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  • 1.
    Berg, Elisabeth Gräslund
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Du Pradel, Carolina Durieu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Fiebranz, Rosemarie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Jacobsson, Benny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Jansson, Karin Hassan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Lennersand, Marie
    Lindberg, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Lindström, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Lindström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Ling, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Mispelaere, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Oja, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Rydén, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ågren, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Östman, Ann-Catrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Praktiker som gör skillnad: Om den verb-inriktade metoden2013In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 133, no 3, p. 335-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the so-called verb-oriented method and its role in the research project Gender and Work in early modern Sweden (GaW), which is based at Uppsala University. It provides a presentation of the GaW-database, which has been designed to allow analysis according to the verb-method. Finally, the article points out that this method can be combined with a number of different theoretical approaches as long as the focus is on practices. It is therefore compatible with the approaches of e.g., Judith Butler, Michel de Certeau, and Amartya Sen. Work is defined as "time-use with the purpose of making a living" and the article discusses why data on time-use, or actual work activities, are better suited for research into early modern Swedish working life than other types of data. It shows that activities are usually described in the sources by verb-phrases, and explains how and from what sources verb-phrases are collected and analyzed within the project. In order to allow for generalizations the verb-method presupposes large amounts of data. This is the rationale for the GaW-database, which at present includes around 5000 verb-phrases and 75000 data posts.

  • 2.
    Lennersand, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Mispelaere, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ågren, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Gender, Work, and the Fiscal-Military State2017In: Making a Living, Making a Difference: Gender and work in early modern European society / [ed] Maria Ågren, New York: Oxford University Press, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to the early twentieth century, when marriage could set an end to women’s working lives, early modern society was based on the fundamental necessity of married women’s work. This chapter looks at one part of the labor market where this was particularly salient: state service. The new states of Europe created a market in male labor and new career opportunities for men. States were, however, just as dependent on women’s work, both for their households and directly for the state. Looking at men’s and women’s work in four state-run sectors (the customs administration, the army, large-scale production units, and midwifery), this chapter explores the ways in which state formation, commercialization, and people’s everyday lives were entangled.

  • 3.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Arbete och hushåll2011In: Levebröd. Vad vet vi om tidigmodern könsarbetsdelning? / [ed] Benny Jacobsson och Maria Ågren, Historiska institutionen UU: Swedish Science Press, 2011, p. 35-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Arbete: Skillnadsskapande och försörjning i 1500-talets Sverige2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore work as an idea and a practice for the construction and maintenance of differences and power relations, and to examine what the consequences were for the individual and society in early modern Sweden. The period saw an expansion of the state apparatus which created numerous new opportunities for employment. There also exists a body of literature from this period, in the form of instructions relating to work and households. The thesis draws both on these instructions and descriptions and on sources produced by the crown.

    The thesis shows that gender was a crucial factor for the organisation of work. Operating The service of the crown was characterised by two principal organisational forms: the household, and a precursor of a bureaucratic system. The household had its basis in the couple, and had a clear gendered division of power, the couple together constituted the management of the household, at the same time there was an element of male superordination. The other form was exclusively male and based on delegation of power within the organisation and on an attempt to formalise relations by written instructions.

    The majority of the jobs created were held by men. In crafts and administration, men took over a number of female areas of competence. In this process was occupational positions created for these men. Women’s opportunities to work were heavily affected by an idea of a female area of expertise, ‘womenfolk’s work’ which never become specialiced, but the investigation also shows that work created in the crowns households in positions of leadership created livelihoods for married adult women. Among employees that were young and unmarried the similarities between the genders were often more striking than the differences. Greater differences emerge from a comparison of the entire workforce of the crown, which shows women’s annual wages to be 75 per cent of those of men. Overall women had few opportunities to make careers and get well paid employments.

  • 5.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Dackling, Martin 20018. Istället för äktenskap. Att driva jordbruk tillsammans med syskon i 1900-talets Sverige2019In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, E-ISSN 2002-3812, ISSN 0349-2834, no 76, p. 121-122-Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    En fristad i en stormig värld: Anna Andersdotter på Eskilstuna gård.2018In: Eskilstuna -: en annan historia / [ed] Elin Eriksson, Eskilstuna: Eskilstuna stadsmuseum, Eskilstuna stadsarkiv, Stiftelsen Lagersberg , 2018, p. 106-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Fjorton kvinnor på Julita 15942013In: Sörmlandsbygden 2014 / [ed] Linda Eklund, Nyköping: Södermanlands hembygdsförbund , 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Gender, Labour, and State Formation in Sixteenth-Century Sweden2015In: The Historical Journal, ISSN 0018-246X, E-ISSN 1469-5103, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 685-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how the system for organizing resources created by the Swedish state in the sixteenth century was formed by, and intersected with, local societies. By looking at the organization of the local administration and economic production within crown demesnes and estates, this article nuances and broadens the understanding of the early phases of the fiscal-military state. It shows that notions about gender and especially the gender division of labour were important for the organization and further development of the state in its endeavour to mobilize and transform resources. This article argues that gendered divisions of labour and traditional ways of organizing work and administration played a crucial role in the first phases of early modern Swedish state formation; women's work affected the organization of the state and vice versa. By looking at the emergence of the male official and the all-male bureaucracy from a gender perspective, and by emphasizing the household as an organizational form, the present study contributes to the understanding of both state formation and gender relations in the early modern period.

  • 9.
    Pihl, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    'Learning to bring dead capital to life': the Riksens Ständers Bank and the credit market in seventeenth-century Sweden2019In: Continuity and Change, ISSN 0268-4160, E-ISSN 1469-218X, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 209-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful mortgage lending is often said to require a system of registration, which records the ownership of, and any encumbrances on, a particular piece of real estate. Here we analyse how Sweden's Riksens Ständers Bank handled the uncertainties of the mortgage lending market c. 1680–1700, when there was no coherent system of property registration. The bank tried to make registration compulsory, but when influential groups opposed this move, the bank had to modify its lending practices. The study thus sheds light on the somewhat fraught initial stages of the shifts in the credit system, which from the latter half of the seventeenth century onwards, saw personal trust replaced by system trust, and private credit replaced by institutional credit.

  • 10.
    Pihl, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Några reflektioner kring ett 350-årsjubileum2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 57-61Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Pihl, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Winton, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Några ytterligare reflektioner kring ett 350-årsjubileum2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 58-61Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Pihl, Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Ågren, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Vad var en hustru? Ett begreppshistoriskt bidrag till genushistorien: [What's in a word? The history of the Swedish female title hustru]2014In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 134, no 2, p. 170-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish medieval and early modern sources, women were often referred to as hustrur (plur.). The word still exists and its meaning is "a married woman". The widespread use of the title has been taken to indicate that women were routinely described in relation to their husbands, which allegedly bears witness to their subordinated position in medieval and early modern society. As this article shows, however, hustru had several interlinked meanings in the past. It was not an unequivocal descriptor of marital status since both married and widowed women were referred to as hustrur Nor was it necessarily a descriptor of marital status. Hustru could refer to a woman's capacity to assume responsibility and to govern. While this has been noticed in Svenska Akademiens ordbok, the standard Swedish dictionary, the quantitative importance of this usage has not been emphasized in the historiography. Thanks to the Gender and Work database, it can be demonstrated that the meaning of hustru as "woman who governs" was probably the predominant one in sources describing women's and men's work in medieval and early modern Sweden. This conclusion confirms results presented for the German-speaking area (Wiesner 1998), Portugal (Abreu Ferreira 2002) and England (Erickson 2013): titles corresponding to Swedish hustru did not only (and sometimes not at all) refer to a woman's status as married. In view of the distinction made in law between married women (who were under marital guardianship) and widows (who enjoyed the same rights as men), the ways in which hustru was used may seem puzzling. If a widow was considered to have a higher status than a married woman, we would expect a clear linguistic distinction between widowed and married women. But this was not the case. Widowed women were often described as hustrur, such as in the case of "hustru Anna Svensdotter, widow of Bengt Larsson". In this and numerous other cases, hustru clearly did not mean a married woman. Instead the example should be understood to mean "Anna Svensdotter, who is an adult woman capable of governing a household and who is also the widow of Bengt Larsson". In contexts such as this, the word hustru did not signal a relationship to a man but, rather, the capacity to assume responsibility. This argument is further supported by the work of Jacobsen (1995) and Andersson Raeder (2011). With time, however, hustru lost the meaning of "woman who governs". Only the meaning "married woman" remained. Only after this shift does it make sense to see hustru as a word signalling a woman's relationship to a man.

1 - 12 of 12
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