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  • 1.
    Ali, Hasan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    van Sebille, Martijn
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Fusi, Adele
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    van Swaaij, Rene A C M M
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Zeman, Miro
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    TEM analysis of multilayered nanostructures formed in the rapid thermal annealed silicon rich silicon oxide film2016In: European Microscopy Congress 2016: Proceedings, 2016, p. 965-966Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon (Si) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in an ultrathin silicon rich silicon oxide (SRSO) film through the thermal annealing process has emerged as a highly absorbing layer for third-generation solar cells 1. The concept of using Si NPs is to achieve a band gap tunable absorber layer by controlling the size and structure of Si NPs because of the quantum confinement effect 2. In our study, a multilayer stack of silicon oxide with 35 periods of alternating layers of 1-nm thick near-stoichiometric and 3-nm thick Si-rich hydrogenated silicon oxide were deposited on fused quartz substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. Two samples were annealed using a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) furnace in forming gas atmosphere (90% N2 + 10% H2) for 210s and 270s respectively. From the Raman spectroscopy, a reduction in crystallinity of Si has been discovered from 210s annealed sample to 270s annealed sample (shown in Figure 2). The goal of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis is to investigate the nanostructural change of Si in these two annealed samples and try to correlate the TEM observations to the Raman spectroscopy results.

    As the dimension of the Si nanostructures formed in SRSO films is in nanometer-scale, the energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) tomography technique using the low-loss signals in electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been applied as a powerful technique to correlate the precipitated Si nanostructures to the phase transformation mechanisms in the thermally annealed SRSO films 3. In this case, EFTEM spectrum-imaging (SI) technique was applied to characterize the Si nanostructures formed in SRSO films by different annealing times. The EFTEM SI dataset was acquired from -4eV to 40eV using a 2eV energy slit and the reconstructed zero loss peak (ZLP) was used to calibrate the spectra shift. Si plasmon images were extracted by fitting a Gaussian into the low-loss region with a peak position at 16.7 eV 4 and FWHM of 4.5 eV. In order to analyze the multilayer structures at different annealing durations, the TEM samples were prepared in cross sectional geometry using the conventional polishing and ion milling methods.

    Figure 1 shows the EFTEM images extracted from the Si plasmon peak, in these images Si appears as bright contrasts. For shorter annealing time, an alternating bright and dark contrast can be observed which indicates that the multilayer structure still remains whereas for longer annealing time, Si shows nanoparticles like contrast. The continuous layer like contrasts shown in Figure 1(a) indicates the overlapping of the contrasts generated by small Si crystallites in a very high density. After longer annealing time (Figure 1(b)), the small Si crystallites grow in size but may take overall less volume fraction due to the Ostwald ripening process. Therefore, it explains the reduction in crystallinity of Si discovered from 210s annealed sample to 270s annealed sample by Raman. However, such a reduction in Si crystallinity was not observed in nitrogen annealed SRSO films, this indicates that samples annealed in the forming gas environment follow a different crystallization mechanism and hydrogen must play a decisive role during the Si crystallization at the initial stage.

  • 2.
    Barbe, Jeremy
    et al.
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble, och Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, Frankrike.
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Faucherand, Pascal
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Morin, Christine
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble Frankrike.
    Rapisarda, Dario
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    De Vito, Eric
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Makasheva, Kremena
    Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, Frankrike.
    Despax, Bernard
    Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, Frankrike.
    Perraud, Simon
    CEA, Liten, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Silicon nanocrystals on amorphous silicon carbide alloy thin films: Control of film properties and nanocrystals growth2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 522, p. 136-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study demonstrates the growth of silicon nanocrystals on amorphous silicon carbide alloy thin films. Amorphous silicon carbide films [a-Si1 − xCx:H (with x < 0.3)] were obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a mixture of silane and methane diluted in hydrogen. The effect of varying the precursor gas-flow ratio on the film properties was investigated. In particular, a wide optical band gap (2.3 eV) was reached by using a high methane-to-silane flow ratio during the deposition of the a-Si1 − xCx:H layer. The effect of short-time annealing at 700 °C on the composition and properties of the layer was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that the silicon-to-carbon ratio in the layer remains unchanged after short-time annealing, but the reorganization of the film due to a large dehydrogenation leads to a higher density of SiC bonds. Moreover, the film remains amorphous after the performed short-time annealing. In a second part, it was shown that a high density (1 × 1012 cm− 2) of silicon nanocrystals can be grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on a-Si0.8C0.2 surfaces at 700 °C, from silane diluted in hydrogen. The influence of growth time and silane partial pressure on nanocrystals size and density was studied. It was also found that amorphous silicon carbide surfaces enhance silicon nanocrystal nucleation with respect to SiO2, due to the differences in surface chemical properties.

  • 3.
    Chulapakorn, Thawatchart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Materials and Nano Physics, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Suvanam, Sethu Saveda
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), School of Information and Communication Technology, PO Box Electrum 229, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    LEIFER, KLAUS
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Linnros, Jan
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Materials and Nano Physics, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Hallén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information & Communication Technology, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Ion Beam Synthesis of Luminescent Silicon NanoparticlesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Leifer, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Kochevski, Vancho
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    von Baben, Moritz
    RWTH Aachen.
    Sun, Tao
    argonne national laboratory, Chicago.
    Zaluzec, Nestor
    argonne national laboratory, Chicago.
    Analysis of structural order in Fe1‐xZrx thin amorphous films2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Leifer, Klaus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Kochevski, Vancho
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Ruz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    von Baben, Moritz
    RWTH Aachen.
    Zaluzec, Nestor
    Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago.
    Sun, Tao
    argonne national laboratory, Chicago.
    Fluctuation electron microscopy on Fe1-xZrx thin amorphous films2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6. O'Brien, Shane
    et al.
    Linehan, Keith
    Doyle, Hugh
    Kingsley, Andrew
    Ashfield, Chris
    Frank, Bettina
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Thony, Philippe
    Perraud, Simon
    Pemble, Martyn E.
    Povey, Ian M.
    Indium tin oxide-silicon nanocrystal nanocomposite grown by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition2015In: Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, ISSN 0928-0707, E-ISSN 1573-4846, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 666-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposite films were successfully grown by aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) in a single deposition step using a mixture of indium tin neodecanoate and ligand stabilised silicon nanocrystals. Samples were analysed by HRTEM and silicon nanocrystals with a density of 1.2 x 10(12) cm(-2) were observed. From the reconstructed 3D tomogram, the averaged distance between the nearest nanoparticles is 8.3 nm and the 3D density of nanoparticles is 1.6 x 10(18) cm(-3). An animation of the 3D reconstruction is supplied in the supporting information. These data show the versatility of aerosol assisted CVD in achieving a nanocomposite with such a density of silicon nanocrystals, of carefully controlled size and shape, within a polycrystalline host matrix. Therefore, meeting the density and size distribution requirements of particle inclusion in active nanocomposites for photovoltaic structures. ITO-silicon nanocrystal nanocomposite samples were analysed by HRTEM and silicon nanocrystals with a density of 1.2 x 10(12) cm(-2) were observed. From the reconstructed 3D tomogram, the averaged distance between the nearest nanoparticles is 8.3 nm and the 3D density of nanoparticles is 1.6 x 10(18) cm(-3). [GRAPHICS] .

  • 7. Parola, S.
    et al.
    Quesnel, E.
    Muffato, V.
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Coignus, J.
    Slaoui, A.
    Optoelectronic properties of p-i-n heterojunctions based on germanium nanocrystals2013In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 033510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the possibility of using physical vapour deposited Ge nanocrystals (NCs) in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. We have prepared p-i-n heterojunctions based on p(+)-doped Si substrate/undoped Ge NCs/ZnO: Al layer stacks and their optoelectronic properties were characterised. Under light, the generation of photo-carriers from the Ge NCs themselves was demonstrated. The photovoltaic behaviour of the p-i-n structure was also highlighted, with a measured Voc of 224 mV compared to 580 mV in theory. The discrepancy between theory and experiment was discussed on the basis of TEM observations, optical and carrier generation measurements as well as modelling.

  • 8.
    Perraud, Simon
    et al.
    CEA LITEN, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Quesnel, Etienne
    CEA LITEN, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Parola, Stéphanie
    CEA LITEN, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Barbé, Jeremy
    CEA LITEN, Grenoble, Frankrike, och Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, Frankrike.
    Muffato, Viviane
    CEA LITEN, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Faucherand, Pascal
    CEA LITEN, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Morin, Christine
    CEA LITEN, Grenoble, Frankrike.
    Jarolimek, Karol
    Photovoltaic Materials and Devices, Delft University of Technology, Nederländerna.
    Van Swaaij, Rene A. C. M. M.
    Photovoltaic Materials and Devices, Delft University of Technology, Nederländerna.
    Zeman, Miro
    Photovoltaic Materials and Devices, Delft University of Technology, Nederländerna.
    Richards, Stephen
    SAFC Hitech, Bromborough, Merseyside, UK.
    Kingsley, Andrew
    SAFC Hitech, Bromborough, Merseyside, UK.
    Doyle, Hugh
    Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Irland.
    Linehan, Keith
    Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Irland.
    O'Brien, Shane
    Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Irland.
    Povey, Ian M.
    Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Irland.
    Pemble, Martyn
    Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Irland.
    Ling, Xie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Makasheva, Kremena
    Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, Frankrike.
    Despax, Bernard
    Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, Frankrike.
    Silicon nanocrystals: Novel synthesis routes for photovoltaic applications2013In: Physica status solidi. A, Applied research, ISSN 0031-8965, E-ISSN 1521-396X, Vol. 210, no 4, p. 649-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel processes were developed for fabricating silicon nanocrystals and nanocomposite materials which could be used as absorbers in third generation photovoltaic devices. A conventional high-temperature annealing technique was studied as a reference process, with some new insights in crystallisation mechanisms. Innovative methods for silicon nanocrystal synthesis at much lower temperature were demonstrated, namely chemical vapour deposition (CVD), physical vapour deposition (PVD) and aerosol-assisted CVD. Besides the advantage of low substrate temperature, these new techniques allow to fabricate silicon nanocrystals embedded in wide bandgap semiconductor host matrices, with a high density and a narrow size dispersion.

  • 9.
    van Sebille, Martijn
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Photovolta Mat & Devices, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.
    Delft Univ Technol, Pattern Recognit Lab, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Jarolimek, Karol
    Delft Univ Technol, Photovolta Mat & Devices, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    Santbergen, Rudi
    Delft Univ Technol, Photovolta Mat & Devices, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    van Swaaij, Rene A. C. M. M.
    Delft Univ Technol, Photovolta Mat & Devices, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Zeman, Miro
    Delft Univ Technol, Photovolta Mat & Devices, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    Nanocrystal size distribution analysis from transmission electron microscopy images2015In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 7, no 48, p. 20593-20606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a method, with minimal bias caused by user input, to quickly detect and measure the nanocrystal size distribution from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images using a combination of Laplacian of Gaussian filters and non-maximum suppression. We demonstrate the proposed method on bright-field TEM images of an a-SiC:H sample containing embedded silicon nanocrystals with varying magnifications and we compare the accuracy and speed with size distributions obtained by manual measurements, a thresholding method and PEBBLES. Finally, we analytically consider the error induced by slicing nanocrystals during TEM sample preparation on the measured nanocrystal size distribution and formulate an equation to correct this effect.

  • 10.
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    The visualization of Silicon nanoparticles by 3D electron tomography2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Gu, Xiaohong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Westermark, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Three dimensional electron tomography characterization of islet amyloid polypeptide aggregates in drosophila melanogaster2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Gu, Xiaohong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Westermark, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Three dimensional electron tomography characterization of islet amyloid polypeptide aggregates in drosophila melanogaster2014In: Electron tomography, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In human more than 30 different proteins can misfold and form amyloid. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are common disease where amyloid deposits play an important role in the pathogenesis. In AD, amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) deposits in brain and in T2D form islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) amyloid in islets of langerhans that leads to destruction of the insulin producing beta cells. [1]

    There are mouse and rat models that facilitate studies on AβPP and IAPP aggregation and subsequent development of respective disease, however, it is a long process that extend over many months. Therefore, we and others have established Drosophila melanogaster models that enable studies of amyloid protein misfolding and cellular effects [2].

    Structural analysis on the misfolded protein aggregates provide data important for understanding the driving force of protein aggregation and how one protein can adopt different structures dependent on the biological environment. We have applied transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the structure of IAPP aggregates formed in Drosophila melanogaster. As shown in figure 1, we detected highly ordered IAPP aggregates in Drosophila melanogaster expressing human IAPP. However, from single 2D TEM image (as shown in figure 1), we are not able to determine the structural information in Z direction. Therefore, we have applied electron tomography technique to study the structural information in Z direction. The tilt series were acquired from 60 ̊ to -60 ̊, and double tilt series were carried out in order to minimize the elongation effect in Z direction. [3] The IMOD software was used for image alignment and reconstruction. [4]

    In summary, IAPP aggregates detected in the drosophila melanogaster exhibit a spherical shape in the reconstructed tomogram, and spheres are arranged in a body center cubic structure. The individual spheres have a diameter of 17 nm and BCC structure is shown in figure 2 with a distance of 25 nm between.

    References

    [1] Sipe JD, et al., Amyloid, 2012,19:167

    [2] Schultz SW, et al., PLoS One. 2011; 6(6): e20221

    [3] Midgley PA, et al., Ultramicroscopy, 2003 96:413

    [4] Mastronarde DN J Struct Biol, 1997,120:343

  • 13.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Jarolimek, Karol
    Delft Univ Technol, Photovolta Mat & Devices, Mekelweg 4, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    Kocevski, Vancho
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Zeman, Miro
    Delft Univ Technol, Photovolta Mat & Devices, Mekelweg 4, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    van Swaaij, Rene A. C. M. M.
    Delft Univ Technol, Photovolta Mat & Devices, Mekelweg 4, NL-2628 CD Delft, Netherlands..
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Electron tomography analysis of 3D interfacial nanostructures appearing in annealed Si rich SiC films2017In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 20, p. 6703-6710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical and electrical properties of Si rich SiC (SRSC) solar cell absorber layers will strongly depend on interfacial layers between the Si and the SiC matrix and in this work, we analyze hitherto undiscovered interfacial layers. The SRSC thin films were deposited using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique and annealed in a nitrogen environment at 1100 degrees C. The thermal treatment leads to metastable SRSC films spinodally decomposed into a Si-SiC nanocomposite. After the thermal treatment, the coexistence of crystalline Si and SiC nanostructures was analysed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction. From the quantitative extraction of the different plasmon signals from electron energy-loss spectra, an additional structure, amorphous SiC (a-SiC) was found. Quantitative spectroscopic electron tomography was developed to obtain three dimensional (3D) plasmonic maps. In these 3D spectroscopic maps, the Si regions appear as network structures inside the SiC matrix where the a-SiC appears as an interfacial layer separating the matrix and Si network. The presence of the a-SiC interface can be explained in the framework of the nucleation and growth model.

  • 14.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Jarolimek, Karol
    Van Swaaij, Rene A. C. M. M.
    Kocevski, Vancho
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Analysis of Nanostructure and interface in vacuum annealed Si rich SiC by 4D electron tomography2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Karol, Jarolimek
    Photovoltaic Materials and Devices, Delft University of Technology.
    Van Swaaij, Rene A. C. M. M.
    Zeman, Miro
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    3D electron tomography analysis of silicon nanoparticles in SiC matrices by quantitative determination of EELS plasmon intensities2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Karol, Jarolimek
    Photovoltaic Materials and Devices, Delft University of Technology.
    Van Swaaij, Rene A. C. M. M.
    Zeman, Miro
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    3D electron tomography analysis of silicon nanoparticles in SiC matrices by quantitative determination of EELS plasmon intensities2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in insulating or semiconducting matrices has attracted much interest for the third generation of photovoltaics, “all-Si” tandem solar cells. This study is to show how silicon NPs are distributed in 3D on a silicon carbide thin film using the electron tomography technique in the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). [2]

    We first have assessed Si NPs distributions in such SiCx sample with a low degree of crystalline using bright field (BF) TEM tomography (figure 1) and found an average nearest neighbor spacing of two NPs of about 12nm. For more crystalline NPs, the projection requirement is no more fulfilled and only those Si NPs that are both crystalline and oriented to a Bragg reflection are detectable. [3] Therefore, in this case, conventional BF TEM signal is unsuitable for electron tomography and we applied spectrum imaging (SI) techniques: EELS SI imaging and EFTEM SI imaging. Since Si and SiCx have different plasmon energies, [4] we can extract Si plasmon and SiCx plasmon images from the spectrum images. We observed that only a proper fit of the plasmon spectrum with subsequent extraction of Si and SiCx plasmon images results in the correct Si ad SiCx distribution (figures 2 and 3), whereas just EFTEM images taken from windows around the Si and the SiC plasmon energy resulted in overlaps in the image. For both, STEM and EFTEM SI signals, in figure 2 and 3, we are able to detect the entire population of NPs. In figure 3, the stripes like contrast inside of crystalline NPs shown in the BF TEM image persist in plasmon images. This is due to parallel beam illumination in EFTEM SI mode thus making the STEM SI imaging more suitable for tomography of these NPs. In Figure 2, for STEM SI, the contrast evolution during the tilting is thickness dependent, thicker part of the sample gives stronger contrast in the extracted plasmon images, and this nonlinear thickness effect can be corrected by introducing attenuation coefficient. [5]

    In summary, to study the 3D distribution of Si NPs in SiCx matrix, we compared three signals from BF TEM, STEM and EFTEM SI signals. In order to overcome the non-linearity of contrast change during the tilting process, STEM-SI signal in combination with quantitative treatment of the plasmon spectra shows clear Si NP contrasts and overcomes limits set by the projection requirement.

    [1] S. Perraud et al., Phys. Status Solidi A, 1–9 (2012).

    [2] J. Frank, Electron Tomography: Three Dimensional Imaging with the Transmission Electron

    Microscope, Plenum, New York, London, 1992.

    [3] P. A. Midgley et al., Ultramicroscopy 96 (2003) 413.

    [4] R.F. Egerton, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope, 420, 2011.

    [5] W. Van den Broek et al. Ultramicroscopy 116 (2012) 8–12

  • 17.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Karol, Jarolimek
    Photovoltaic Materials and Devices, Delft University of Technology.
    Van Swaaij, Rene A. C. M. M.
    Zeman, Miro
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    The analysis of nanostructures and interface in vacuum annealed Si rich SiC film by 3D spectros electron tomography: use of spectrum imaging technique on transmission electron microscopy2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Barbe, Jeremy
    Faucherand, Pascal
    Makasheva, Kremena
    Morin, Christine
    Perraud, Simon
    CEA, LITEN, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    The visualization of Silicon nanoparticles by 3D electron tomography: use of mass-thickness contrast bright field imaging2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Barbe, Jeremy
    Faucherand, Pascal
    Morin, Christine
    Makasheva, Kremena
    Perraud, Simon
    CEA, LITEN, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Transmission Electron Microscopy for characterization of innovative nanocomposites for solar cell applications2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Barbé, Jeremy
    Faucherand, Pascal
    Morin, Christine
    Makasheva, Kremena
    Perraud, Simon
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    The visualization of Silicon nanoparticles by 3D electron tomography2012In: European Microscopy Congress, Manchester, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nanoparticles (NP) size and spatial distribution in three-dimension (3D) are two critical parameters for the operation of “all-Si” tandem solar cells. The 3D distribution of Silicon NPs embedded in insulating or semiconducting matrices has attracted much interest for this third generation of photovoltaics. In this work, silicon NPs have been deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) on a silicon carbide alloy thin-film at low temperature (700ºC) [1]. The aim of this study is to show how silicon nanoparticles are distributed in 3D on a silicon carbide thin film.

  • 21.
    Xie, Ling
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Rubino, Stefano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Faucherand, Pascal
    Morin, Christine
    Makasheva, Kremena
    Perraud, Simon
    CEA, LITEN, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Transmission Electron Microscopy for characterization of innovative nanocomposites for solar cell applications2012Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 21 of 21
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