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  • 1. Elvitigala, Charitha
    et al.
    Tennakoon, Eranda
    Hamza, Ayyoob
    Lokuge, Yasith
    De Zoysa, Kasun
    Keppitiyagama, Chamath
    Iyer, Venkat
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. SICS Swedish ICT, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Towards a sensor system to tame the human elephant conflict2015In: Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), IEEE, 2015, p. 169-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human elephant conflict in Sri Lanka has been a cause of major concern over the past decade. Frequent clashes between wild elephants and villagers have resulted in severe damage to property, as well as loss of lives for both humans and elephants. Competition for space is the primary reason for conflict between humans and elephants. Elephants that escape from the wildlife national parks venture into villages creating destruction in their wake. To prevent such mishaps, a proper system is required to contain and monitor elephants in national parks. In this paper, we describe different approaches to detect elephants and possible ways of monitoring the national wildlife parks. We also elaborate on the advantages and limitations of each approach, and determine what sort of system is needed to tame the human elephant conflict.

  • 2. Hamza, Ayyoob
    et al.
    Keppitiyagama, Chamath
    De Zoysa, Kasun
    Iyer, Venkat
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    A Quadcopter Controller to Maintain Radio Link Quality2015In: The First Workshop on Micro Aerial Vehicle Networks, Systems, and Applications for Civilian Use, 2015, p. 21-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. He, Zhitao
    et al.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Arpeggio: a penetration attack on glossy networks2016In: Proc. 13th International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking, IEEE, 2016, p. 37-45Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Towards a secure synchronous communication architecture for low-power wireless networks2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming the future Internet where most day-to-day devices are connected to the Internet. These devices are often resource constrained and use low-power wireless communication. Hence networks of them are called low-power and lossy networks (LLNs). LLN devices may be used in critical applications such as health care, traffic and industrial plants that concern privacy and security, thus their communication has to be protected from malicious activities. LLNs face threats at different levels ranging from transmitting bits wirelessly to applications.

    In this thesis, we primarily explore LLN security issues related to application protocols and attacks that target the availability of LLNs. Particularly, we investigate compressing messages of a transport security protocol, DTLS, to make it efficient for LLNs. The IETF proposes to use DTLS for securing CoAP, a specialized web protocol for constrained devices. Furthermore, we experimentally study disrupting the communication of one of the state of the art LLN protocols, Glossy, by attacking its core mechanism.

    Secondarily, we aim at improving the performance of TCP in LLNs with mobility over a reliable data link protocol. To this end, we use a Glossy-based communication protocol, LWB, as a reliable data link protocol. We plan to use the evaluation of this work as a stepping stone towards comparing the performance of secure Glossy-based communication protocols.

    The main contributions of this thesis are threefold. We propose novel message compression mechanisms for DTLS messages. We also present novel attacks on Glossy, evaluate the effectiveness of them experimentally, and propose potential counter measures. Finally, we show that a reliable data link protocol can improve the performance of TCP in static and mobile settings.

    List of papers
    1. Lithe: Lightweight Secure CoAP for the Internet of Things
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithe: Lightweight Secure CoAP for the Internet of Things
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 3711-3720Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Communication Systems
    Research subject
    Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210206 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2013.2277656 (DOI)000324337900006 ()
    Available from: 2013-08-28 Created: 2013-11-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. An experimental study of attacks on the availability of Glossy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experimental study of attacks on the availability of Glossy
    2015 (English)In: Computers & electrical engineering, ISSN 0045-7906, E-ISSN 1879-0755, Vol. 41, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Communication Systems
    Research subject
    Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252256 (URN)10.1016/j.compeleceng.2014.10.004 (DOI)000352173000011 ()
    Available from: 2014-11-15 Created: 2015-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    3. Enabling TCP in mobile cyber-physical systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling TCP in mobile cyber-physical systems
    2015 (English)In: Proc. 12th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 289-297Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems consist of several wirelessly connected components such as sensors that monitor physical phenomena, computational entities that make decisions based on sensed information and actuators that interact with physical processes. Connecting cyber-physical systems to the Internet using IP protocols increases interoperability by avoiding the need for protocol translation gateways. Unfortunately, in this context TCP has been disregarded since it is known to perform poorly in wireless scenarios as it treats packet loss as an indicator for network congestion rather than poor link quality. In this paper, we use the Low-power Wireless Bus (LWB) as a link layer for TCP/IP, taking advantage of its reliability and its routing-free communication. We design a system that integrates LWB with a low-power IP stack and includes TCP-aware schedulers for LWB. We evaluate our system with experiments on real hardware using uIP, a popular embedded Internet protocol stack. Our results demonstrate high TCP throughput in mobile and static scenarios and, furthermore, show that mobility does not decrease TCP performance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE Computer Society, 2015
    National Category
    Communication Systems
    Research subject
    Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266412 (URN)10.1109/MASS.2015.38 (DOI)000380548300033 ()9781467391016 (ISBN)
    External cooperation:
    Conference
    MASS 2015, October 19–22, Dallas, TX
    Available from: 2015-10-22 Created: 2015-11-09 Last updated: 2016-09-15Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Hewage, Kasun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Duquennoy, Simon
    SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Iyer, Venkatraman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Enabling TCP in mobile cyber-physical systems2015In: Proc. 12th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 289-297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems consist of several wirelessly connected components such as sensors that monitor physical phenomena, computational entities that make decisions based on sensed information and actuators that interact with physical processes. Connecting cyber-physical systems to the Internet using IP protocols increases interoperability by avoiding the need for protocol translation gateways. Unfortunately, in this context TCP has been disregarded since it is known to perform poorly in wireless scenarios as it treats packet loss as an indicator for network congestion rather than poor link quality. In this paper, we use the Low-power Wireless Bus (LWB) as a link layer for TCP/IP, taking advantage of its reliability and its routing-free communication. We design a system that integrates LWB with a low-power IP stack and includes TCP-aware schedulers for LWB. We evaluate our system with experiments on real hardware using uIP, a popular embedded Internet protocol stack. Our results demonstrate high TCP throughput in mobile and static scenarios and, furthermore, show that mobility does not decrease TCP performance.

  • 6.
    Hewage, Kasun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Raza, Shahid
    SICS.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    An experimental study of attacks on the availability of Glossy2015In: Computers & electrical engineering, ISSN 0045-7906, E-ISSN 1879-0755, Vol. 41, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hewage, Kasun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Raza, Shahid
    RISE SICS, Kista, Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. RISE SICS, Kista, Sweden.
    Protecting Glossy-based Wireless Networks from Packet Injection Attacks2017In: Proceeding of the 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), Orlando: IEEE, 2017, p. 37-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glossy is a flooding-based communication primitive for low-power wireless networks that leverages constructive interference to achieve high reliability. The Low-power Wireless Bus (LWB) uses Glossy to abstract an entire wireless network into a shared bus like topology. As Glossy is not designed as a secure communication protocol, Glossy and hence LWB are vulnerable to unauthorised eavesdropping and packet injection attacks. In this paper, we propose several security mechanisms to protect Glossy and LWB communication and evaluate their effectiveness in real-world settings. The evaluation of the proposed security mechanisms shows that we can confine the effect of the packet injection attacks on Glossy networks into single hop nodes from the attacker.

  • 8.
    Hewage, Kasun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Poster Abstract: An Experimental Study of Attacks on the Availability of Glossy2014In: Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks, 2014, p. 103-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glossy is a reliable and low latency flooding mechanism which makes use of constructive interference. Therefore, it is important to investigate what happens when attacks are mounted on Glossy that try to break constructive interference. In this chapter, we explore the effectiveness of different methods of breaking constructive interference in Glossy. Our results show that Glossy is quite robust to approaches where nodes do not respect the timing constraints necessary to create constructive interference. Changing the packet content, however, has a more tremendous effect on the packet reception rate.

  • 9.
    Hewage, Kasun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Towards TCP Communication with the Low Power Wireless Bus2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hilmia, Abdalah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Varshney, Ambuj
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Rohner, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. SICS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poster Abstract:BouKey: Location-Based Key Sharing Using Visible LightCommunication2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visible Light Communication (VLC) is an emerging communication channel serving as a complement to traditional wireless communication. Visible light has many advantages over other communication channels like its inability to penetrate opaque objects. Securely sharing secret keys is a known problem in computer security. Sharing security keys using Radio Frequency (RF) communication is prone to sniffing attacks. In this paper, we introduce a system called BouKey which uses visible light to share keys. This makes BouKey immune to through the wall sniffing attacks. BouKey divides the key and shares it using multiple transmission bulbs allowing the key to be received in a specific area only. Our initial results show that the characteristics and height of the receiver, as well as the transmission angle play a key role in determining the shape and size of this area.

  • 11.
    Jayasuriya, Namal
    et al.
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    Ranathunga, Tharindu
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    Gunawardana, Kasun
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    Silva, Chamath
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    Kumarasinghe, Kumarasinghe
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    Sayakkara, Asanka
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    Keppitiyagama, Chamath
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    De Zoysa, Kasun
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Resource-Efficient Detection of Elephant Rumbles2017In: SenSys '17 Proceedings of the 15th ACM Conference on Embedded Network Sensor Systems, 2017, article id 65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human-elephant conflict is causing significant damages to the life of human and elephants in Sri Lanka. Minimizing encounters between humans and elephants is hence crucial in alleviating the human-elephant conflict. We have earlier introduced Eloc, a cost-effective localization system that is based on infrasonic emissions from wild elephants. One of the remaining challenges is a resource-efficient method to detect the elephants' infrasonic emissions. We present our efforts on devising a support vector machine (SVM) that is able to detect elephant rumbles on Eloc nodes.

  • 12. Raza, Shahid
    et al.
    Shafagh, Hossein
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Hummen, René
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Lithe: Lightweight Secure CoAP for the Internet of Things2013In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 3711-3720Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Tennakoon, Eranda
    et al.
    Madusanka, Charith
    De Zoysa, Kasun
    Keppitiyagama, Chamath
    Iyer, Venkat
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Architecture and Computer Communication. SICS Swedish ICT, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sensor-based Breakage Detection for Electric Fences2015In: Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), IEEE, 2015, p. 137-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human-elephant conflict is one of the most severe natural problems in Sri Lanka. There are rich farmlands near the elephant habitats and elephants raid these farms in search of food. This has been the main cause for nearly 70 human deaths and over 200 elephant deaths that have been recorded each year in the recent past. To manage the problem, the government has initiated projects that secure the national wildlife parks with electric fences. However, maintaining the electric fence is a challenge, because of its large perimeter and the lack of available manpower. A particular concern is that of locating faults in electric fences since these typically span a few hundred miles. Currently, park rangers are required to travel on foot to locate the faults, which could take days to complete. In this paper, we propose a novel system architecture that considerably shortens the maintenance time for electric fences, at minimal and hence affordable cost. Our architecture benefits the park rangers of the national wildlife sanctuaries to detect and repair the breakages.

  • 14.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Alm, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Smartphone Support for Persons Who Stutter2014In: Proc. 13th International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, p. 293-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stuttering is a very complex speech disorder that affects around 0.7% of adults while around 5% of the population have stuttered at some point. A large percentage of the affected people tend to speak more fluently when their own speech is played back to their ear with some type of alteration. While this has been done with special devices, smartphones can be used for this purpose. We report on our initial experiences on building such an application and demonstrate problems with delay caused by the lack of real-time support for audio playback in the Android operating system. We also discuss ideas for future work to improve app support for people who stutter.

  • 15.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Mottola, Luca
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Hewage, Kasun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
    Understanding link dynamics in wireless sensor networks with dynamically steerable directional antennas2013In: Wireless Sensor Networks: EWSN 2013, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 115-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By radiating the power in the direction of choice, electronically-switched directional (ESD) antennas can reduce network contention and avoid packet loss. There exists some ESD antennas for wireless sensor networks, but so far researchers have mainly evaluated their directionality. There are no studies regarding the link dynamics of ESD antennas, in particular not for indoor deployments and other scenarios where nodes are not necessarily in line of sight. Our long-term experiments confirm that previous findings that have demonstrated the dependence of angle-of-arrival on channel frequency also hold for directional transmissions with ESD antennas. This is important for the design of protocols for wireless sensor networks with ESD antennas: the best antenna direction, i.e., the direction that leads to the highest packet reception rate and signal strength at the receiver, is not stable but varies over time and with the selected IEEE 802.15.4 channel. As this requires protocols to incorporate some form of adaptation, we present an intentionally simple and yet efficient mechanism for selecting the best antenna direction at run-time with an energy overhead below 2 standard omni-directional transmissions.

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