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  • 1. Dow, Christine F.
    et al.
    Kulessa, B.
    Rutt, I.C.
    Tsai, V. C.
    Pimentel, S.
    Doyle, S. H.
    van As, D.
    Lindbäck, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Jones, G. A.
    Hubbard, A.
    Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, ISSN 2169-9003, E-ISSN 2169-9011, Vol. 120, no 6, p. 1127-1147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections.

  • 2. Doyle, Sam H
    et al.
    Hubbard, Alun H
    Dow, Christine F
    Jones, Glenn A
    Fitzpatrick, Andrew
    Gusmeroli, Alessio
    Kulessa, Bernd
    Lindbäck, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Box, Jason E
    Ice tectonic deformation during the rapid in situ drainage of a supraglacial lake on the Greenland Ice Sheet2013In: The Cryosphere, ISSN 1994-0416, E-ISSN 1994-0424, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present detailed records of lake discharge, ice motion and passive seismicity capturing the behaviour and processes preceding, during and following the rapid drainage of a 4 km2 supraglacial lake through 1.1-km-thick ice on the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Peak discharge of 3300 m3 s−1 coincident with maximal rates of vertical uplift indicates that surface water accessed the ice–bed interface causing widespread hydraulic separation and enhanced basal motion. The differential motion of four global positioning system (GPS) receivers located around the lake record the opening and closure of the fractures through which the lake drained. We hypothesise that the majority of discharge occurred through a 3-km-long fracture with a peak width averaged across its wetted length of 0.4 m. We argue that the fracture's kilometre-scale length allowed rapid discharge to be achieved by combining reasonable water velocities with sub-metre fracture widths. These observations add to the currently limited knowledge of in situ supraglacial lake drainage events, which rapidly deliver large volumes of water to the ice–bed interface.

  • 3.
    Lindbäck, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hydrology and Bed Topography of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Last known surroundings2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased temperatures in the Arctic accelerate the loss of land based ice stored in glaciers. The Greenland Ice Sheet is the largest ice mass in the Northern Hemisphere and holds ~10% of all the freshwater on Earth, equivalent to ~7 metres of global sea level rise. A few decades ago, the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet was poorly known and assumed to have little impact on global sea level rise. The development of regional climate models and remote sensing of the ice sheet during the past decade have revealed a significant mass loss. To monitor how the Greenland Ice Sheet will affect sea levels in the future requires understanding the physical processes that govern its mass balance and movement. In the southeastern and central western regions, mass loss is dominated by the dynamic behaviour of ice streams calving into the ocean. Changes in surface mass balance dominate mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet in the central northern, southwestern and northeastern regions. Little is known about what the hydrological system looks like beneath the ice sheet; how well the hydrological system is developed decides the water’s impact on ice movement. In this thesis, I have focused on radar sounding measurements to map the subglacial topography in detail for a land-terminating section of the western Greenland Ice Sheet. This knowledge is a critical prerequisite for any subglacial hydrological modelling. Using the high-resolution ice thickness and bed topography data, I have made the following specific studies: First, I have analysed the geological setting and glaciological history of the region by comparing proglacial and subglacial spectral roughness. Second, I have analysed the subglacial water drainage routing and revealed a potential for subglacial water piracy between adjacent subglacial water catchments with changes in the subglacial water pressure regime. Finally, I have looked in more detail into englacial features that are commonly observed in radar sounding data from western Greenland. In all, the thesis highlights the need not only for accurate high-resolution subglacial digital elevation models, but also for regionally optimised interpolation when conducting detailed hydrological studies of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    List of papers
    1. High-resolution ice thickness and bed topography of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-resolution ice thickness and bed topography of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We present ice thickness and bed topography maps with a high spatial resolution (250–500 m) of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from ground-based and airborne radar surveys. The data have a total area of ~12 000 km2 and cover the whole ablation area of the outlet glaciers of Isunnguata Sermia, Russell, Leverett, Ørkendalen and Isorlersuup up to the long-term mass balance equilibrium line altitude at ~1600 m above sea level. The bed topography shows highly variable subglacial trough systems, and the trough of Isunnguata Sermia Glacier is overdeepened and reaches an elevation of ~500 m below sea level. The ice surface is smooth and only reflects the bedrock topography in a subtle way, resulting in a highly variable ice thickness. The southern part of our study area consists of higher bed elevations compared to the northern part. The compiled data sets of ground-based and airborne radar surveys cover one of the most studied regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet and can be valuable for detailed studies of ice sheet dynamics and hydrology. The combined data set is freely available at doi:10.1594/pangaea.830314.

    National Category
    Physical Geography
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Physical Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-233536 (URN)10.5194/essd-6-331-2014 (DOI)000356933900005 ()
    Available from: 2014-10-07 Created: 2014-10-07 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Spectral roughness and glacial erosion of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spectral roughness and glacial erosion of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet
    2015 (English)In: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 238, p. 149-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Spectral roughness offers a significant potential for understanding the evolution of glaciated landscapes. Here, we present the first roughness study combining a high-resolution (250 to 500 m) DEM of a large land-terminating section (12,000 km2) of the Greenland Ice Sheet with the topography of the proglacial area. Subglacial roughness shows a directional dependence with consistently lower values in the ice flow direction compared to the across–flow direction. We find a correlation between low basal roughness, fast ice flow, and subglacial troughs. The northern part of the subglacial study area has an undulating topography with variable roughness, resembling the landscape in the proglacial area. In this area, there is a glacially eroded, overdeepened trough with bed elevations 510 m below sea level, consistent with warm ice and a well-lubricated bed. The southern part of the subglacial study area has higher bed elevations and higher roughness than the northern part, possibly because the bedrock consists of hard granitic gneiss as in the adjacent proglacial area. The subglacial troughs, which have been eroded to various extents, are aligned with geological weakness zones suggesting a preglacial origin. In general, there is a major geological control on the distribution of bed variability.

    National Category
    Geophysics Geology
    Research subject
    Earth Science with specialization in Physical Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247641 (URN)10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.02.027 (DOI)000355036000013 ()
    Available from: 2015-03-23 Created: 2015-03-23 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Subglacial water drainage, storage, and piracy beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subglacial water drainage, storage, and piracy beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 42, no 18, p. 7606-7614Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Meltwater drainage across the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is well constrained by measurements and modeling, yet despite its critical role, knowledge of its transit through the subglacial environment remains limited. Here we present a subglacial hydrological analysis of a land-terminating sector of the GrIS at unprecedented resolution that predicts the routing of surface-derived meltwater once it has entered the basal drainage system. Our analysis indicates the probable existence of small subglacial lakes that remain undetectable by methods using surface elevation change or radar techniques. Furthermore, the analysis suggests transient behavior with rapid switching of subglacial drainage between competing catchments driven by seasonal changes in the basal water pressure. Our findings provide a cautionary note that should be considered in studies that attempt to relate and infer future response from surface temperature, melt, and runoff from point measurements and/or modeling with measurements of proglacial discharge and ice dynamics.

    Keywords
    Greenland ice sheet; ice sheet hydrology; ice sheet dynamics
    National Category
    Physical Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-258786 (URN)10.1002/2015GL065393 (DOI)000363412400046 ()
    Available from: 2015-07-20 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Origin of englacial features in radio-echo sounding data from the Greenland Ice Sheet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Origin of englacial features in radio-echo sounding data from the Greenland Ice Sheet
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Geophysics Physical Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-258787 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-07-20 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2018-01-11
  • 4.
    Lindbäck, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Spectral roughness and glacial erosion of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet2015In: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 238, p. 149-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectral roughness offers a significant potential for understanding the evolution of glaciated landscapes. Here, we present the first roughness study combining a high-resolution (250 to 500 m) DEM of a large land-terminating section (12,000 km2) of the Greenland Ice Sheet with the topography of the proglacial area. Subglacial roughness shows a directional dependence with consistently lower values in the ice flow direction compared to the across–flow direction. We find a correlation between low basal roughness, fast ice flow, and subglacial troughs. The northern part of the subglacial study area has an undulating topography with variable roughness, resembling the landscape in the proglacial area. In this area, there is a glacially eroded, overdeepened trough with bed elevations 510 m below sea level, consistent with warm ice and a well-lubricated bed. The southern part of the subglacial study area has higher bed elevations and higher roughness than the northern part, possibly because the bedrock consists of hard granitic gneiss as in the adjacent proglacial area. The subglacial troughs, which have been eroded to various extents, are aligned with geological weakness zones suggesting a preglacial origin. In general, there is a major geological control on the distribution of bed variability.

  • 5.
    Lindbäck, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Doyle, S. H.
    Helanow, C.
    Jansson, P.
    Kristensen, S. S.
    Stenseng, L.
    Forsberg, R.
    Hubbard, A. L.
    High-resolution ice thickness and bed topography of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet2014In: Earth System Science Data, ISSN 1866-3508, E-ISSN 1866-3516, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present ice thickness and bed topography maps with a high spatial resolution (250–500 m) of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from ground-based and airborne radar surveys. The data have a total area of ~12 000 km2 and cover the whole ablation area of the outlet glaciers of Isunnguata Sermia, Russell, Leverett, Ørkendalen and Isorlersuup up to the long-term mass balance equilibrium line altitude at ~1600 m above sea level. The bed topography shows highly variable subglacial trough systems, and the trough of Isunnguata Sermia Glacier is overdeepened and reaches an elevation of ~500 m below sea level. The ice surface is smooth and only reflects the bedrock topography in a subtle way, resulting in a highly variable ice thickness. The southern part of our study area consists of higher bed elevations compared to the northern part. The compiled data sets of ground-based and airborne radar surveys cover one of the most studied regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet and can be valuable for detailed studies of ice sheet dynamics and hydrology. The combined data set is freely available at doi:10.1594/pangaea.830314.

  • 6.
    Lindbäck, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hubbard, Alun L.
    Doyle, Sam H.
    van As, Dirk
    Mikkelsen, Andreas B.
    Fitzpatrick, Andrew A.
    Subglacial water drainage, storage, and piracy beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet2015In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 42, no 18, p. 7606-7614Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meltwater drainage across the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is well constrained by measurements and modeling, yet despite its critical role, knowledge of its transit through the subglacial environment remains limited. Here we present a subglacial hydrological analysis of a land-terminating sector of the GrIS at unprecedented resolution that predicts the routing of surface-derived meltwater once it has entered the basal drainage system. Our analysis indicates the probable existence of small subglacial lakes that remain undetectable by methods using surface elevation change or radar techniques. Furthermore, the analysis suggests transient behavior with rapid switching of subglacial drainage between competing catchments driven by seasonal changes in the basal water pressure. Our findings provide a cautionary note that should be considered in studies that attempt to relate and infer future response from surface temperature, melt, and runoff from point measurements and/or modeling with measurements of proglacial discharge and ice dynamics.

  • 7.
    Lindbäck, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Svensson, Anna
    Origin of englacial features in radio-echo sounding data from the Greenland Ice SheetManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 7 of 7
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