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  • 1.
    Adl, Sina M.
    et al.
    Univ Saskatchewan, Dept Soil Sci, Coll Agr & Bioresources, 51 Campus Dr, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada.
    Bass, David
    Nat Hist Museum, Dept Life Sci, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD, England;CEFAS, Barrack Rd, Weymouth DT4 8UB, Dorset, England.
    Lane, Christopher E.
    Univ Rhode Isl, Dept Biol Sci, Kingston, RI 02881 USA.
    Lukes, Julius
    Czech Acad Sci, Biol Ctr, Inst Parasitol, Ceske Budejovice 37005, Czech Republic;Univ South Bohemia, Fac Sci, Ceske Budejovice 37005, Czech Republic.
    Schoch, Conrad L.
    Natl Inst Biotechnol Informat, Natl Lib Med, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.
    Smirnov, Alexey
    St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Agatha, Sabine
    Univ Salzburg, Dept Biosci, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Berney, Cedric
    CNRS, UMR 7144 AD2M, Grp Evolut Protistes & Ecosyst Pelag, Stn Biol Roscoff, Pl Georges Teissier, F-29680 Roscoff, France.
    Brown, Matthew W.
    Mississippi State Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Starkville, MS 39762 USA;Mississippi State Univ, Inst Genom Biocomp & Biotechnol, Starkville, MS 39762 USA.
    Burki, Fabien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Cepicka, Ivan
    Charles Univ Prague, Dept Zool, Fac Sci, Vinicna 7, CR-12844 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Chistyakova, Lyudmila
    St Petersburg State Univ, Core Facil Ctr Culture Collect Microorganisms, St Petersburg 198504, Russia.
    del Campo, Javier
    CSIC, Inst Ciencies Mar, Passeig Maritim Barceloneta 37-49, E-08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Dunthorn, Micah
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Dept Ecol, Erwin Schroedinger St, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany;Univ Duisburg Essen, Dept Eukaryot Microbiol, Univ Str 5, D-45141 Essen, Germany.
    Edvardsen, Bente
    Univ Oslo, Dept Biosci, POB 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Eglit, Yana
    Dalhousie Univ, Dept Biol, Halifax B3H 4R2, NS, Canada.
    Guillou, Laure
    Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Paris 6, CNRS,UMR 7144 AD2M,Stn Biol Roscoff, Pl Georges Teissier,,CS90074, F-29688 Roscoff, France.
    Hampl, Vladimir
    Charles Univ Prague, Dept Parasitol, Fac Sci, BIOCEV, Prumyslov 595, Vestec 25242, Czech Republic.
    Heiss, Aaron A.
    Amer Museum Nat Hist, Dept Invertebrate Zool, New York, NY 10024 USA.
    Hoppenrath, Mona
    DZMB German Ctr Marine Biodivers Res, D-26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
    James, Timothy Y.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Karnkowska, Anna
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Mol Phylogenet & Evolut, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland.
    Karpov, Sergey
    St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, St Petersburg 199034, Russia;RAS, Lab Parasit Worms & Protistol, Zool Inst, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Kim, Eunsoo
    Amer Museum Nat Hist, Dept Invertebrate Zool, New York, NY 10024 USA.
    Kolisko, Martin
    Czech Acad Sci, Biol Ctr, Inst Parasitol, Ceske Budejovice 37005, Czech Republic.
    Kudryavtsev, Alexander
    St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, St Petersburg 199034, Russia;RAS, Lab Parasit Worms & Protistol, Zool Inst, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Lahr, Daniel J. G.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Zool, Inst Biosci, Matao Travessa 14 Cidade Univ, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Lara, Enrique
    Univ Neuchatel, Lab Soil Biodivers, Rue Emile Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland;CSIC, Real Jardim Bot,Plaza Murillo 2, E-28014 Madrid, Spain.
    Le Gall, Line
    Sorbonne Univ, Museum Natl Hist Nat, Inst Systemat Evolut Biodiversit, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 39, F-75005 Paris, France.
    Lynn, Denis H.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Summerlee Sci Complex, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada;Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, 4200-6270 Univ Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
    Mann, David G.
    Royal Bot Garden, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, Midlothian, Scotland;Inst Agrifood Res & Technol, C Poble Nou Km 5-5, E-43540 San Carlos de la Rapita, Spain.
    Massana, Ramon
    CSIC, Inst Ciencies Mar, Passeig Maritim Barceloneta 37-49, E-08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Mitchell, Edward A. D.
    Univ Neuchatel, Lab Soil Biodivers, Rue Emile Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland;Jardin Bot Neuchatel,Chemin Perthuis du Salut 58, CH-2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland.
    Morrow, Christine
    Natl Museums Northern Ireland, Dept Nat Sci, 153 Bangor Rd, Holywood BT18 0EU, England.
    Park, Jong Soo
    Kyungpook Natl Univ, Sch Earth Syst Sci, Dept Oceanog, Daegu, South Korea;Kyungpook Natl Univ, Sch Earth Syst Sci, Kyungpook Inst Oceanog, Daegu, South Korea.
    Pawlowski, Jan W.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Genet & Evolut, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
    Powell, Martha J.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Biol Sci, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Richter, Daniel J.
    Univ Pompeu Fabra, CSIC, Inst Biol Evolut, Passeig Maritim Barceloneta 37-49, Barcelona 08003, Spain.
    Rueckert, Sonja
    Edinburgh Napier Univ, Sch Appl Sci, Edinburgh EH11 4BN, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Shadwick, Lora
    Univ Arkansas, Dept Biol Sci, Fayetteville, AR 72701 USA.
    Shimano, Satoshi
    Hosei Univ, Sci Res Ctr, Chiyoda Ku, 2-17-1 Fujimi, Tokyo, Japan.
    Spiegel, Frederick W.
    Univ Arkansas, Dept Biol Sci, Fayetteville, AR 72701 USA.
    Torruella, Guifre
    Univ Paris XI, Lab Evolut & Systemat, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Youssef, Noha
    Oklahoma State Univ, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Stillwater, OK 74074 USA.
    Zlatogursky, Vasily V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Zhang, Qianqian
    Chinese Acad Sci, Yantai Inst Coastal Zone Res, Yantai 264003, Peoples R China.
    Revisions to the Classification, Nomenclature, and Diversity of Eukaryotes2019In: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, ISSN 1066-5234, E-ISSN 1550-7408, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 4-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes follows that of Adl et al., 2012 [J. Euk. Microbiol. 59(5)] and retains an emphasis on protists. Changes since have improved the resolution of many nodes in phylogenetic analyses. For some clades even families are being clearly resolved. As we had predicted, environmental sampling in the intervening years has massively increased the genetic information at hand. Consequently, we have discovered novel clades, exciting new genera and uncovered a massive species level diversity beyond the morphological species descriptions. Several clades known from environmental samples only have now found their home. Sampling soils, deeper marine waters and the deep sea will continue to fill us with surprises. The main changes in this revision are the confirmation that eukaryotes form at least two domains, the loss of monophyly in the Excavata, robust support for the Haptista and Cryptista. We provide suggested primer sets for DNA sequences from environmental samples that are effective for each clade. We have provided a guide to trophic functional guilds in an appendix, to facilitate the interpretation of environmental samples, and a standardized taxonomic guide for East Asian users.

  • 2. Botting, Joseph P.
    et al.
    Cardenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Peel, John S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    A Crown-Group Demosponge from the Early Cambrian Sirius Passet Biota, North Greenland2015In: Palaeontology, ISSN 0031-0239, E-ISSN 1475-4983, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calibration of the divergence times of sponge lineages and understanding of their phylogenetic history are hampered by the difficulty in recognizing crown versus stem groups in the fossil record. A new specimen from the lower Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 3; approximately 515Ma) Sirius Passet Biota of North Greenland has yielded a diagnostic spicule assemblage of the extant demosponge lineages Haploscleromorpha and/or Heteroscleromorpha. The specimen has disarticulated approximately in situ, but represents an individual sponge that possessed monaxon spicules combined with a range of slightly smaller sigma, toxa and unique spiral morphologies. The combination of spicule forms, together with their relatively large size, suggests that the sponge represents the stem lineage of Haploscleromorpha+Heteroscleromorpha. This is the first crown-group demosponge described from the early Cambrian and provides the most reliable calibration point currently available for phylogenetic studies.

  • 3.
    Cardenas, Paco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Rapp, Hans Tore
    Disrupted spiculogenesis in deep-water Geodiidae (Porifera, Demospongiae) growing in shallow waters2013In: Invertebrate biology., ISSN 1077-8306, E-ISSN 1744-7410, Vol. 132, no 3, p. 173-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental conditions can affect the morphology and distribution of sponges. In particular, depth is known to influence the morphology of shallow-water sponges; however, the influence of depth on deep-water sponges has never been investigated. Although boreal Geodiidae (Demospongiae, Astrophorida) are deep-water species, in fjords and along the Norwegian coast Geodia barretti, G. simplicissima, and Pachymatisma normani can occasionally be found at shallow depths (20-40m). In this study, we examine new shallow specimens from the Norwegian coast to compare their morphological and molecular characteristics with those of their deep-water counterparts. Morphology was studied at the level of the organism, skeletal organization, and the spicules, and a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene was sequenced for shallow and deep specimens. Twelve specimens of Geodia spp. and five specimens of P. normani were collected in shallow waters. The majority of the Geodia spp. were identified as G. simplicissima, a species that has not been reported since its original description in 1931. However, we propose that G. simplicissima, only found in shallow waters, is a junior synonym of G. barretti. When comparing shallow and deep-water specimens of G. barretti and P. normani, we found phenotypic differences with respect to color, external morphology, cortex organization, and, above all, spicule morphology. In shallow specimens, microrhabds, sterrasters, and triaenes were smaller and irregular or underdeveloped. Oxyasters and strongylasters were normal in form, but smaller. We hypothesize that the lower silica concentration in shallow waters is primarily responsible for the disruption of spiculogenesis in shallow-water specimens of G. barretti and P. normani. The underdeveloped sterrasters observed in shallow-water specimens provide new insights into the formation of these particular microscleres. Finally, we discuss how the colonization of shallow waters by deep-water sponges may have strongly influenced spicule evolution and speciation.

  • 4.
    Cardenas, Paco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Rapp, Hans Tore
    Klitgaard, Anne Birgitte
    Best, Megan
    Thollesson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Tendal, Ole Secher
    Taxonomy, biogeography and DNA barcodes of Geodia species (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) in the Atlantic boreo-arctic region2013In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 169, no 2, p. 251-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geodia species north of 60 degrees N in the Atlantic appeared in the literature for the first time when Bowerbank described Geodia barretti and G.macandrewii in 1858 from western Norway. Since then, a number of species have been based on material from various parts of the region: G.simplex, Isops phlegraei, I.pallida, I.sphaeroides, Synops pyriformis, G.parva, G.normani, G.atlantica, Sidonops mesotriaena (now called G.hentscheli), and G.simplicissima. In addition to these 12 nominal species, four species described from elsewhere are claimed to have been identified in material from the northeast Atlantic, namely G.nodastrella and G.cydonium (and its synonyms Cydonium muelleri and Geodia gigas). In this paper, we revise the boreo-arctic Geodia species using morphological, molecular, and biogeographical data. We notably compare northwest and northeast Atlantic specimens. Biological data (reproduction, biochemistry, microbiology, epibionts) for each species are also reviewed. Our results show that there are six valid species of boreo-arctic Atlantic Geodia while other names are synonyms or mis-identifications. Geodia barretti, G.atlantica, G.macandrewii, and G.hentscheli are well established and widely distributed. The same goes for Geodia phlegraei, but this species shows a striking geographical and bathymetric variation, which led us to recognize two species, G.phlegraei and G.parva (here resurrected). Some Geodia are arctic species (G.hentscheli, G.parva), while others are typically boreal (G.atlantica, G.barretti, G.phlegraei, G.macandrewii). No morphological differences were found between specimens from the northeast and northwest Atlantic, except for G.parva. The Folmer cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) fragment is unique for every species and invariable over their whole distribution range, except for G.barretti which had two haplotypes. 18S is unique for four species but cannot discriminate G.phlegraei and G.parva. Two keys to the boreo-arctic Geodia are included, one based on external morphology, the other based on spicule morphology.

  • 5.
    Carella, Mirco
    et al.
    CSIC, CEAB, Acces Cala St Francesc 14, Blanes 17300, Girona, Spain..
    Agell, Gemma
    CSIC, CEAB, Acces Cala St Francesc 14, Blanes 17300, Girona, Spain..
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy. Museum Natl Hist Nat, Dept Milieux & Peuplements Aquat, UMR BOrEA 7208, Paris, France..
    Uriz, Maria J.
    CSIC, CEAB, Acces Cala St Francesc 14, Blanes 17300, Girona, Spain..
    Phylogenetic Reassessment of Antarctic Tetillidae (Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) Reveals New Genera and Genetic Similarity among Morphologically Distinct Species2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 8, article id e0160718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species of Tetillidae are distributed worldwide. However, some genera are unresolved and only a few genera and species of this family have been described from the Antarctic. The incorporation of 25 new COI and 18S sequences of Antarctic Tetillidae to those used recently for assessing the genera phylogeny, has allowed us to improve the resolution of some poorly resolved nodes and to confirm the monophyly of previously identified clades. Classical genera such as Craniella recovered their traditional diagnosis by moving the Antarctic Tetilla from Craniella, where they were placed in the previous family phylogeny, to Antarctotetilla gen. nov. The morphological re-examination of specimens used in the previous phylogeny and their comparison to the type material revealed misidentifications. The proposed monotypic new genus Levantinella had uncertain phylogenetic relationships depending on the gene partition used. Two more clades would require the inclusion of additional species to be formally established as new genera. The parsimony tree based on morphological characters and the secondary structure of the 18S (V4 region) almost completely matched the COI M1-M6 and the COI+18S concatenated phylogenies. Morphological synapomorphies have been identified for the genera proposed. New 15 28S (D3-D5) and 11 COI I3-M11 partitions were exclusively sequenced for the Antarctic species subset. Remarkably, species within the Antarctic genera Cinachyra (C. barbata and C. antarctica) and Antarctotetilla (A. leptoderma, A. grandis, and A. sagitta), which are clearly distinguishable morphologically, were not genetically differentiated with any of the markers assayed. Thus, as it has been reported for other Antarctic sponges, both the mitochondrial and nuclear partitions used did not differentiate species that were well characterized morphologically. Antarctic Tetillidae offers a rare example of genetically cryptic (with the traditional markers used for sponges), morphologically distinct species.

  • 6.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Who Produces Ianthelline? The Arctic Sponge Stryphnus fortis or its Sponge Epibiont Hexadella dedritifera: a Probable Case of Sponge-Sponge Contamination2016In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 339-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline was isolated recently from the Atlantic boreo-arctic deep-sea sponge Stryphnus fortis, and shown to have clear antitumor and antifouling effects. However, chemosystematics, field observations, and targeted metabolic analyses (using UPLC-MS) suggest that ianthelline is not produced by S. fortis but by Hexadella dedritifera, a sponge that commonly grows on S. fortis. This case highlights the importance of combining taxonomic and ecological knowledge to the field of sponge natural products research.

  • 7.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Moore, Jon A.
    Wilkes Honors College, Florida Atlantic University.
    First records of Geodia demosponges from the New England seamounts, an opportunity to test the use of DNA mini-barcodes on museum specimens2019In: Marine Biodiversity, ISSN 1867-1616, E-ISSN 1867-1624, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first records of the sponge genus Geodia (Demospongiae, Tetractinellida, Geodiidae) from the New England Seamounts and Muir Seamount, at lower bathyal depths. Nine specimens collected between 2000 and 2005 belong to two boreal species (Geodia macandrewii and Geodia barretti) and a temperate species (Geodia megastrella). These records extend the distributions of these deep-sea amphi-Atlantic species to the west. Most of these specimens were originally fixed in formalin, which substantially degraded the DNA. We nonetheless managed to sequence two cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mini-barcodes: the universal mini-barcode at the 5′ end of the Folmer barcode (130 bp) and a newly proposed mini-barcode at the 3′ end of the Folmer barcode (296 bp). These mini-barcodes unambiguously confirmed our identifications. As an additional test, we also successfully sequenced these two mini-barcodes from the holotype of G. barretti, collected in 1855. We conclude by advocating the use of mini-barcodes on formalin-fixed or old specimens with degraded DNA.

  • 8.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    et al.
    Département Milieux et Peuplements Aquatiques, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.
    Pérez, Thierry
    Université d’Aix-Marseille, Station Marine d’Endoume, Marseille, France.
    Boury-Esnault, Nicole
    Universite´ d’Aix-Marseille, Station Marine d’Endoume, Marseille, France.
    Sponge Systematics Facing New Challenges2012In: Advances in Marine Biology, ISSN 0065-2881, E-ISSN 2162-5875, Vol. 61, p. 79-209Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of newconcepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years,the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of thestate of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics werein greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain,September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature andphylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework,with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (Phylo-Code vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited.We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude,we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species (potential new species revealed by molecular studies) is raised, and we show how they could be dealt with. Finally, we present a general strategy to help us succeed in building a Porifera tree along with the corresponding revised Porifera classification.

  • 9.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    et al.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Biol, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.; Museum Natl Hist Nat, Dept Milieux & Peuplements Aquat, UMR BOREA 7208, F-75005 Paris, France.
    Rapp, Hans Tore
    Univ Bergen, Dept Biol, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.; Univ Bergen, Ctr Geobiol, N-5007 Bergen, Norway.; Uni Environm, N-5006 Bergen, Norway.;.
    A review of Norwegian streptaster-bearing Astrophorida (Porifera: Demospongiae: Tetractinellida), new records and a new species2012In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, no 3253, p. 1-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report and describe new material of streptaster-bearing Astrophorida sponges collected in Norway: Characella pachastrelloides, Pachastrella nodulosa sp. nov., Poecillastra compressa, Vulcanella cf. aberrans, Thenea abyssorum,Thenea levis, Thenea muricata and Thenea valdiviae. Because many of these species were described in the end of the 19th century their original descriptions are often incomplete. The Norwegian specimens are the basis for a revision of the morphology, taxonomy and distribution of these species. These are the first records of C. pachastrelloides and V. cf. aberrans from the Norwegian coast. Pachastrella nodulosa sp. nov. differs from Pachastrella monilifera by (i) its knobby surface and (ii) the absence of large oxeas, (iii) its amphiasters have on average less actines and are less spiny, finally (iv) microxeas are rare and with a distinct morphology (although there is some doubt concerning their origin). In the present study, Characella tuberosa (from South Africa), Pachastrella abyssi (from the North-West Atlantic) and Thenea schmidti (from the North-East Atlantic) are resurrected. To help their future identifications, all the Norwegian species described were associated with DNA barcodes: a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene partial fragment and/or a 28S ribosomal gene partial fragment (C1–D2 domains). Furthermore, a key to the streptaster-bearing Astrophorida of the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea is also given (lithistids not included).

  • 10.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Bergen, Dept Biol, N-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Rapp, Hans Tore
    Univ Bergen, Dept Biol, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Ctr Geobiol, N-5007 Bergen, Norway.;Uni Environm, Uni Res, N-5006 Bergen, Norway..
    Demosponges from the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge shed more light on the diversity and biogeography of North Atlantic deep-sea sponges2015In: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, ISSN 0025-3154, E-ISSN 1469-7769, Vol. 95, no 7, p. 1475-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In July-August 2004, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Ecosystems (MAR-Eco) expedition collected Demospongiae (Porifera) from the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) north of the Azores, between 41 degrees N and 61 degrees N. Demosponges were found at 10 stations, at depths ranging from 753 to 3046 m. Twenty-two species were identified: 17 Tetractinellida, one Polymastiida, one Suberitida, two Poecilosclerida and one Dendroceratida. The study of this material is an opportunity to revise the taxonomy and the North Atlantic distribution of each of these deep-sea species. Some species are particularly rare and poorly known (Tetilla longipilis, Tetilla sandalina, Craniella azorica, Polymastia corticata) and two are new to science: Forcepia (Forcepia) toxafera sp. nov. and Iotroata paravaridens sp. nov. This study suggests that the MAR is not a longitudinal barrier for the dispersal of deep-sea demosponges while on the contrary, the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) may be a latitudinal border for the dispersal of deep-sea demosponges, due to great depths and currents.

  • 11.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Thollesson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    A new Hymedesmia (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) with large sigmas off western Sweden2016In: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, ISSN 0025-3154, E-ISSN 1469-7769, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 1305-1312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) lindstroemae sp. nov. collected at 178–210 m depth off the western Swedish coast is described. This encrusting sponge is notably characterized by its unusually large sigmas. This new species brings the number of Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) species in Swedish waters to 30. A key for all the North Atlantic Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) species with sigmas (32 species) is included.

  • 12.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentale, CNRS, Aix Marseille Univ., IRD, Avignon Univ., Station Marine d’Endoume, Marseille, France.
    Vacelet, Jean
    Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentale, CNRS, Aix Marseille Univ., IRD, Avignon Univ., Station Marine d’Endoume, Marseille, France. .
    Chevaldonné, Pierre
    Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentale, CNRS, Aix Marseille Univ., IRD, Avignon Univ., Station Marine d’Endoume, Marseille, France. .
    Pérez, Thierry
    Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentale, CNRS, Aix Marseille Univ., IRD, Avignon Univ., Station Marine d’Endoume, Marseille, France. .
    Xavier, Joana R.
    Department of Biological Sciences and K.G. Jebsen Centre for Deep-Sea Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    From marine caves to the deep sea, a new look at Caminella (Demospongiae, Geodiidae) in the Atlanto-Mediterranean region2018In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 4466, no 1, p. 174-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Caminella Lendenfeld, 1894 is a poorly known Geodiidae genus with unclear phylogenetic relationships. In order to find new lines of evidence that could shed light on the evolutionary history of Caminella, we decided to revise type material and museum material, as well as examine new material from underwater caves and deep-sea ecosystems. In doing so, we formally show that Isops maculosus Vosmaer, 1894 and Caminella loricata Lendenfeld, 1894 are junior synonyms of Caminella intuta (Topsent, 1892). We discuss different spicule morphological phenotypes in C. intuta, which may be linked to silica availability. We also discovered two new species of deep-sea Caminella: 1) from Cape Verde (Caminella caboverdensis sp. nov.) and 2) from seamounts located south of the Azores archipelago and the North of Spain (Caminella pustula sp. nov.). We reveal that Caminella sterrasters have complex surface microstructures, unique amongst the Geodiidae, where actin tips are linked to each other. Molecular markers (COI, 28S (C1-D2) and 18S) sequenced for some specimens led to new phylogenetic analyses, which continue to suggest a close relationship of Caminella with the Erylinae and Calthropella; these affinities are discussed in light of morphological characters.

  • 13. Hamidi, H. M.
    et al.
    Cardenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Thacker, R. W.
    Diversification and Correlated Trait Evolution in Astrophorid Sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae)2015In: Integrative and Comparative Biology, ISSN 1540-7063, E-ISSN 1557-7023, Vol. 55, no S1, p. E269-E269Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14. Hill, M. S.
    et al.
    Hill, A. L.
    Lopez, J.
    Peterson, K. J.
    Pomponi, S.
    Diaz, M. C.
    Thacker, R. W.
    Adamska, M.
    Boury-Esnault, N.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Chaves-Fonnegra, A.
    Danka, E.
    De Laine, B. -O
    Formica, D.
    Hajdu, E.
    Lobo-Hajdu, G.
    Klontz, S.
    Morrow, C. C.
    Patel, J.
    Picton, B.
    Pisani, D.
    Pohlmann, D.
    Redmond, N. E.
    Reed, J.
    Richey, S.
    Riesgo, A.
    Rubin, E.
    Russell, Z.
    Rützler, K.
    Sperling, E. A.
    di Stefano, M.
    Tarver, J. E.
    Collins, A. G.
    Reconstruction of Family-Level Phylogenetic Relationships within Demospongiae (Porifera) Using Nuclear Encoded Housekeeping Genes2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 1, p. e50437-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Demosponges are challenging for phylogenetic systematics because of their plastic and relatively simple morphologies and many deep divergences between major clades. To improve understanding of the phylogenetic relationships within Demospongiae, we sequenced and analyzed seven nuclear housekeeping genes involved in a variety of cellular functions from a diverse group of sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings: We generated data from each of the four sponge classes (i.e., Calcarea, Demospongiae, Hexactinellida, and Homoscleromorpha), but focused on family-level relationships within demosponges. With data for 21 newly sampled families, our Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian-based approaches recovered previously phylogenetically defined taxa: Keratosap, Myxospongiaep, Spongillidap, Haploscleromorphap (the marine haplosclerids) and Democlaviap. We found conflicting results concerning the relationships of Keratosap and Myxospongiaep to the remaining demosponges, but our results strongly supported a clade of Haploscleromorphap+Spongillidap+Democlaviap. In contrast to hypotheses based on mitochondrial genome and ribosomal data, nuclear housekeeping gene data suggested that freshwater sponges (Spongillidap) are sister to Haploscleromorphap rather than part of Democlaviap. Within Keratosap, we found equivocal results as to the monophyly of Dictyoceratida. Within Myxospongiaep, Chondrosida and Verongida were monophyletic. A well-supported clade within Democlaviap, Tetractinellidap, composed of all sampled members of Astrophorina and Spirophorina (including the only lithistid in our analysis), was consistently revealed as the sister group to all other members of Democlaviap. Within Tetractinellidap, we did not recover monophyletic Astrophorina or Spirophorina. Our results also reaffirmed the monophyly of order Poecilosclerida (excluding Desmacellidae and Raspailiidae), and polyphyly of Hadromerida and Halichondrida. Conclusions/Significance: These results, using an independent nuclear gene set, confirmed many hypotheses based on ribosomal and/or mitochondrial genes, and they also identified clades with low statistical support or clades that conflicted with traditional morphological classification. Our results will serve as a basis for future exploration of these outstanding questions using more taxon- and gene-rich datasets.

  • 15.
    Kelly, Michelle
    et al.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Coasts & Oceans Natl Ctr, Private Bag 99940, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Cardenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    An unprecedented new genus and family of Tetractinellida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from New Zealand's Colville Ridge, with a new type of mitochondrial group I intron2016In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 177, no 2, p. 335-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A remarkable sponge with unprecedented megascleres and systematic affinities was collected recently from a previously unidentified volcano on Colville Ridge to the north-east of New Zealand. The sponge has the appearance of a tetillid sponge (family Tetillidae Sollas, 1886) with a perfectly spherical external form, radiating internal skeleton of huge oxeas and triaenes, and microspined sigmaspires as microscleres. The triaene megascleres, however, are unprecedented in their form and ornamentation; they are huge clubbed orthotriaenes the upper third of which is acanthose. Stupenda singularis gen. et sp. nov. is described here and the phylogenetic affinity and taxonomic position of this unique sponge is explored in relation to a broad range of tetractinellid sponges (order Tetractinellida Marshall, 1876) using the Folmer + Erpenbeck fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and a nearly complete sequence of the 18S rDNA gene. Mitochondrial introns are rare in sponges but S. singularis gen. et sp. nov. possesses a mitochondrial group I intron at position 387 in COI; it hosts a putative LAGLIDADG endonuclease gene. This intron is the first of its kind in sponges: the self-splicing intron is homologous to a placozoan COI intron whereas the LAGLIDADG endonuclease gene may be related to Fungi LAGLIDADG endonuclease genes.

  • 16.
    Kelly, Michelle
    et al.
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Coasts & Oceans Natl Ctr, POB 109-695, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Cardenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Rush, Nicola
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Coasts & Oceans Natl Ctr, POB 109-695, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Sim-Smith, Carina
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Coasts & Oceans Natl Ctr, POB 109-695, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Macpherson, Diana
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Coasts & Oceans Natl Ctr, Private Bag 14901, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Page, Mike
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Coasts & Oceans Natl Ctr, POB 893, Nelson, New Zealand.
    Bell, Lori J.
    Coral Reef Res Fdn, Box 1765, Koror 96940, Palau.
    Molecular study supports the position of the New Zealand endemic genus Lamellomorpha in the family Vulcanellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida), with the description of three new species2019In: European journal of taxonomy, ISSN 2118-9773, Vol. 506, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the possession of huge contort strongyles, and a lack of triaenes in an otherwise 'astrophorine' spicule complement, the phylogenetic position of the endemic, monospecific New Zealand sponge genus, Lamellomorpha Bergquist, 1968, has remained enigmatic. The genus was established within Jaspidae de Laubenfels, 1968 (in the abandoned order Epipolasida Sollas, 1888), but it was not until 2002 that the genus was transferred formally to Astrophorina Sollas, 1887, albeit incertae sedis, by Hooper & Maldonado (2002). In this study, we recognise specimens of Lamellomorpha from the Subantarctic New Zealand region and Chatham Rise, considered by Bergquist to be conspecific with the type species, L. strongylata Bergquist, 1968, first described from the Three Kings-Spirits Bay region of Northland, as the new species, L. australis Kelly & Cardenas sp. nov. These two species of Lamellomorpha have differences in external morphology and colour, skeletal architecture and spicules, natural products, geographical distribution, and depth ranges. Sequencing of the COI Folmer barcode/mini-barcode and of 28S (C1-C2 domains) of these two species suggests phylogenetic affinities of Lamellomorpha with the tetractinellid suborder Astrophorina and the family Vulcanellidae Cardenas et al., 2011. Two Subantarctic New Zealand species of the vulcanellid genus Poecillastra Sollas, 1888, P. ducitriaena Kelly & Cardenas sp. nov. and P. macquariensis Kelly & Cardenas sp. nov., provide further support for the close relationship of Lamellomorpha and Poecillastra.

  • 17.
    Luis Carballo, Jose
    et al.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Ciencias Mar & Limnol, Unidad Acad Mazatlan, Ave Joel Montes Camarena S-N,POB 811, Mazatlan 82000, Sin, Mexico.
    Bautista-Guerrero, Eric
    Univ Guadalajara, Ctr Invest Costeras, Ctr Univ Costa, Lab Ecol Marina, Ave Univ 2013 Del, Puerto Vallarta 48280, Jalisco, Mexico.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Antonio Cruz-Barraza, Jose
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Ciencias Mar & Limnol, Unidad Acad Mazatlan, Ave Joel Montes Camarena S-N,POB 811, Mazatlan 82000, Sin, Mexico.
    Maria Aguilar-Camacho, Jose
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Nat, Sci, Zool,Ryan Inst, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland.
    Molecular and morphological data from Thoosidae in favour of the creation of a new suborder of Tetractinellida2018In: Systematics and Biodiversity, ISSN 1477-2000, E-ISSN 1478-0933, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 512-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Thoosidae (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinellida) currently includes the genera Thoosa, Alectona, and Delectona. To this date, molecular data are only available for Alectona. In this study, the phylogenetic affinities of the genera Thoosa and Alectona have been investigated with the species T. mismalolli, T. calpulli, and T. purpurea from the Mexican Pacific using morphology and three molecular loci: the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 mtDNA), 28S rRNA (fragment D2), and 18S rRNA. Morphology and embryology showed that these genera are quite different from the rest of the tetractinellids because larvae of Alectona and Thoosa have unique features in sponges, such as the presence of monaxonic discs in Thoosa and tetraxonic discs in Alectona which disappear in the adult stages. A phylogenetic analysis using selected species from the order Tetractinellida revealed that Thoosa groups with Alectona thus confirming morphological studies. The peculiarities in spiculation and embryology of the Thoosa and Alectona larvae, which are markedly different from species belonging to the suborders Astrophorina and Spirophorina and their distant phylogenetic position (based on three molecular loci), suggest that Thoosidae could be placed in the new suborder Thoosina.

  • 18. Morrow, Christine
    et al.
    Cardenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera)2015In: Frontiers in Zoology, ISSN 1742-9994, E-ISSN 1742-9994, Vol. 12, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Demospongiae is the largest sponge class including 81% of all living sponges with nearly 7,000 species worldwide. Systema Porifera (2002) was the result of a large international collaboration to update the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on morphological data. Since then, an increasing number of molecular phylogenetic studies have considerably shaken this taxonomic framework, with numerous polyphyletic groups revealed or confirmed and new clades discovered. And yet, despite a few taxonomical changes, the overall framework of the Systema Porifera classification still stands and is used as it is by the scientific community. This has led to a widening phylogeny/classification gap which creates biases and inconsistencies for the many end-users of this classification and ultimately impedes our understanding of today's marine ecosystems and evolutionary processes. In an attempt to bridge this phylogeny/classification gap, we propose to officially revise the higher taxa Demospongiae classification. Discussion: We propose a revision of the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on molecular data of the last ten years. We recommend the use of three subclasses: Verongimorpha, Keratosa and Heteroscleromorpha. We retain seven (Agelasida, Chondrosiida, Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, Haplosclerida, Poecilosclerida, Verongiida) of the 13 orders from Systema Porifera. We recommend the abandonment of five order names (Hadromerida, Halichondrida, Halisarcida, lithistids, Verticillitida) and resurrect or upgrade six order names (Axinellida, Merliida, Spongillida, Sphaerocladina, Suberitida, Tetractinellida). Finally, we create seven new orders (Bubarida, Desmacellida, Polymastiida, Scopalinida, Clionaida, Tethyida, Trachycladida). These added to the recently created orders (Biemnida and Chondrillida) make a total of 22 orders in the revised classification. We propose the abandonment of the haplosclerid and poecilosclerid suborders. The family content of each order is also revised. Summary: The deletion of polyphyletic taxa, the use of resurrected or new names for new clades and the proposal of new family groupings will improve the comparability of studies in a wide range of scientific fields using sponges as their object of study. It is envisaged that this will lead to new and more meaningful evolutionary hypotheses for the end-users of the Demospongiae classification.

  • 19.
    Morrow, Christine
    et al.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Nat Sci, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland;Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Ryan Inst, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland;Queens Univ, Marine Lab, 12-13 Strand, Portaferry, North Ireland;Natl Museums Northern Ireland, 153 Bangor Rd, Holywood BT18 0EU, North Ireland.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Boury-Esnault, Nicole
    Univ Avignon, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IMBE,IRD,Stn Marine Endoume, F-13007 Marseille, France.
    Picton, Bernard
    Natl Museums Northern Ireland, 153 Bangor Rd, Holywood BT18 0EU, North Ireland.
    Mccormack, Grace
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Nat Sci, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland;Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Ryan Inst, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland.
    Van Soest, Rob
    Netherlands Ctr Biodivers Naturalis, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Collins, Allen
    Smithsonian Inst, Natl Museum Nat Hist, Natl Systemat Lab, MRC 153,POB 37012, Washington, DC 20013 USA.
    Redmond, Niamh
    Smithsonian Inst, Natl Museum Nat Hist, DNA Barcode Network, MRC 183,POB 37012, Washington, DC 20013 USA.
    Maggs, Christine
    Joint Nat Conservat Comm, Monkstone House,City Rd, Peterborough PE1 1JY, Cambs, England.
    Sigwart, Julia
    Queens Univ, Marine Lab, 12-13 Strand, Portaferry, North Ireland.
    Allcock, Louise A.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Nat Sci, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland;Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Ryan Inst, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland.
    Integrating morphological and molecular taxonomy with the revised concept of Stelligeridae (Porifera: Demospongiae)2019In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 187, no 1, p. 31-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reinforces and extends the findings of previous molecular studies showing that there is a dose relationship between species assigned to the sponge genera Halicnemia, Higginsia, Paratimea and Stelligera and that the family Heteroxyidae is polyphyletic. The present study has led to the description of one new species of Halicnemia and six new species of Paratimea, the resurrection of Halicnemia gallica and a better understanding of the characters uniting Stelligeridae. A new species of Heteroxya is also described. We demonstrate that many of the taxa assigned to Heteroxyidae are more closely related to other families, and we propose several changes to the classification of Heteroscleromorpha. Desmoxyidae is resurrected from synonymy and transferred to Poecilosclerida; Higginsia anfractuosa is transferred to Hymedesmiidae, and a new genus, Hooperia, is erected for its reception; Higginsia durissima is returned to Bubaris (Bubaridae); Higginsia fragilis is transferred to Spanioplon (Hymedesmiidae); Hemiasterella camelus is transferred to Paratimea; and Raspailia (Parasyringella) australiensis and Ceratopsion axiferum are transferred to Adreus (Hemiasterellidae).

  • 20.
    Pubill-Ulldemolins, Cristina
    et al.
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ Sussex, Sch Life Sci, Dept Chem, Brighton BN1 9QJ, E Sussex, England.
    Sharma, Sunil V.
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Cartmell, Christopher
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Zhao, Jinlian
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Goss, Rebecca J. M.
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Heck Diversification of Indole-Based Substrates under Aqueous Conditions: From Indoles to Unprotected Halo-tryptophans and Halo-tryptophans in Natural Product Derivatives2019In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 25, no 46, p. 10866-10875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The blending of synthetic chemistry with biosynthetic processes provides a powerful approach to synthesis. Biosynthetic halogenation and synthetic cross-coupling have great potential to be used together, for small molecule generation, access to natural product analogues and as a tool for chemical biology. However, to enable enhanced generality of this approach, further synthetic tools are needed. Though considerable research has been invested in the diversification of phenylalanine and tyrosine, functionalisation of tryptophans thorough cross-coupling has been largely neglected. Tryptophan is a key residue in many biologically active natural products and peptides; in proteins it is key to fluorescence and dominates protein folding. To this end, we have explored the Heck cross-coupling of halo-indoles and halo-tryptophans in water, showing broad reaction scope. We have demonstrated the ability to use this methodology in the functionalisation of a brominated antibiotic (bromo-pacidamycin), as well as a marine sponge metabolite, barettin.

  • 21. Redmond, N. E.
    et al.
    Morrow, C. C.
    Thacker, R. W.
    Diaz, M. C.
    Boury-Esnault, N.
    Cardenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Hajdu, E.
    Lobo-Hajdu, G.
    Picton, B. E.
    Pomponi, S. A.
    Kayal, E.
    Collins, A. G.
    Phylogeny and Systematics of Demospongiae in Light of New Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA (18S) Sequences2013In: Integrative and Comparative Biology, ISSN 1540-7063, E-ISSN 1557-7023, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 388-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most diverse and species-rich class of the phylum Porifera is Demospongiae. In recent years, the systematics of this clade, which contains more than 7000 species, has developed rapidly in light of new studies combining molecular and morphological observations. We add more than 500 new, nearly complete 18S sequences (an increase of more than 200%) in an attempt to further enhance understanding of the phylogeny of Demospongiae. Our study specifically targets representation of type species and genera that have never been sampled for any molecular data in an effort to accelerate progress in classifying this diverse lineage. Our analyses recover four highly supported subclasses of Demospongiae: Keratosa, Myxospongiae, Haploscleromorpha, and Heteroscleromorpha. Within Keratosa, neither Dendroceratida, nor its two families, Darwinellidae and Dictyodendrillidae, are monophyletic and Dictyoceratida is divided into two lineages, one predominantly composed of Dysideidae and the second containing the remaining families (Irciniidae, Spongiidae, Thorectidae, and Verticillitidae). Within Myxospongiae, we find Chondrosida to be paraphyletic with respect to the Verongida. We amend the latter to include species of the genus Chondrosia and erect a new order Chondrillida to contain remaining taxa from Chondrosida, which we now discard. Even with increased taxon sampling of Haploscleromorpha, our analyses are consistent with previous studies; however, Haliclona species are interspersed in even more clades. Haploscleromorpha contains five highly supported clades, each more diverse than previously recognized, and current families are mostly polyphyletic. In addition, we reassign Janulum spinispiculum to Haploscleromorpha and resurrect Reniera filholi as Janulum filholi comb. nov. Within the large clade Heteroscleromorpha, we confirmed 12 recently identified clades based on alternative data, as well as a sister-group relationship between the freshwater Spongillida and the family Vetulinidae. We transfer Stylissa flabelliformis to the genus Scopalina within the family Scopalinidae, which is of uncertain position. Our analyses uncover a large, strongly supported clade containing all heteroscleromorphs other than Spongillida, Vetulinidae, and Scopalinidae. Within this clade, there is a major division separating Axinellidae, Biemnida, Tetractinellida, Bubaridae, Stelligeridae, Raspailiidae, and some species of Petromica, Topsentia, and Axinyssa from Agelasida, Polymastiidae, Placospongiidae, Clionaidae, Spirastrellidae, Tethyidae, Poecilosclerida, Halichondriidae, Suberitidae, and Trachycladus. Among numerous results: (1) Spirophorina and its family Tetillidae are paraphyletic with respect to a strongly supported Astrophorina within Tetractinellida; (2) Agelasida is the earliest diverging lineage within the second clade listed above; and (3) Merlia and Desmacella appear to be the earliest diverging lineages of Poecilosclerida.

  • 22. Redmond, N. E.
    et al.
    Morrow, C. C.
    Thacker, R. W.
    Diaz, M. C.
    Boury-Esnualt, N.
    Cardenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Hajdu, E.
    Lobo-Hajdu, G.
    Picton, B. E.
    Collins, A. G.
    New 18S rDNA Sequence Data Suggest Exciting New Hypotheses for Internal Relationships of Demospongiae (Phylum Porifera)2013In: Integrative and Comparative Biology, ISSN 1540-7063, E-ISSN 1557-7023, Vol. 53, no S1, p. E176-E176Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Renault, Yohann J. G.
    et al.
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Lynch, Rosemary
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Marelli, Enrico
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Sharma, Sunil, V
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Pubill-Ulldemolins, Cristina
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ Sussex, Dept Chem, Sch Life Sci, Brighton BN1 9QJ, E Sussex, England.
    Sharp, Joshua A.
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Cartmell, Christopher
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Goss, Rebecca J. M.
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Chem, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland;Univ St Andrews, BSRC, St Andrews KY16 9ST, Fife, Scotland.
    Buchwald Hartwig diversification of unprotected halotryptophans, halotryptophan containing tripeptides and the natural product barettin in aqueous conditions2019In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 55, no 91, p. 13653-13656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blending synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry represents a powerful approach to diversity complex molecules. To further enable this, compatible synthetic tools are needed. We report the first Buchwald Hartwig amination reactions with unprotected halo-tryptophans under aqueous conditions and demonstrate this methodology is applicable also to the modification of unprotected tripeptides and the natural product barettin.

  • 24.
    Rubin-Blum, Maxim
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Celsiusstr 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany;Israel Limnol & Oceanog Res, Tel Shikmona, IL-3108000 Haifa, Israel.
    Antony, Chakkiath Paul
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Celsiusstr 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Sayavedra, Lizbeth
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Celsiusstr 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany;Quadram Inst Biosci, Norwich Res Pk, Norwich, Norfolk, England.
    Martinez-Perez, Clara
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Celsiusstr 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Birgel, Daniel
    Univ Hamburg, Ctr Earth Syst Res & Sustainabil, Inst Geol, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.
    Peckmann, Jörn
    Univ Hamburg, Ctr Earth Syst Res & Sustainabil, Inst Geol, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.
    Wu, Yu-Chen
    Univ Kiel, RD3 Marine Microbiol & Christian Albrechts, GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res, Dustembrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    MacDonald, Ian
    Florida State Univ, POB 3064326, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA.
    Marcon, Yann
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Wegener Inst, HGF MPG Grp Deep Sea Ecol & Technol, Handelshafen 12, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Sahling, Heiko
    Univ Bremen, Ctr Marine Environm Sci, MARUM, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Hentschel, Ute
    Univ Kiel, RD3 Marine Microbiol & Christian Albrechts, GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res, Dustembrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany.
    Dubilier, Nicole
    Max Planck Inst Marine Microbiol, Celsiusstr 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany;Univ Bremen, Ctr Marine Environm Sci, MARUM, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Fueled by methane: deep-sea sponges from asphalt seeps gain their nutrition from methane-oxidizing symbionts2019In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 1209-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sponges host a remarkable diversity of microbial symbionts, however, the benefit their microbes provide is rarely understood. Here, we describe two new sponge species from deep-sea asphalt seeps and show that they live in a nutritional symbiosis with methane-oxidizing (MOX) bacteria. Metagenomics and imaging analyses revealed unusually high amounts of MOX symbionts in hosts from a group previously assumed to have low microbial abundances. These symbionts belonged to the Marine Methylotrophic Group 2 Glade. They are host-specific and likely vertically transmitted, based on their presence in sponge embryos and streamlined genomes, which lacked genes typical of related free-living MOX. Moreover, genes known to play a role in host-symbiont interactions, such as those that encode eukaryote-like proteins, were abundant and expressed. Methane assimilation by the symbionts was one of the most highly expressed metabolic pathways in the sponges. Molecular and stable carbon isotope patterns of lipids confirmed that methane-derived carbon was incorporated into the hosts. Our results revealed that two species of sponges, although distantly related, independently established highly specific, nutritional symbioses with two closely related methanotrophs. This convergence in symbiont acquisition underscores the strong selective advantage for these sponges in harboring MOX bacteria in the food-limited deep sea.

  • 25. Schuster, Astrid
    et al.
    Cardenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Pisera, Andrzej
    Pomponi, Shirley A.
    Kelly, Michelle
    Wörheide, Gert
    Erpenbeck, Dirk
    Seven new deep-water Tetractinellida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Galápagos Islands: morphological descriptions and DNA barcodes2018In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4082, E-ISSN 1096-3642, Vol. 184, no 2, p. 273-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Galapagos Islands, positioned in the confluence of warm and coldwater currents in the Eastern Pacific, is well known for the high degree of endemism of its marine invertebrate fauna. This fauna has been studied extensively in recent years: the echinoderms, corals and other benthic cnidarians, but little is known about the deep- and shallow-water sponge faunas. To date, only 70 sponge species have been described from the Galapagos Islands, 37 of which are endemic. Of these 70 species, only one shallow-water species of desma-bearing Tetractinellida (Demospongiae), Corallistes isabela, has been reported. In 1995, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Florida, led an expedition around the Galapagos archipelago, focussed on the collection of deep-water Porifera. Here, we describe seven new species and provide DNA barcodes for the tetractinellids from these collections. Phylogenetic relationships of these new species are discussed and compared with other material from the Caribbean, the Central and West Pacific Oceans. The new species represent five genera (Craniella, and desma-bearing Tetractinellida Neophrissospongia, Corallistes, Raeodiscula and Scleritoclerma). Phylogenetic reconstructions combining independent markers (mtDNA and rDNA) support the generic affiliation of these new species and confirm the separation of Eastern Pacific species from Caribbean and Central to West Pacific species.

  • 26.
    Schuster, Astrid
    et al.
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Earth & Environm Sci Palaeontol & Geobiol, Richard Wagner Str 10, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Lopez, Jose V.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Halmos Coll Nat Sci & Oceanog, Dania, FL 33004 USA..
    Becking, Leontine E.
    Wageningen Univ & Res Ctr, Marine Anim Ecol, POB, NL-3700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands.;Naturalis Biodivers Ctr, Marine Zool Dept, POB 95172300RA, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Kelly, Michelle
    Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Natl Ctr Aquat Biodivers & Biosecur, POB 109-695, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Pomponi, Shirley A.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Harbor Branch Oceanog Inst, 5600 S 1 North, Ft Pierce, FL 34946 USA..
    Woerheide, Gert
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Earth & Environm Sci Palaeontol & Geobiol, Richard Wagner Str 10, D-80333 Munich, Germany.;SNSB, Bavarian State Collect Palaeontol & Geol, Richard Wagner Str 10, D-80333 Munich, Germany.;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, GeoBio CenterLMU, Richard Wagner Str 10, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Erpenbeck, Dirk
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Dept Earth & Environm Sci Palaeontol & Geobiol, Richard Wagner Str 10, D-80333 Munich, Germany.;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, GeoBio CenterLMU, Richard Wagner Str 10, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy.
    Evolution of group I introns in Porifera: new evidence for intron mobility and implications for DNA barcoding2017In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mitochondrial introns intermit coding regions of genes and feature characteristic secondary structures and splicing mechanisms. In metazoans, mitochondrial introns have only been detected in sponges, cnidarians, placozoans and one annelid species. Within demosponges, group I and group II introns are present in six families. Based on different insertion sites within the cox1 gene and secondary structures, four types of group I and two types of group II introns are known, which can harbor up to three encoding homing endonuclease genes (HEG) of the LAGLIDADG family (group I) and/or reverse transcriptase (group II). However, only little is known about sponge intron mobility, transmission, and origin due to the lack of a comprehensive dataset. We analyzed the largest dataset on sponge mitochondrial group I introns to date: 95 specimens, from 11 different sponge genera which provided novel insights into the evolution of group I introns. Results: For the first time group I introns were detected in four genera of the sponge family Scleritodermidae (Scleritoderma, Microscleroderma, Aciculites, Setidium). We demonstrated that group I introns in sponges aggregate in the most conserved regions of cox1. We showed that co-occurrence of two introns in cox1 is unique among metazoans, but not uncommon in sponges. However, this combination always associates an active intron with a degenerating one. Earlier hypotheses of HGT were confirmed and for the first time VGT and secondary losses of introns conclusively demonstrated. Conclusion: This study validates the subclass Spirophorina (Tetractinellida) as an intron hotspot in sponges. Our analyses confirm that most sponge group I introns probably originated from fungi. DNA barcoding is discussed and the application of alternative primers suggested.

  • 27. Schöttner, Sandra
    et al.
    Hoffmann, Friederike
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Rapp, Hans Tore
    Boetius, Antje
    Ramette, Alban
    Relationships between Host Phylogeny, Host Type and Bacterial Community Diversity in Cold-Water Coral Reef Sponges2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 2, article id e55505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges areamong the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in theirtissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for therelationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus lowmicrobial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location andwater depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that asmany as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were sharedbetween sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes inbacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge species (63% of explained community variation), spongefamily (52%) or sponge type (30%), whereas mesoscale geographic distances and water depth showed comparatively smalleffects (,5% each). In addition, a highly significant, positive relationship between bacterial community dissimilarity andsponge phylogenetic distance was observed within the ancient family of the Geodiidae. Overall, the high diversity ofsponges in cold-water coral reefs, combined with the observed sponge-related variation in bacterial community structure,support the idea that sponges represent heterogeneous, yet structured microbial habitats that contribute significantly toenhancing bacterial diversity in deep-sea ecosystems.

  • 28.
    Sorokin, Shirley J.
    et al.
    South Australian Museum, Adelaide, SA, Australia;SARDI Aquat Sci, 2 Hamra Ave, West Beach, SA, Australia.
    Ekins, Merrick G.
    Queensland Museum, Southbank, Qld, Australia;Univ Queensland, Sch Biol Sci, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.
    Yang, Qi
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, State Key Lab Oncogene & Related Genes, Ctr Marine Drugs, Renji Hosp,Sch Med,Dept Pharm, Shanghai, Peoples R China;Flinders Univ S Australia, Coll Med & Publ Hlth, Ctr Marine Bioprod Dev, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. Avignon Univ, Aix Marseille Univ, Inst Mediterraneen Biodiversite & Ecol Marine & C, CNRS,IRD,Stn Marine Endoume, Chemin Batterie Lions, F-13007 Marseille, France.
    A new deep-water Tethya (Porifera, Tethyida, Tethyidae) from the Great Australian Bight and an updated Tethyida phylogeny2019In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF TAXONOMY, ISSN 2118-9773, Vol. 529, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new species of Tethya Lamarck, 1815 is described from a depth of 1000 m on the continental slope of the Great Australian Bight (GAB), southern Australia. The GAB slope was explored as part of systematic benthic surveys to understand unexplored communities in the light of current oil and gas exploration activity in the area. Tethya irisae sp. nov. was present at 1000 m in six of eight longitudinal depth surveys. Three molecular markers were obtained: COI, 28S (D3-D5) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. COI and 28S phylogenetic analyses show that the new species fits clearly within the genus Tethya. This is the 28th species of Tethya reported from Australia; it is unusual in that it has a stalk. The presence of a stalk as a morphological character to split genera in this family is questioned. The description of this new species is an opportunity to revisit the molecular phylogeny of the Tethyida Morrow & Cardenas, 2015 using comprehensive datasets of COI and 28S markers. As in previous analyses, four Tethya clades were retrieved; we discuss the possibility of using external colour to support some of these clades. Despite unclear phylogenetic relationships amongst Tethyidae Gray, 1848 from Australia, our results suggest that tethyid genera Tethytimea Laubenfels, 1936, Tectitethya Sara, 1994, Laxotethya Sara & Sara, 2002, Stellitethya Sara, 1994, and Xenospongia Gray, 1858 derive from species of Tethya. We show that asters have been secondarily lost at least twice in the Hemiasterellidae Lendenfeld, 1889: in Liosina Thiele, 1899 and a potential new genus from northern Australia. We formally propose the reallocation of Liosina from Dictyonellidae van Soest, Diaz & Pomponi, 1990 to Hemiasterellidae Lendenfeld, 1889.

  • 29.
    Strömstedt, Adam A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Vikeved, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Alsmark, Cecilia
    Uppsala University.
    Chen, Yung Hsuan
    National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium.
    Backlund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Aaptamines from Haliclona and bromopyrroles from Agelas — marine sponge alkaloids with distinct modes of action against bacteria and protozoaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Vacelet, Jean
    et al.
    IMBE, CNRS, Aix Marseille Univ, Univ Avignon, IRD, Station Marine d’Endoume, Marseille, France.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi. IMBE, CNRS, Aix Marseille Univ, Univ Avignon, IRD, Station Marine d’Endoume, Marseille, France.
    When is an aster not an aster? A new deep-sea Discorhabdella (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida) with asters, from the Mozambique Channel2018In: Zootaxa, ISSN 1175-5326, E-ISSN 1175-5334, Vol. 4466, no 1, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discorhabdella pseudaster n. sp. is an incrusting sponge from the upper bathyal zone of the 'Banc du Geyser', north of Madagascar, Mozambique Channel. This new species is described only from a single specimen but it is remarkable by the presence of spicules similar to euasters, a type of microsclere unknown in Poecilosclerida. These spicules are in fact a new example of homoplasy, being derivatives of the typical Discorhabdella pseudoastrose acanthostyles, which are here reduced to the aster-like tyles. The isochelae with a large lamella on the shaft are also quite unique in Poeciloclerida.

  • 31.
    Zumberge, J. Alex
    et al.
    Univ Calif Riverside, Dept Earth Sci, Riverside, CA 92521 USA.
    Love, Gordon D.
    Univ Calif Riverside, Dept Earth Sci, Riverside, CA 92521 USA.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Sperling, Erik A.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Geol Sci, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Gunasekera, Sunithi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Rohrssen, Megan
    Cent Michigan Univ, Dept Earth & Atmospher Sci, Mt Pleast, MI USA.
    Grosjean, Emmanuelle
    Geosci Australia, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Grotzinger, John P.
    CALTECH, Div Geol & Planetary Sci, Pasadena, CA USA.
    Summons, Roger E.
    MIT, Dept Earth Atmospher & Planetary Sci, Cambridge, MA USA.
    Demosponge steroid biomarker 26-methylstigmastane provides evidence for Neoproterozoic animals2018In: Nature Ecology & Evolution, E-ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 1709-1714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sterane biomarkers preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks hold promise for tracking the diversification and ecological expansion of eukaryotes. The earliest proposed animal biomarkers from demosponges (Demospongiae) are recorded in a sequence around 100 Myr long of Neoproterozoic-Cambrian marine sedimentary strata from the Huqf Supergroup, South Oman Salt Basin. This C-30 sterane biomarker, informally known as 24-isopropylcholestane (24-ipc), possesses the same carbon skeleton as sterols found in some modern-day demosponges. However, this evidence is controversial because 24-ipc is not exclusive to demosponges since 24-ipc sterols are found in trace amounts in some pelagophyte algae. Here, we report a new fossil sterane biomarker that co-occurs with 24-ipc in a suite of late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian sedimentary rocks and oils, which possesses a rare hydrocarbon skeleton that is uniquely found within extant demosponge taxa. This sterane is informally designated as 26-methylstigmastane (26-mes), reflecting the very unusual methylation at the terminus of the steroid side chain. It is the first animal-specific sterane marker detected in the geological record that can be unambiguously linked to precursor sterols only reported from extant demosponges. These new findings strongly suggest that demosponges, and hence multicellular animals, were prominent in some late Neoproterozoic marine environments at least extending back to the Cryogenian period.

1 - 31 of 31
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