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  • 1.
    Alvarez, Alberto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Martinez-Corral, Ines
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Daubel, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Betsholtz, C.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol, Rudbeck Lab, Dag Hammarskjoldsvag 20, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, ICMC, Dept Med Huddinge, Novum, Blickagangen 6, S-14157 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Mäkinen, Taija
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Gängel, Konstantin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Tamoxifen-independent recombination of reporter genes limits lineage tracing and mosaic analysis using CreER(T2) lines2019In: Transgenic research, ISSN 0962-8819, E-ISSN 1573-9368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CreER(T2)/loxP system is widely used to induce conditional gene deletion in mice. One of the main advantages of the system is that Cre-mediated recombination can be controlled in time through Tamoxifen administration. This has allowed researchers to study the function of embryonic lethal genes at later developmental timepoints. In addition, CreER(T2) mouse lines are commonly used in combination with reporter genes for lineage tracing and mosaic analysis. In order for these experiments to be reliable, it is crucial that the cell labeling approach only marks the desired cell population and their progeny, as unfaithful expression of reporter genes in other cell types or even unintended labeling of the correct cell population at an undesired time point could lead to wrong conclusions. Here we report that all CreER(T2) mouse lines that we have studied exhibit a certain degree of Tamoxifen-independent, basal, Cre activity. Using Ai14 and Ai3, two commonly used fluorescent reporter genes, we show that those basal Cre activity levels are sufficient to label a significant amount of cells in a variety of tissues during embryogenesis, postnatal development and adulthood. This unintended labelling of cells imposes a serious problem for lineage tracing and mosaic analysis experiments. Importantly, however, we find that reporter constructs differ greatly in their susceptibility to basal CreER(T2) activity. While Ai14 and Ai3 easily recombine under basal CreER(T2) activity levels, mTmG and R26R-EYFP rarely become activated under these conditions and are therefore better suited for cell tracking experiments.

  • 2.
    Castro, Marco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Laviña, Bàrbara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Ando, Koji
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Alvarez-Aznar, Alberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Abu Taha, Abdallah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Brakebusch, Cord
    Biotech Research and Innovation Center, University of Copenhagen, Denmark;ICMC (Integrated Cardio Metabolic Centre), Karolinska Institutet/AstraZeneca/Integrated Cardio Metabolic Centre, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dejana, Elisabetta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. FOM, the FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, Milan, Italy.
    Betsholtz, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. AstraZeneca/Karolinska Integrated Cardio Metabolic Centre (ICMC), Karolinska Institutet.
    Gängel, Konstantin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    CDC42 deletion elicits cerebral vascular malformations via increased MEKK3-dependent KLF4 expression2019In: Circulation Research, ISSN 0009-7330, E-ISSN 1524-4571, Vol. 124, no 8, p. 1240-1252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: Aberrant formation of blood vessels precedes a broad spectrum of vascular complications; however, the cellular and molecular events governing vascular malformations are not yet fully understood. Objective: Here, we investigated the role of CDC42 (cell division cycle 42) during vascular morphogenesis and its relative importance for the development of cerebrovascular malformations. Methods and Results: To avoid secondary systemic effects often associated with embryonic gene deletion, we generated an endothelial-specific and inducible knockout approach to study postnatal vascularization of the mouse brain. Postnatal endothelial-specific deletion of Cdc42 elicits cerebrovascular malformations reminiscent of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). At the cellular level, loss of CDC42 function in brain endothelial cells (ECs) impairs their sprouting, branching morphogenesis, axial polarity, and normal dispersion within the brain tissue. Disruption of CDC42 does not alter EC proliferation, but malformations occur where EC proliferation is the most pronounced during brain development-the postnatal cerebellum-indicating that a high, naturally occurring EC proliferation provides a permissive state for the appearance of these malformations. Mechanistically, CDC42 depletion in ECs elicited increased MEKK3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3)-MEK5 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5)-ERK5 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5) signaling and consequent detrimental overexpression of KLF (Kruppel-like factor) 2 and KLF4, recapitulating the hallmark mechanism for CCM pathogenesis. Through genetic approaches, we demonstrate that the coinactivation of Klf4 reduces the severity of vascular malformations in Cdc42 mutant mice. Moreover, we show that CDC42 interacts with CCMs and that CCM3 promotes CDC42 activity in ECs. Conclusions: We show that endothelial-specific deletion of Cdc42 elicits CCM-like cerebrovascular malformations and that CDC42 is engaged in the CCM signaling network to restrain the MEKK3-MEK5-ERK5-KLF2/4 pathway.

  • 3. Collu, Giovanna M.
    et al.
    Jenny, Andreas
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Dev & Mol Biol, New York, NY USA;Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Genet, New York, NY USA.
    Gängel, Konstantin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Mirkovic, Ivana
    Chin, Meiling
    Transon Asia Inc, Dayuan, Taoyuan County, Taiwan.
    Weber, Ursula
    Smith, Michael J.
    Mlodzik, Marek
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Cell Dev & Regenerat Biol, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Prickle is phosphorylated by Nemo and targeted for degradation to maintain Prickle/Spiny-legs isoform balance during planar cell polarity establishment2018In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 14, no 5, article id e1007391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) instructs tissue patterning in a wide range of organisms from fruit flies to humans. PCP signaling coordinates cell behavior across tissues and is integrated by cells to couple cell fate identity with position in a developing tissue. In the fly eye, PCP signaling is required for the specification of R3 and R4 photoreceptors based upon their positioning relative to the dorso-ventral axis. The 'core' PCP pathway involves the asymmetric localization of two distinct membrane-bound complexes, one containing Frizzled (Fz, required in R3) and the other Van Gogh (Vang, required in R4). Inhibitory interactions between the cytosolic components of each complex reinforce asymmetric localization. Prickle (Pk) and Spiny-legs (Pk-Sple) are two antagonistic isoforms of the prickle (pk) gene and are cytoplasmic components of the Vang complex. The balance between their levels is critical for tissue patterning, with Pk-Sple being the major functional isoform in the eye. Here we uncover a post-translational role for Nemo kinase in limiting the amount of the minor isoform Pk. We identified Pk as a Nemo substrate in a genome-wide in vitro band-shift screen. In vivo, nemo genetically interacts with pk(pk) but not pk(sple) and enhances PCP defects in the eye and leg. Nemo phosphorylation limits Pk levels and is required specifically in the R4 photoreceptor like the major isoform, Pk-Sple. Genetic interaction and biochemical data suggest that Nemo phosphorylation of Pk leads to its proteasomal degradation via the Cullin1/SkpA/Slmb complex. dTAK and Homeodomain interacting protein kinase (Hipk) may also act together with Nemo to target Pk for degradation, consistent with similar observations in mammalian studies. Our results therefore demonstrate a mechanism to maintain low levels of the minor Pk isoform, allowing PCP complexes to form correctly and specify cell fate.

  • 4.
    Gängel, Konstantin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology.
    Betsholtz, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology.
    Endocytosis regulates VEGF signalling during angiogenesis2013In: Nature Cell Biology, ISSN 1465-7392, E-ISSN 1476-4679, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 233-235Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocytosis has proved to be a versatile mechanism regulating diverse cellular processes, ranging from nutrient uptake to intracellular signal transduction. New work reinforces the importance of endocytosis for VEGF receptor signalling and angiogenesis in the developing eye, and describes a mechanism for its differential regulation in angiogenic versus quiescent endothelial cells.

  • 5.
    Lavina, Barbara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Gängel, Konstantin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    New imaging methods and tools to study vascular biology2015In: Current opinion in hematology, ISSN 1065-6251, E-ISSN 1531-7048, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 258-266Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of review Throughout history, development of novel microscopy techniques has been of fundamental importance to advance the vascular biology field. This review offers a concise summary of the most recently developed imaging techniques and discusses how they can be applied to vascular biology. In addition, we reflect upon the most important fluorescent reporters for vascular research that are currently available. Recent findings Recent advances in light sheet-based imaging techniques now offer the ability to live image the vascular system in whole organs or even in whole animals during development and in pathological conditions with a satisfactory spatial and temporal resolution. Conversely, super resolution microscopy now allows studying cellular processes at a near-molecular resolution. Summary Major recent improvements in a number of imaging techniques now allow study of vascular biology in ways that could not be considered previously. Researchers now have well-developed tools to specifically examine the dynamic nature of vascular development during angiogenic sprouting, remodeling and regression as well as the vascular responses in disease situations in vivo. In addition, open questions in endothelial and lymphatic cell biology that require subcellular resolution such as actin dynamics, junctional complex formation and stability, vascular permeability and receptor trafficking can now be approached with high resolution.

  • 6.
    Laviña, Bàrbara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Castro, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Niaudet, Colin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Bert, Cruys
    Peter, Carmeliet
    Bentley, Katie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. 4Computational Biology Laboratory, Center for Vascular Biology Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.
    Cord, Brakebusch
    Betsholtz, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Gängel, Konstantin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Defective endothelial cell migration in the absence of Cdc42 leads to capillary-venous malformations: Cdc42 and vascular malformationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Laviña, Bàrbara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Castro, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Niaudet, Colin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Cruys, Bert
    VIB, Vesalius Res Ctr, Lab Angiogenesis & Vasc Metab, Leuven, Belgium; Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Oncol, Lab Angiogenesis & Vasc Metab, Leuven, Belgium.
    Álvarez-Aznar, Alberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Carmeliet, Peter
    VIB, Vesalius Res Ctr, Lab Angiogenesis & Vasc Metab, Leuven, Belgium; Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Oncol, Lab Angiogenesis & Vasc Metab, Leuven, Belgium.
    Bentley, Katie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Harvard Med Sch, Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, Ctr Vasc Biol Res, Computat Biol Lab, Boston, MA USA.
    Brakebusch, Cord
    Univ Copenhagen, Biotech Res & Innovat Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Betsholtz, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Huddinge, ICMC, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gängel, Konstantin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Defective endothelial cell migration in the absence of Cdc42 leads to capillary-venous malformations2018In: Development, ISSN 0950-1991, E-ISSN 1477-9129, Vol. 145, no 13, article id UNSP dev161182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formation and homeostasis of the vascular system requires several coordinated cellular functions, but their precise interplay during development and their relative importance for vascular pathologies remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the endothelial functions regulated by Cdc42 and their in vivo relevance during angiogenic sprouting and vascular morphogenesis in the postnatal mouse retina. We found that Cdc42 is required for endothelial tip cell selection, directed cell migration and filopodia formation, but dispensable for cell proliferation or apoptosis. Although the loss of Cdc42 seems generally compatible with apical-basal polarization and lumen formation in retinal blood vessels, it leads to defective endothelial axial polarization and to the formation of severe vascular malformations in capillaries and veins. Tracking of Cdc42-depleted endothelial cells in mosaic retinas suggests that these capillary-venous malformations arise as a consequence of defective cell migration, when endothelial cells that proliferate at normal rates are unable to re-distribute within the vascular network.

  • 8.
    Niaudet, Colin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Hofmann, Jennifer J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Vasc Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mae, Maarja A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Jung, Bongnam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Gängel, Konstantin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Vanlandewijck, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Ekvarn, Elisabet
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Vasc Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Salvado, M. Dolores
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Physiol Chem 2, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mehlem, Annika
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Vasc Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Al Sayegh, Sahar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    He, Liqun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Lebouvier, Thibaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Castro Freire, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Katayama, Kan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Vasc Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hultenby, Kjell
    Div Clin Res Ctr, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Moessinger, Christine
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Vasc Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tannenberg, Philip
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Vasc Biol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med & Surg, Div Vasc Surg, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cunha, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Vasc Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pietras, Kristian
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Vasc Biol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Lavina Siemsen, Barbara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Hong, JongWook
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Vasc Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Berg, Tove
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Div Vasc Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Betsholtz, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    Gpr116 Receptor Regulates Distinctive Functions in Pneumocytes and Vascular Endothelium2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e0137949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its known expression in both the vascular endothelium and the lung epithelium, until recently the physiological role of the adhesion receptor Gpr116/ADGRF5 has remained elusive. We generated a new mouse model of constitutive Gpr116 inactivation, with a large genetic deletion encompassing exon 4 to exon 21 of the Gpr116 gene. This model allowed us to confirm recent results defining Gpr116 as necessary regulator of surfactant homeostasis. The loss of Gpr116 provokes an early accumulation of surfactant in the lungs, followed by a massive infiltration of macrophages, and eventually progresses into an emphysemalike pathology. Further analysis of this knockout model revealed cerebral vascular leakage, beginning at around 1.5 months of age. Additionally, endothelial-specific deletion of Gpr116 resulted in a significant increase of the brain vascular leakage. Mice devoid of Gpr116 developed an anatomically normal and largely functional vascular network, surprisingly exhibited an attenuated pathological retinal vascular response in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. These data suggest that Gpr116 modulates endothelial properties, a previously unappreciated function despite the pan-vascular expression of this receptor. Our results support the key pulmonary function of Gpr116 and describe a new role in the central nervous system vasculature.

  • 9.
    Thuveson, Maria
    et al.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Cell Dev & Regenerat Biol, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Grad Sch Biomed Sci, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA;Swedish Res Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gängel, Konstantin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Cell Dev & Regenerat Biol, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Grad Sch Biomed Sci, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Collu, Giovanna M.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Cell Dev & Regenerat Biol, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Grad Sch Biomed Sci, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Chin, Mei-ling
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Cell Dev & Regenerat Biol, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Grad Sch Biomed Sci, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA;CSL Behring, Keelung Rd, Taipei 110, Taiwan.
    Singh, Jaskirat
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Cell Dev & Regenerat Biol, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Grad Sch Biomed Sci, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA;3401 Leafwood Court, San Mateo, CA 94403 USA.
    Mlodzik, Marek
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Cell Dev & Regenerat Biol, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Grad Sch Biomed Sci, Annenberg Bldg 18-92,One Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Integrins are required for synchronous ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye linking planar cell polarity signalling to the extracellular matrix2019In: Open Biology, ISSN 2046-2441, E-ISSN 2046-2441, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 190148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrins mediate the anchorage between cells and their environment, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and form transmembrane links between the ECM and the cytoskeleton, a conserved feature throughout development and morphogenesis of epithelial organs. Here, we demonstrate that integrins and components of the ECM are required during the planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling-regulated cell movement of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye. The loss-of-function mutations of integrins or ECM components cause defects in rotation, with mutant clusters rotating asynchronously compared to wild-type clusters. Initially, mutant clusters tend to rotate faster, and at later stages they fail to be synchronous with their neighbours, leading to aberrant rotation angles and resulting in a disorganized ommatidial arrangement in adult eyes. We further demonstrate that integrin localization changes dynamically during the rotation process. Our data suggest that core Frizzled/PCP factors, acting through RhoA and Rho kinase, regulate the function/activity of integrins and that integrins thus contribute to the complex interaction network of PCP signalling, cell adhesion and cytoskeletal elements required for a precise and synchronous 90 degrees rotation movement.

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