layer.

  • 6.
    Yi, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Goran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Roskilde, Denmark.
    He, Peng
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Biao, Wang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Depth profiles of I-129 species in the Bothnian Sea2013In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 295, no 2, p. 1459-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bothnian Sea which is located between Finland and Sweden represents an important source of fresh water to the Baltic Sea. We here present new data on the radioactive isotope I-129 species from water samples collected in December 2009 at different depths in the Bothnian Sea. Concentrations of I-129(-) (iodide) in the Bothnian Sea range from 14 x 10(8) to 32 x 10(8) atoms/L, while (IO3)-I-129 (-) (iodate) concentrations are relatively low and fluctuating at 1 x 10(8) atoms/L. For nutrients data determined in the same samples as I-129, significant correlations could be found between I-129(-) and total P, NO3-N, SiO3-Si, but rather poor with NH4-N. The correlations suggest comparable source pathway of I-129(-) and nutrient parameters, while the source of NH4-N may be different. The small amounts and negligible change of (IO3)-I-129 (-) indicate prevailing extensive reduction of iodate in the Baltic Sea.

  • 7.
    Yi, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Hou, X. L.
    He, Peng
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Wang, Biao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Seasonal variation of I-129 species in the Baltic Proper2013In: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, ISSN 0236-5731, E-ISSN 1588-2780, Vol. 295, no 3, p. 1797-1801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iodine speciation plays a significant role in iodine volatilizing into atmosphere from the seas, as well as serving as a biological indicator. Despite this importance, the data on iodine species revealed inconclusive evidence of what factors controlling speciation transformation. We here present new data on profiles of I-129 speciation in the Baltic Proper during November 2009. Along with the two earlier investigations (August 2006 and April 2007), an assessment of seasonal variation of I-129 species is presented. The results show that, due to the anoxic nature of Baltic Proper, presence of (IO3)-I-129 (-) in the Baltic Proper does not follow an obvious seasonal cycle, as the case with I-129(-). Concentrations of I-129(-) in the Baltic Proper exhibit higher values in summer than the other two seasons (spring and winter), which might be associated with degrading of organic matter and release from sediment to water column that is more pronounced during summer. I-129(-) in surface water from the three seasons does not reflect the release function from the reprocessing facilities during the period April 2007 to November 2009. Consequently variability of I-129(-) in surface seawater of the Baltic Proper depends, to some extent, on local physical as well as biochemical conditions.

  • 8.
    Yi, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Chen, X. G.
    Bao, D. X.
    Qian, R. Z.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tian, F. Y.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
    Bryhn, A. C.
    Gu, T. F.
    Hou, X. L.
    He, Peng
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Yu, Z. B.
    Wang, Biao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on I-1292013In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, ISSN 0969-8043, E-ISSN 1872-9800, Vol. 82, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow is crucial for estimating potential environmental risks as well as to find the best remedial strategy. We present here a model to estimate water inflow from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by utilizing 1291 as a tracer. The results predicted inflow range of 230-450 km(3)/y with best fit value around 330 km(3)/y from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea during 1980-1999. Despite limited time series data on I-129, the model presented here demonstrates a new management tool for the Baltic Sea to calculate inflow water compared to conventional methods (such as salinity, temperature and hydrographic models). 

  • 9.
    Yi, Peng
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Aldahan, A.
    Hou, X. L.
    Bryhn, A. C.
    He, Peng
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    I-129 in the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea: application for estimation of water exchange and environmental impact2013In: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, ISSN 0265-931X, E-ISSN 1879-1700, Vol. 120, p. 64-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here new data and a mass balance model for I-129 in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea covering the period from November-December 2009. The results showed that the general I-129 concentrations in the Bothnian Sea were two-four folds lower than in the Baltic Proper for both surface and deep water. Water exchange between the two basins based on the I-129 mass balance model suggests fluxes from the Baltic Proper to the Bothnian Sea and vice versa at 980 km(3)/y (600-1400 km(3)/y) and 1180 km(3)/y (780-1600 km(3)/y) respectively. Water retention time (residence time) in the Bothnian Sea was estimated at up to 4 years. Applying the I-129 exchange model, an estimate of total phosphorus and nitrogen inflow from the Baltic Proper to the Bothnian Sea indicates values of 20 +/- 7 x 10(3) tons/y and 300 +/- 50 x 10(3) tons/y respectively. The values for the outflow from the Bothnian Sea to the Baltic Proper hold 12 +/- 3 x 10(3) tons/y for total phosphorus and 283 +/- 55 x 10(3) tons/y for total nitrogen. These data and application of I-129 as a tracer of water masses provide information on small scale salinity changes which are vital for accurate understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystems evolution through time.

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