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  • 1. Domenici, P.
    et al.
    Wilson, A. D. M.
    Kurvers, R. H. J. M.
    Marras, S.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Steffensen, J. F.
    Krause, S.
    Viblanc, P. E.
    Couillaud, P.
    Krause, J.
    How sailfish use their bills to capture schooling prey2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1784, p. 20140444-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The istiophorid family of billfishes is characterized by an extended rostrum or 'bill'. While various functions (e.g. foraging and hydrodynamic benefits) have been proposed for this structure, until now no study has directly investigated the mechanisms by which billfishes use their rostrum to feed on prey. Here, we present the first unequivocal evidence of how the bill is used by Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) to attack schooling sardines in the open ocean. Using high-speed video-analysis, we show that (i) sailfish manage to insert their bill into sardine schools without eliciting an evasive response and (ii) subsequently use their bill to either tap on individual prey targets or to slash through the school with powerful lateral motions characterized by one of the highest accelerations ever recorded in an aquatic vertebrate. Our results demonstrate that the combination of stealth and rapid motion make the sailfish bill an extremely effective feeding adaptation for capturing schooling prey.

  • 2.
    Herbert-Read, James
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Collective Behaviour: Leadership and Learning in Flocks2015In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 25, no 23, p. R1127-R1129Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new study has decoded which birds become leaders in homing pigeon flocks, finding an unexpected benefit of leadership: faster birds emerge as leaders, and these leaders learn more about their environment than their followers.

  • 3.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Understanding how animal groups achieve coordinated movement2016In: ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION F-STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY COMMUNICATIONS, ISSN 2053-230X, Vol. 72, p. 2971-2983Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving animal groups display remarkable feats of coordination. This coordination is largely achieved when individuals adjust their movement in response to their neighbours' movements and positions. Recent advancements in automated tracking technologies, including computer vision and GPS, now allow researchers to gather large amounts of data on the movements and positions of individuals in groups. Furthermore, analytical techniques from fields such as statistical physics now allow us to identify the precise interaction rules used by animals on the move. These interaction rules differ not only between species, but also between individuals in the same group. These differences have wide-ranging implications, affecting how groups make collective decisions and driving the evolution of collective motion. Here, I describe how trajectory data can be used to infer how animals interact in moving groups. I give examples of the similarities and differences in the spatial and directional organisations of animal groups between species, and discuss the rules that animals use to achieve this organisation. I then explore how groups of the same species can exhibit different structures, and ask whether this results from individuals adapting their interaction rules. I then examine how the interaction rules between individuals in the same groups can also differ, and discuss how this can affect ecological and evolutionary processes. Finally, I suggest areas of future research.

  • 4.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Buhl, Jerome
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Charles Perkins Ctr, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.;Univ Adelaide, Sch Agr, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hu, Feng
    Chongqing Normal Univ, Coll Phys & Elect Engn, Chongqing 400047, Peoples R China..
    Ward, Ashley J. W.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Initiation and spread of escape waves within animal groups2015In: ROYAL SOCIETY OPEN SCIENCE, ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 140355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exceptional reactivity of animal collectives to predatory attacks is thought to be owing to rapid, but local, transfer of information between group members. These groups turn together in unison and produce escape waves. However, it is not clear how escape waves are created from local interactions, nor is it understood how these patterns are shaped by natural selection. By startling schools of fish with a simulated attack in an experimental arena, we demonstrate that changes in the direction and speed by a small percentage of individuals that detect the danger initiate an escape wave. This escape wave consists of a densely packed band of individuals that causes other school members to change direction. In the majority of cases, this wave passes through the entire group. We use a simulation model to demonstrate that this mechanism can, through local interactions alone, produce arbitrarily large escape waves. In the model, when we set the group density to that seen in real fish schools, we find that the risk to the members at the edge of the group is roughly equal to the risk of those within the group. Our experiments and modelling results provide a plausible explanation for how escape waves propagate in nature without centralized control.

  • 5.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Krause, S.
    Morrell, L. J.
    Schaerf, T. M.
    Krause, J.
    Ward, A. J. W.
    The role of individuality in collective group movement2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, no 1752, p. 20122564-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How different levels of biological organization interact to shape each other's function is a central question in biology. One particularly important topic in this context is how individuals' variation in behaviour shapes group-level characteristics. We investigated how fish that express different locomotory behaviour in an asocial context move collectively when in groups. First, we established that individual fish have characteristic, repeatable locomotion behaviours (i.e. median speeds, variance in speeds and median turning speeds) when tested on their own. When tested in groups of two, four or eight fish, we found individuals partly maintained their asocial median speed and median turning speed preferences, while their variance in speed preference was lost. The strength of this individuality decreased as group size increased, with individuals conforming to the speed of the group, while also decreasing the variability in their own speed. Further, individuals adopted movement characteristics that were dependent on what group size they were in. This study therefore shows the influence of social context on individual behaviour. If the results found here can be generalized across species and contexts, then although individuality is not entirely lost in groups, social conformity and group-size-dependent effects drive how individuals will adjust their behaviour in groups.

  • 6.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Romanczuk, Pawel
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Muggelseedamm 310, Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, D-10115 Berlin, Germany.;Princeton Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Krause, Stefan
    Lubeck Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany..
    Strömbom, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Lafayette Coll, Dept Biol, Easton, PA 18042 USA..
    Couillaud, Pierre
    Univ Paris 06, Dept Licence Sci & Technol, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Domenici, Paolo
    CNR, IAMC, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Muggelseedamm 310, Berlin, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Ctr Adapt Rational, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Marras, Stefano
    CNR, IAMC, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Steffensen, John F.
    Univ Copenhagen, Marine Biol Sect, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Wilson, Alexander D. M.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Deakin Univ, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Waurn Ponds, Vic 3216, Australia..
    Krause, Jens
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Muggelseedamm 310, Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Proto-cooperation: group hunting sailfish improve hunting success by alternating attacks on grouping prey2016In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 283, no 1842, article id 20161671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present evidence of a novel form of group hunting. Individual sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) alternate attacks with other group members on their schooling prey (Sardinella aurita). While only 24% of attacks result in prey capture, multiple prey are injured in 95% of attacks, resulting in an increase of injured fish in the school with the number of attacks. How quickly prey are captured is positively correlated with the level of injury of the school, suggesting that hunters can benefit from other conspecifics' attacks on the prey. To explore this, we built a mathematical model capturing the dynamics of the hunt. We show that group hunting provides major efficiency gains (prey caught per unit time) for individuals in groups of up to 70 members. We also demonstrate that a free riding strategy, where some individuals wait until the prey are sufficiently injured before attacking, is only beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre-cursor to more complex group-hunting strategies.

  • 7.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Romenskyy, Maxym
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    A Turing test for collective motion2015In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 20150674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A widespread problem in biological research is assessing whether a model adequately describes some real-world data. But even if a model captures the large-scale statistical properties of the data, should we be satisfied with it? We developed a method, inspired by Alan Turing, to assess the effectiveness of model fitting. We first built a self-propelled particle model whose properties (order and cohesion) statistically matched those of real fish schools. We then asked members of the public to play an online game (a modified Turing test) in which they attempted to distinguish between the movements of real fish schools or those generated by the model. Even though the statistical properties of the real data and the model were consistent with each other, the public could still distinguish between the two, highlighting the need for model refinement. Our results demonstrate that we can use 'citizen science' to cross-validate and improve model fitting not only in the field of collective behaviour, but also across a broad range of biological systems.

  • 8.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Stockholm University, Department of Zoology.
    Rosén, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Szorkovszky, Alex
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Ioannou, Christos C.
    University of Bristol, School of Biological Science.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology.
    Perna, Andrea
    Roehampton University, Department of Life Sciences.
    Ramnarine, Indar W.
    The University of the West Indies, Department of Life Science.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology.
    Krause, Jens
    Humboldt-University zu Berlin, Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institut, Faculty of Life Science; Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes.
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    How predation shapes the social interaction rules of shoaling fish2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1861, article id 20171126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predation is thought to shape the macroscopic properties of animal groups, making moving groups more cohesive and coordinated. Precisely how predation has shaped individuals' fine-scale social interactions in natural populations, however, is unknown. Using high-resolution tracking data of shoaling fish (Poecilia reticulata) from populations differing in natural predation pressure, we show how predation adapts individuals' social interaction rules. Fish originating from high predation environments formed larger, more cohesive, but not more polarized groups than fish from low predation environments. Using a new approach to detect the discrete points in time when individuals decide to update their movements based on the available social cues, we determine how these collective properties emerge from individuals' microscopic social interactions. We first confirm predictions that predation shapes the attraction-repulsion dynamic of these fish, reducing the critical distance at which neighbours move apart, or come back together. While we find strong evidence that fish align with their near neighbours, we do not find that predation shapes the strength or likelihood of these alignment tendencies. We also find that predation sharpens individuals' acceleration and deceleration responses, implying key perceptual and energetic differences associated with how individuals move in different predation regimes. Our results reveal how predation can shape the social interactions of individuals in groups, ultimately driving differences in groups' collective behaviour.

  • 9.
    Krause, J.
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, Albrecht Daniel Thaer Inst, Invalidenstr 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Seebacher, F.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Domenici, P.
    CNR, IAMC CNR, Ist Ambiente Marino Costiero, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Wilson, A. D. M.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marras, S.
    CNR, IAMC CNR, Ist Ambiente Marino Costiero, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Svendsen, M. B. S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Marine Biol Sect, Strandpromenaden 5, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Strömbom, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Lafayette Coll, Dept Biol, Easton, PA 18042 USA..
    Steffensen, J. F.
    Univ Copenhagen, Marine Biol Sect, Strandpromenaden 5, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Krause, S.
    Lubeck Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany..
    Viblanc, P. E.
    Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, Albrecht Daniel Thaer Inst, Invalidenstr 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Couillaud, P.
    Univ Paris 06, Dept Licence Sci & Technol, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Bach, P.
    Inst Rech Dev, UMR MARBEC 248, 0b7,Ave Jean Monnet,CS 30171,, F-34203 Sete, France..
    Sabarros, P. S.
    Inst Rech Dev, UMR MARBEC 248, 0b7,Ave Jean Monnet,CS 30171,, F-34203 Sete, France..
    Zaslansky, P.
    Charite, Julius Wolff Inst Biomechan & Musculoskeletal Reg, Philippstr 13,Haus 11, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Kurvers, R. H. J. M.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Muggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Ctr Adapt Rat, Lentzeallee 94, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Injury-mediated decrease in locomotor performance increases predation risk in schooling fish2017In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 372, no 1727, article id 20160232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The costs and benefits of group living often depend on the spatial position of individuals within groups and the ability of individuals to occupy preferred positions. For example, models of predation events for moving prey groups predict higher mortality risk for individuals at the periphery and front of groups. We investigated these predictions in sardine (Sardinella aurita) schools under attack from group hunting sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) in the open ocean. Sailfish approached sardine schools about equally often from the front and rear, but prior to attack there was a chasing period in which sardines attempted to swim away from the predator. Consequently, all sailfish attacks were directed at the rear and peripheral positions of the school, resulting in higher predation risk for individuals at these positions. During attacks, sailfish slash at sardines with their bill causing prey injury including scale removal and tissue damage. Sardines injured in previous attacks were more often found in the rear half of the school than in the front half. Moreover, injured fish had lower tail-beat frequencies and lagged behind uninjured fish. Injuries inflicted by sailfish bills may, therefore, hinder prey swimming speed and drive spatial sorting in prey schools through passive self-assortment. We found only partial support for the theoretical predictions from current predator-prey models, highlighting the importance of incorporating more realistic predator-prey dynamics into these models. This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'.

  • 10.
    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Ctr Adapt Rat, Lentzeallee 94, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.;Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Mueggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Lubeck Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany..
    Krause, Stefan
    Lubeck Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany..
    Viblanc, Paul E.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Mueggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, Albrecht Daniel Thaer Inst, Invalidenstr 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zaslansky, Paul
    Charite, Julius Wolff Inst, Fohrer Str 15, D-13353 Berlin, Germany..
    Domenici, Paolo
    CNR, IAMC, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Marras, Stefano
    CNR, IAMC, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Steffensen, John F.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Marine Biol Sect, Strandpromenaden 5, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Svendsen, Morten B. S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Marine Biol Sect, Strandpromenaden 5, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Wilson, Alexander D. M.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Heydon Laurence Bldg A08, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Couillaud, Pierre
    Univ Paris 06, Dept Master Sci Univers Environm Ecol, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Boswell, Kevin M.
    Florida Int Univ, Dept Biol Sci, 3000 NE 151st St, N Miami, FL 33181 USA..
    Krause, Jens
    Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, Albrecht Daniel Thaer Inst, Invalidenstr 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    The Evolution of Lateralization in Group Hunting Sailfish2017In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 521-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateralization is widespread throughout the animal kingdom [1-7] and can increase task efficiency via shortening reaction times and saving on neural tissue [8-16]. However, lateralization might be costly because it increases predictability [17-21]. In predator-prey interactions, for example, predators might increase capture success because of specialization in a lateralized attack, but at the cost of increased predictability to their prey, constraining the evolution of lateralization. One unexplored mechanism for evading such costs is group hunting: this would allow individual-level specialization, while still allowing for group-level unpredictability. We investigated this mechanism in group hunting sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, attacking schooling sardines, Sardinella aurita. During these attacks, sailfish alternate in attacking the prey using their elongated bills to slash or tap the prey [22-24]. This rapid bill movement is either leftward or rightward. Using behavioral observations of identifiable individual sailfish hunting in groups, we provide evidence for individual-level attack lateralization in sailfish. More strongly lateralized individuals had a higher capture success. Further evidence of lateralization comes from morphological analyses of sailfish bills that show strong evidence of one-sided micro-teeth abrasions. Finally, we show that attacks by single sailfish are indeed highly predictable, but predictability rapidly declines with increasing group size because of a lack of population-level lateralization. Our results present a novel benefit of group hunting: by alternating attacks, individual-level attack lateralization can evolve, without the negative consequences of individual-level predictability. More generally, our results suggest that group hunting in predators might provide more suitable conditions for the evolution of strategy diversity compared to solitary life.

  • 11.
    Mann, R. P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ma, Q.
    Jordan, L. A.
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Ward, A. J. W.
    A model comparison reveals dynamic social information drives the movements of humbug damselfish (Dascyllus aruanus)2014In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5689, E-ISSN 1742-5662, Vol. 11, no 90, p. 20130794-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animals make use a range of social information to inform their movement decisions. One common movement rule, found across many different species, is that the probability that an individual moves to an area increases with the number of conspecifics there. However, in many cases, it remains unclear what social cues produce this and other similar movement rules. Here, we investigate what cues are used by damselfish (Dascyllus aruanus) when repeatedly crossing back and forth between two coral patches in an experimental arena. We find that an individual's decision to move is best predicted by the recent movements of conspecifics either to or from that individual's current habitat. Rather than actively seeking attachment to a larger group, individuals are instead prioritizing highly local and dynamic information with very limited spatial and temporal ranges. By reanalysing data in which the same species crossed for the first time to a new coral patch, we show that the individuals use static cues in this case. This suggests that these fish alter their information usage according to the structure and familiarity of their environment by using stable information when moving to a novel area and localized dynamic information when moving between familiar areas.

  • 12.
    Marras, Stefano
    et al.
    CNR, IAMC, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Noda, Takuji
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Informat, Dept Social Informat, Kyoto 6068501, Japan..
    Steffensen, John F.
    Univ Copenhagen, Marine Biol Sect, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Svendsen, Morten B. S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Marine Biol Sect, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Krause, Jens
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Wilson, Alexander D. M.
    Carleton Univ, Dept Biol, Fish Ecol & Conservat Physiol Lab, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada..
    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, D-12587 Berlin, Germany..
    Herbert-Read, James
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Boswell, Kevin M.
    Florida Int Univ, Marine Sci Program, Dept Biol Sci, North Miami, FL 33181 USA..
    Domenici, Paolo
    CNR, IAMC, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Not So Fast: Swimming Behavior of Sailfish during Predator-Prey Interactions using High-Speed Video and Accelerometry2015In: Integrative and Comparative Biology, ISSN 1540-7063, E-ISSN 1557-7023, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 719-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synopsis Billfishes are considered among the fastest swimmers in the oceans. Despite early estimates of extremely high speeds, more recent work showed that these predators (e.g., blue marlin) spend most of their time swimming slowly, rarely exceeding 2 m s(-1). Predator-prey interactions provide a context within which one may expect maximal speeds both by predators and prey. Beyond speed, however, an important component determining the outcome of predator-prey encounters is unsteady swimming (i.e., turning and accelerating). Although large predators are faster than their small prey, the latter show higher performance in unsteady swimming. To contrast the evading behaviors of their highly maneuverable prey, sailfish and other large aquatic predators possess morphological adaptations, such as elongated bills, which can be moved more rapidly than the whole body itself, facilitating capture of the prey. Therefore, it is an open question whether such supposedly very fast swimmers do use high-speed bursts when feeding on evasive prey, in addition to using their bill for slashing prey. Here, we measured the swimming behavior of sailfish by using high-frequency accelerometry and high-speed video observations during predator-prey interactions. These measurements allowed analyses of tail beat frequencies to estimate swimming speeds. Our results suggest that sailfish burst at speeds of about 7 m s(-1) and do not exceed swimming speeds of 10 m s(-1) during predator-prey interactions. These speeds are much lower than previous estimates. In addition, the oscillations of the bill during swimming with, and without, extension of the dorsal fin (i.e., the sail) were measured. We suggest that extension of the dorsal fin may allow sailfish to improve the control of the bill and minimize its yaw, hence preventing disturbance of the prey. Therefore, sailfish, like other large predators, may rely mainly on accuracy of movement and the use of the extensions of their bodies, rather than resorting to top speeds when hunting evasive prey.

  • 13.
    Romenskyy, Maksym
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Ward, Ashley J. W.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Body size affects the strength of social interactions and spatial organization of a schooling fish (Pseudomugil signifer)2017In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 161056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a rich variety of self-propelled particle models propose to explain the collective motion of fish and other animals, rigorous statistical comparison between models and data remains a challenge. Plausible models should be flexible enough to capture changes in the collective behaviour of animal groups at their different developmental stages and group sizes. Here, we analyse the statistical properties of schooling fish (Pseudomugil signifer) through a combination of experiments and simulations. We make novel use of a Boltzmann inversion method, usually applied in molecular dynamics, to identify the effective potential of the mean force of fish interactions. Specifically, we show that larger fish have a larger repulsion zone, but stronger attraction, resulting in greater alignment in their collective motion. We model the collective dynamics of schools using a self-propelled particle model, modified to include varying particle speed and a local repulsion rule. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the fish schools are reproduced by our model, thereby capturing a number of features of the behaviour and development of schooling fish.

  • 14. Wilson, Alexander D. M.
    et al.
    Krause, Jens
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Ward, Ashley J. W.
    The Personality Behind Cheating: Behavioural Types and the Feeding Ecology of Cleaner Fish2014In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 120, no 9, p. 904-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex mutualistic relationship between the cleaner fish (Labroides dimidiatus) and their 'clients' in many reef systems throughout the world has been the subject of debate and research interest for decades. Game-theory models have long struggled with explaining how the mixed strategies of cheating and honesty might have evolved in such a system and while significant efforts have been made theoretically, demonstrating the nature of this relationship empirically remains an important research challenge. Using the experimental framework of behavioural syndromes, we sought to quantitatively assess the relationship between personality and the feeding ecology of cleaner fish to provide novel insights into the underlying mechanistic basis of cheating in cleaner-client interactions. First, we observed and filmed cleaner fish interactions with heterospecifics, movement patterns and general feeding ecology in the wild. We then captured and measured all focal individuals and tested them for individual consistency in measures of activity, exploration and risk taking (boldness) in the laboratory. Our results suggest a syndrome incorporating aspects of personality and foraging effort are central components of the behavioural ecology of L. dimidiatus on the Great Barrier Reef. We found that individuals that exhibited greater feeding effort tended to cheat proportionately less and move over smaller distances relative to bolder more active, exploratory individuals. Our study demonstrates for the first time that individual differences in personality might be mechanistically involved in explaining how the mixed strategies of cheating and honesty persist in cleaner fish mutualisms.

  • 15.
    Zajitschek, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Univ East Anglia, Sch Biol Sci, Norwich Res Pk, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England.;CSIC, EBD, Donana Biol Stn, C Americo Vespucio S-N, Seville 41092, Spain..
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Abbasi, Nasir M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Univ East Anglia, Sch Biol Sci, Norwich Res Pk, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England.
    Zajitschek, Felix
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Bldg 18, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Immler, Simone
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Univ East Anglia, Sch Biol Sci, Norwich Res Pk, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England.
    Paternal personality and social status influence offspring activity in zebrafish2017In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 17, article id 157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence for the transmission of non-genetic information from father to offspring is rapidly accumulating. While the impact of chemical and physical factors such as toxins or diet on the fitness of the parents and their offspring have been studied extensively, the importance of behavioural and social circumstances has only recently been recognised. Behavioural traits such as personality characteristics can be relatively stable, and partly comprise a genetic component but we know little about the non-genetic transmission of plastic behavioural traits from parents to offspring. We investigated the relative effect of personality and of social dominance as indicators at the opposite ends of the plasticity range on offspring behaviour in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We assessed male boldness, a behavioural trait that has previously been shown previously to possess genetic underpinnings, and experimentally manipulated male social status to assess the association between the two types of behaviour and their correlation with offspring activity. Results: We found a clear interaction between the relatively stable and putative genetic effects based on inherited differences in personality and the experimentally induced epigenetic effects from changes in the social status of the father on offspring activity. Conclusions: Our study shows that offspring behaviour is determined by a combination of paternal personality traits and on-genetic effects derived from the social status of the father.

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