uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 28 of 28
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Brader, Lea
    et al.
    Rejnmark, Lars
    Carlberg, Carsten
    Schwab, Ursula
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Poutanen, Kaisa S.
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (SYSDIET)2014In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1123-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors. In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (a parts per thousand yen300 g/week, including a parts per thousand yen200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention. At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (< 50 nmol/l), whereas 8 % had deficiency (< 25 nmol/l). Dietary vitamin D intake was increased by the healthy Nordic diet (P < 0.001). The healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P < 0.001) and 19 % (P = 0.002), respectively, without between-group difference (P = 0.142). Compared with control, plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0.208) and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.207) were not altered by the healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes. Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.

  • 2.
    Dragsted, L.
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Acar, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food Sci, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Gurdeniz, G.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Andersen, M-B
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Poulsen, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Astrup, A.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Bro, R.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food Sci, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Engelsen, S. B.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food Sci, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Savorani, F.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food Sci, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Brader, L.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Med & Endocrinol MEA, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Hermansen, K.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Med & Endocrinol MEA, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Schwab, U.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland..
    Kolehmainen, M.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland..
    Paananen, J.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland..
    Poutanen, K. S.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland..
    Cloetens, L.
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Akesson, B.
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Siloaho, M.
    Univ Oulu, Dept Internal Med, Inst Clin Med, SF-90100 Oulu, Finland..
    Savolainen, M. J.
    Univ Oulu, Dept Internal Med, Inst Clin Med, SF-90100 Oulu, Finland..
    Gunnarsdottir, I
    Univ Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Landspitali, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Thorsdottir, I
    Univ Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Landspitali, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Ulven, S. M.
    Oslo & Akershus Univ Coll Appl Sci, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Hlth Nutr & Management, Oslo, Norway..
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Uusitupa, M.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Joensuu, Finland..
    Larsen, T. M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Metabolomic response to Nordic foods2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 67, p. 55-55Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Elmsjö, Albert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Engskog, Mikael K R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass.2015In: Nutrition & Diabetes, ISSN 2044-4052, E-ISSN 2044-4052, Vol. 5, no 19, p. e182-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation.

    METHODS: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), n=39 healthy individuals were overfed with muffins containing SFA or PUFA. Plasma samples were precipitated with cold acetonitrile and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques were used to overview the data, identify variables contributing to group classification and to correlate metabolites with fat accumulation.

    RESULTS: We previously reported that SFA causes a greater accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat, whereas lean tissue levels increases less compared with PUFA, despite comparable weight gain. In this study, lactate and acetate were identified as important contributors to group classification between SFA and PUFA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fat depots (total body fat, visceral adipose tissue and liver fat) and lean tissue correlated (P(corr)>0.5) all with two or more metabolites (for example, branched amino acids, alanine, acetate and lactate). The metabolite composition differed in a manner that may indicate higher insulin sensitivity after a diet with PUFA compared with SFA, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies.

    CONCLUSION: A non-lipid metabolic profiling approach only identified a few metabolites that differentiated between SFA and PUFA overfeeding. Whether these metabolite changes are involved in depot-specific fat storage and increased lean tissue mass during overeating needs further investigation.

  • 4.
    Gillberg, Linn
    et al.
    Rigshosp, Dept Endocrinol, Sect 7652,Tagensvej 20, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Perfilyev, Alexander
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Epigenet & Diabet Unit, Jan Waldenstroms Gata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Brons, Charlotte
    Rigshosp, Dept Endocrinol, Sect 7652,Tagensvej 20, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark..
    Thomasen, Martin
    Rigshosp, Dept Endocrinol, Sect 7652,Tagensvej 20, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark..
    Grunnet, Louise G.
    Rigshosp, Dept Endocrinol, Sect 7652,Tagensvej 20, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark..
    Volkov, Petr
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Epigenet & Diabet Unit, Jan Waldenstroms Gata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, S-14186 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Rönn, Tina
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Epigenet & Diabet Unit, Jan Waldenstroms Gata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Emma
    Rigshosp, Dept Endocrinol, Sect 7652,Tagensvej 20, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.;Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Epigenet & Diabet Unit, Jan Waldenstroms Gata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Vaag, Allan
    Rigshosp, Dept Endocrinol, Sect 7652,Tagensvej 20, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ling, Charlotte
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Epigenet & Diabet Unit, Jan Waldenstroms Gata 35, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Adipose tissue transcriptomics and epigenomics in low birthweight men and controls: role of high-fat overfeeding2016In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 799-812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Individuals who had a low birthweight (LBW) are at an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes when exposed to high-fat overfeeding (HFO). We studied genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) after 5 days of HFO and after a control diet in 40 young men, of whom 16 had LBW. Methods mRNA expression was analysed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays and DNA methylation using Illumina 450K BeadChip arrays. Results We found differential DNA methylation at 53 sites in SAT from LBW vs normal birthweight (NBW) men (false discovery rate < 5%), including sites in the FADS2 and CPLX1 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes. When we used reference-free cell mixture adjustments to potentially adjust for cell composition, 4,323 sites had differential methylation in LBW vs NBW men. However, no differences in SAT gene expression levels were identified between LBW and NBW men. In the combined group of all 40 participants, 3,276 genes (16.5%) were differentially expressed in SAT after HFO (false discovery rate < 5%) and there was no difference between LBW men and controls. The most strongly upregulated genes were ELOVL6, FADS2 and NNAT; in contrast, INSR, IRS2 and the SLC27A2 fatty acid transporter showed decreased expression after HFO. Interestingly, SLC27A2 expression correlated negatively with diabetes- and obesity-related traits in a replication cohort of 142 individuals. DNA methylation at 652 CpG sites (including in CDK5, IGFBP5 and SLC2A4) was altered in SAT after overfeeding in this and in another cohort. Conclusions/interpretation Young men who had a LBW exhibit epigenetic alterations in their adipose tissue that potentially influence insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Short-term overfeeding influences gene transcription and, to some extent, DNA methylation in adipose tissue; there was no major difference in this response between LBW and control participants.

  • 5.
    Heurling, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Moreno, Anaisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging. Univ Uppsala Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Eriksson, J. P.
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nordeman, Patrik
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sprycha, M.
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wilking, H.
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Edner, A. Gronowski
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Univ Uppsala Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lubberink, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Univ Uppsala Hosp, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Impact of overfeeding with saturated and polyunsaturated fat on hepatic [C-11]palmitate uptake and fat content using PET-MR2016In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 43, p. S448-S448Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Iggman, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Beckman, Lena
    Rudling, Mats
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Role of Dietary Fats in Modulating Cardiometabolic Risk During Moderate Weight Gain: A Randomized Double-Blind Overfeeding Trial (LIPOGAIN Study)2014In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 3, no 5, article id e001095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Whether the type of dietary fat could alter cardiometabolic responses to a hypercaloric diet is unknown. In addition, subclinical cardiometabolic consequences of moderate weight gain require further study.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 7-week, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, 39 healthy, lean individuals (mean age of 27±4) consumed muffins (51% of energy [%E] from fat and 44%E refined carbohydrates) providing 750 kcal/day added to their habitual diets. All muffins had identical contents, except for type of fat; sunflower oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA diet) or palm oil rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA diet). Despite comparable weight gain in the 2 groups, total: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein:HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B:AI ratios decreased during the PUFA versus the SFA diet (-0.37±0.59 versus +0.07±0.29, -0.31±0.49 versus +0.05±0.28, and -0.07±0.11 versus +0.01±0.07, P=0.003, P=0.007, and P=0.01 for between-group differences), whereas no significant differences were observed for other cardiometabolic risk markers. In the whole group (ie, independently of fat type), body weight increased (+2.2%, P<0.001) together with increased plasma proinsulin (+21%, P=0.007), insulin (+17%, P=0.003), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, (+9%, P=0.008) fibroblast growth factor-21 (+31%, P=0.04), endothelial markers vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin (+9, +5, and +10%, respectively, P<0.01 for all), whereas nonesterified fatty acids decreased (-28%, P=0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Excess energy from PUFA versus SFA reduces atherogenic lipoproteins. Modest weight gain in young individuals induces hyperproinsulinemia and increases biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, effects that may be partly outweighed by the lipid-lowering effects of PUFA.

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01427140.

  • 7. Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    et al.
    Ulven, Stine M
    Paananen, Jussi
    de Mello, Vanessa
    Schwab, Ursula
    Carlberg, Carsten
    Myhrstad, Mari
    Pihlajamäki, Jussi
    Dungner, Elisabeth
    Sjölin, Eva
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Akesson, Björn
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Hukkanen, Janne
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Dragsted, Lars O
    Savolainen, Markku J
    Brader, Lea
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Poutanen, Kaisa S
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Arner, Peter
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Healthy Nordic diet downregulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome.2015In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 101, no 1, p. 228-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previously, a healthy Nordic diet (ND) has been shown to have beneficial health effects close to those of Mediterranean diets.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore whether the ND has an impact on gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and whether changes in gene expression are associated with clinical and biochemical effects.

    DESIGN: Obese adults with features of the metabolic syndrome underwent an 18- to 24-wk randomized intervention study comparing the ND with the control diet (CD) (the SYSDIET study, carried out within Nordic Centre of Excellence of the Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies). The present study included participants from 3 Nordic SYSDIET centers [Kuopio (n = 20), Lund (n = 18), and Oulu (n = 18)] with a maximum weight change of ±4 kg, highly sensitive C-reactive protein concentration <10 mg/L at the beginning and the end of the intervention, and baseline body mass index (in kg/m(2)) <38. SAT biopsy specimens were obtained before and after the intervention and subjected to global transcriptome analysis with Gene 1.1 ST Arrays (Affymetrix).

    RESULTS: Altogether, 128 genes were differentially expressed in SAT between the ND and CD (nominal P < 0.01; false discovery rate, 25%). These genes were overrepresented in pathways related to immune response (adjusted P = 0.0076), resulting mainly from slightly decreased expression in the ND and increased expression in the CD. Immune-related pathways included leukocyte trafficking and macrophage recruitment (e.g., interferon regulatory factor 1, CD97), adaptive immune response (interleukin32, interleukin 6 receptor), and reactive oxygen species (neutrophil cytosolic factor 1). Interestingly, the regulatory region of the 128 genes was overrepresented for binding sites for the nuclear transcription factor κB.

    CONCLUSION: A healthy Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene expression in SAT compared with a control diet independently of body weight change in individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00992641.

  • 8.
    Lankinen, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Schwab, Ursula
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Paananen, Jussi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Biomed, Kuopio, Finland..
    Nygren, Heli
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo, Finland..
    Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo, Finland..
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland.;VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo, Finland..
    Hyötylainen, Tuulia
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo, Finland.;Steno Diabet Ctr, DK-2820 Gentofte, Denmark..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Univ Oulu, Res Ctr Internal Med & Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland..
    Hukkanen, Janne
    Univ Oulu, Res Ctr Internal Med & Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland..
    Brader, Lea
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol & Internal Med, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol & Internal Med, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, Lund, Sweden..
    Önning, Gunilla
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, Lund, Sweden..
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Fac Food Sci & Nutr, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Landspitali Univ Hosp, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Univ Iceland, Sch Hlth Sci, Fac Food Sci & Nutr, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Landspitali Univ Hosp, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Åkesson, Bjorn
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Nutr, Lund, Sweden..
    Dragsted, Lars Ove
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Sci, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, Frederiksberg, Denmark..
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Res Unit, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo, Finland.;Steno Diabet Ctr, DK-2820 Gentofte, Denmark..
    A Healthy Nordic Diet Alters the Plasma Lipidomic Profile in Adults with Features of Metabolic Syndrome in a Multicenter Randomized Dietary Intervention2016In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 146, no 4, p. 662-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A healthy Nordic diet is associated with improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effect on lipidomic profile is not known.

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet affects the fasting plasma lipidomic profile in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Methods: Men and women (n = 200) with features of metabolic syndrome [mean age: 55 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.6] were randomly assigned to either a healthy Nordic (n = 104) or a control (n = 96) diet for 18 or 24 wk at 6 centers. Of the participants, 156 completed the study with plasma lipidomic measurements. The healthy Nordic diet consisted of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, berries, vegetable oils and margarines, fish, low-fat milk products, and low-fat meat. An average Nordic diet served as the control diet and included low-fiber cereal products, dairy fat-based spreads, regular-fatmilk products, and a limited amount of fruits, vegetables, and berries. Lipidomic profiles were measured at baseline, week 12, and the end of the intervention (18 or 24wk) by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The effects of the diets on the lipid variables were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models. Data from centers with 18- or 24-wk duration were also analyzed separately.

    Results: Changes in 21 plasma lipids differed significantly between the groups at week 12 (false discovery rate P < 0.05), including increases in plasmalogens and decreases in ceramides in the healthy Nordic diet group compared with the control group. At the end of the study, changes in lipidomic profiles did not differ between the groups. However, when the intervention lasted 24 wk, changes in 8 plasma lipids that had been identified at 12 wk, including plasmalogens, were sustained. There were no differences in changes in plasma lipids between groups with an intervention of 18 wk. By the dietary biomarker score, adherence to diet did not explain the difference in the results related to the duration of the study.

    Conclusions: A healthy Nordic diet transiently modified the plasma lipidomic profile, specifically by increasing the concentrations of antioxidative plasmalogens and decreasing insulin resistance-inducing ceramides.

  • 9.
    Leder, Lena
    et al.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, POB 1046, N-0317 Oslo, Norway..
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Narverud, Ingunn
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, POB 1046, N-0317 Oslo, Norway..
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med H7, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Myhrstad, Mari C. W.
    Oslo & Akershus Univ, Coll Appl Sci, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Hlth Nutr & Management, Oslo, Norway..
    de Mello, Vanessa D.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Paananen, Jussi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Carlberg, Carsten
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Biomed, Kuopio, Finland..
    Schwab, Ursula
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Med Res Ctr, Inst Biomed, Oulu, Finland.;Med Res Ctr, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Poznan Univ Med Sci, Dept Gastroenterol & Metab, Poznan, Poland..
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, Lund, Sweden..
    Storm, Matilda Ulmius
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, Lund, Sweden..
    Hukkanen, Janne
    Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Dept Internal Med, Inst Clin Med, Kajaanintie 50, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland..
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Dept Internal Med, Inst Clin Med, Kajaanintie 50, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland.;Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Oulu, Finland..
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol & Internal Med, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Dragsted, Lars O.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sport, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Univ Iceland & Landspitali, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, Univ Iceland & Landspitali, Unit Nutr Res, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Akesson, Bjorn
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Nutr, Lund, Sweden..
    Thoresen, Magne
    Univ Oslo, Dept Biostat, Oslo, Norway..
    Arner, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med H7, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Poutanen, Kaisa S.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland..
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Res Unit, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    Holven, Kirsten B.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, POB 1046, N-0317 Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Morbid Obes & Prevent Med, Norwegian Natl Advisory Unit Familial Hypercholes, N-0450 Oslo, Norway..
    Ulven, Stine M.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, POB 1046, N-0317 Oslo, Norway.;Oslo & Akershus Univ, Coll Appl Sci, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Hlth Nutr & Management, Oslo, Norway..
    Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a SYSDIET sub-study2016In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. Methods: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study protocol. In this sub-study, we included subjects (n = 89) from three Nordic centers: Kuopio (n = 26), Lund (n = 30), and Oulu (n = 33) with a maximum weight change of +/- 4 kg, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration <= 10 mg L-1, and baseline body mass index <39 kg m(-2). PBMCs were isolated, and the mRNA gene expression analysis was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We analyzed the mRNA expression changes of 44 genes before and after a 2hOGTT at the beginning and the end of the intervention. Results: The healthy ND significantly down-regulated the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin 18 (IL18), and thrombospondin receptor (CD36) mRNA transcripts and significantly up-regulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) mRNA transcript after the 2hOGTT compared to the CD. Conclusions: A healthy ND is able to modify the gene expression in PBMCs after a 2hOGTT. However, more studies are needed to clarify the biological and clinical relevance of these findings.

  • 10. Magnusdottir, O. K.
    et al.
    Landberg, R.
    Gunnarsdottir, I.
    Cloetens, L.
    Akesson, B.
    Landin-Olsson, M.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Schwab, U.
    Herzig, K-H
    Savolainen, M. J.
    Brader, L.
    Hermansen, K.
    Kolehmainen, M.
    Poutanen, K.
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Thorsdottir, I.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Plasma alkylresorcinols C17:0/C21:0 ratio, a biomarker of relative whole-grain rye intake, is associated to insulin sensitivity: a randomized study2014In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 453-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Few studies have used biomarkers of whole-grain intake to study its relation to glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma alkylresorcinols (AR), a biomarker of whole-grain rye and wheat intake, and glucose metabolism in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were 30-65 years of age, with body mass index 27-40 kg/m(2) and had MetS without diabetes. Individuals were recruited through six centers in the Nordic countries and randomized to a healthy Nordic diet (ND, n=96), rich in whole-grain rye and wheat, or a control diet (n=70), for 18-24 weeks. In addition, associations between total plasma AR concentration and C17:0/C21:0 homolog ratio as an indication of the relative whole-grain rye intake, and glucose metabolism measures from oral glucose tolerance tests were investigated in pooled (ND + control) regression analyses at 18/24 weeks. RESULTS: ND did not improve glucose metabolism compared with control diet, but the AR C17:0/C21:0 ratio was inversely associated with fasting insulin concentrations (P=0.002) and positively associated with the insulin sensitivity indices Matsuda ISI (P=0.026) and disposition index (P=0.022) in pooled analyses at 18/24 weeks, even after adjustment for confounders. The AR C17:0/C21:0 ratio was not significantly associated with insulin secretion indices. Total plasma AR concentration was not related to fasting plasma glucose or fasting insulin at 18/24 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The AR C17:0/C21:0 ratio, an indicator of relative whole-grain rye intake, is associated with increased insulin sensitivity in a population with MetS.

  • 11. Magnusdottir, O. K.
    et al.
    Landberg, R.
    Gunnarsdottir, I.
    Cloetens, L.
    Akesson, B.
    Onning, G.
    Jonsdottir, S. E.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Schwab, U.
    Herzig, K. H.
    Savolainen, M. J.
    Brader, L.
    Hermansen, K.
    Kolehmainen, M.
    Poutanen, K.
    Uusitupa, M.
    Thorsdottir, I.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Alkylresorcinols And A-Carotene In Plasma As Dietary Biomarkers For Healthy Nordic Diet2013In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 63, no Suppl. 1, p. 459-459Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12. Magnusdottir, Ola Kally
    et al.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Akesson, Bjorn
    Onning, Gunilla
    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Schwab, Ursula
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Brader, Lea
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Plasma Alkylresorcinols Reflect Important Whole-Grain Components of a Healthy Nordic Diet2013In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 143, no 9, p. 1383-1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomarkers of dietary intake can be important tools in nutrition research. Our aim was to assess whether plasma alkylresorcinol (AR) and beta-carotene concentrations could be used as dietary biomarkers for whole-grain, fruits and vegetables in a healthy Nordic diet (ND). Participants (n = 166), 30-65 y with a body mass index of 27-40 kg/m(2) and two more features of metabolic syndrome (International Diabetes Federation definition, slightly modified), were recruited through six centers in the Nordic countries and randomly assigned to an ND or control diet for 18 or 24 wk, depending on study center. Plasma AR and beta-carotene were analyzed and nutrient intake calculated from 4-d food records. Median fiber intake increased in the ND group from 2.5 g/MJ at baseline to 4.1 g/MJ (P < 0.001) at end point (week 18 or 24), and median (IQR) fasting plasma total AR concentration increased from 73 (88) to 106 (108) nmol/L, or 45%, from baseline to end point (P < 0.001). The AR concentration was significantly higher in the ND group (P < 0.001) than in the control group at end point. beta-Carotene intake tended to increase in the ND group (P = 0.07), but the plasma beta-carotene concentration did not change significantly throughout the study and did not differ between the groups at follow-up. In conclusion, an ND resulted in higher dietary fiber intake and increased plasma total AR concentration compared with the control diet, showing that the total AR concentration might be a valid biomarker for an ND in which whole-grain wheat and rye are important components. No significant difference in plasma beta-carotene concentrations was observed between the ND and control groups, suggesting that beta-carotene may not be a sensitive enough biomarker of the ND.

  • 13. Magnusdottir, Ola Kally
    et al.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Akesson, Bjorn
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Schwab, Ursula
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Hukkanen, Janne
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Brader, Lea
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Whole Grain Rye Intake, Reflected by a Biomarker, Is Associated with Favorable Blood Lipid Outcomes in Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Study2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, p. e110827-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Few studies have explored the possible plasma cholesterol lowering effects of rye consumption. The aim of this secondary analysis in the SYSDIET study was to investigate the association between plasma alkylresorcinols (AR), a biomarker for whole grain wheat and rye intake, and blood lipid concentrations in a population with metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, we analyzed the associations between the AR C17:0/C21:0 ratio, a suggested marker of the relative intake of whole grain/bran rye, and blood lipid concentrations. Methods: Participants were 30-65 years of age, with body mass index (BMI) 27-40 kg/m(2) and had metabolic syndrome. Individuals were recruited through six centers in the Nordic countries and randomized either to a healthy Nordic diet (ND, n = 93), rich in whole grain rye and wheat, as well as berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products, or a control diet (n = 65) for 18/24 weeks. Associations between total plasma AR concentration and C17:0/C21:0 homologue ratio and blood lipids were investigated in pooled (ND + control group) regression analyses at 18/24 weeks adjusted for baseline value for the dependent variable, age, BMI and statin use. Results: When adjusted for confounders, total plasma AR at 18/24 weeks was not significantly associated with blood lipids but the AR ratio C17:0/C21:0 was inversely associated with LDL cholesterol concentrations (B (95% Cl): -0.41 (-0.80 to -0.02)), log LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio (-0.20 (-0.37 to -0.03)), log non-HDL cholesterol (-0.20 (-0.37 to -0.03)), log apolipoprotein B (-0.12 (-0.24 to 0.00)) and log triglyceride concentrations (-0.35 (-0.59 to -0.12)). Discussion: Increased proportion of whole grain rye, reflected by a biomarker, in the diet is associated with favorable blood lipid outcomes, a relationship that should be further investigated.

  • 14.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Magnusdottir, Ola K
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Landberg, Rikard
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Brader, Lea
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Poutanen, Kaisa S
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Hukkanen, Janne
    Savolainen, Markku J
    Dragsted, Lars O
    Schwab, Ursula
    Paananen, Jussi
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Åkesson, Björn
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    A dietary biomarker approach captures compliance and cardiometabolic effects of a healthy Nordic diet in individuals with metabolic syndrome2014In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 144, no 10, p. 1642-1649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of compliance with dietary interventions is necessary to understand the observed magnitude of the health effects of the diet per se. To avoid reporting bias, different dietary biomarkers (DBs) could be used instead of self-reported data. However, few studies investigated a combination of DBs to assess compliance and its influence on cardiometabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were to use a combination of DBs to assess compliance and to investigate how a healthy Nordic diet (ND) influences cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with high apparent compliance compared with the whole study population. From a recently conducted isocaloric randomized trial, SYSDIET (Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies), in 166 individuals with metabolic syndrome, several DBs were assessed to reflect different key components of the ND: canola oil (serum phospholipid α-linolenic acid), fatty fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], vegetables (plasma β-carotene), and whole grains (plasma alkylresorcinols). High-fat dairy intake (expectedly low in the ND) was reflected by serum pentadecanoic acid. All participants with biomarker data (n = 154) were included in the analyses. Biomarkers were combined by using a biomarker rank score (DB score) and principal component analysis (PCA). The DB score was then used to assess compliance. During the intervention, median concentrations of alkylresorcinols, α-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA were >25% higher in the ND individuals than in the controls (P < 0.05), whereas median concentrations of pentadecanoic acid were 14% higher in controls (P < 0.05). Median DB score was 57% higher in the ND than in controls (P < 0.001) during the intervention, and participants were ranked similarly by DB score and PCA score. Overall, estimates of group difference in cardiometabolic effects generally appeared to be greater among compliant participants than in the whole study population (e.g., estimates of treatment effects on blood pressure and lipoproteins were ∼1.5- to 2-fold greater in the most compliant participants), suggesting that poor compliance attenuated the dietary effects. With adequate consideration of their limitations, DB combinations (e.g., DB score) could be useful for assessing compliance in intervention studies investigating cardiometabolic effects of healthy dietary patterns.

  • 15.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Pingel, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Natl Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Molndal, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Interrelationships Between Fatty Acid Composition in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis2017In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 71, p. 372-372Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Marklund, Matti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Pingel, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Natl Food Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Internal Med & Clin Nutr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Jan W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical diabetology and metabolism. en..
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    AstraZeneca R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fatty Acid Proportions in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids Are Positively Correlated in Various Swedish Populations2017In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 147, no 11, p. 2118-2125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatty acid (FA) proportions in cholesterol esters (CEs) and plasma phospholipids are widely used as dietary biomarkers. Information on how proportions in these fractions correlate could have implications for interpretation and use of FA biomarkers in observational and interventional studies. Objective: We investigated correlations between FA proportions in CEs and phospholipids in free-living individuals and assessed how diet-induced alterations of FA proportions correlate between fractions. Methods: Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs) between FA proportions (percentage of total FAs) in circulating CEs and phospholipids were calculated separately in 8 individual study populations including Swedish females and males (N = 2052; age range: 11-84 y), and pooled by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. In addition, study populations were stratified by age, sex, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), and diabetes status, and strata-specific rs were pooled by meta-analysis. In 2 randomized trials (N = 79) in which dietary saturated FAs were isocalorically replaced with unsaturated FAs, treatment-wise calculations of rs were conducted between FA changes in CEs and phospholipids. Results: Overall, FA proportions in CEs and phospholipids correlated well and especially strongly for polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), with pooled rs (95% CIs) ranging from 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) for a-linolenic acid to 0.92 (0.91, 0.93) for eicosapentaenoic acid. Weak correlations (pooled rs <0.4) were observed only for palmitic acid and stearic acid, with pooled rs (95% CIs): 0.29 (0.24, 0.33) and 0.30 (0.25, 0.34), respectively. Overall, correlations were not affected by age, sex, BMI, or diabetes status. Strong correlations (r(s) >= 0.6) between diet-induced FA changes in CEs and phospholipids were observed for most PUFAs. Conclusions: Proportions of most FAs in CEs and phospholipids ranked individuals similarly, suggesting that FA proportions in these fractions can be used interchangeably in populations of diverse age, sex, body composition, and diabetes status. Caution is advised, however, when comparing results from studies assessing palmitic acid or stearic acid in different lipid fractions.

  • 17.
    Myhrstad, Mari C. W.
    et al.
    Oslo Metropolitan Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Nursing & Hlth Promot, N-0130 Oslo, Norway.
    de Mello, Vanessa D.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio 70211, Finland.
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med H7, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio 70211, Finland.
    Paananen, Jussi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio 70211, Finland.
    Rundblad, Amanda
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Carlberg, Carsten
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Biomed, Kuopio 70211, Finland.
    Olstad, Ole Kristoffer
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Med Biochem, N-0424 Oslo, Norway.
    Pihlajamaki, Jussi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio 70211, Finland;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Med Endocrinol & Clin Nutr, Kuopio 70029, Finland.
    Holven, Kirsten B.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, N-0316 Oslo, Norway;Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Morbid Obes & Prevent Med, Norwegian Natl Advisory Unit Familial Hypercholes, N-0424 Oslo, Norway.
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol & Internal Med, DK-8200 Aarhus, Denmark.
    Dragsted, Lars O.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, Fac Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjoerg
    Univ Iceland, Unit Nutr Res, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland;Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Cloetens, Lieselotte
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Storm, Matilda Ulmius
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Akesson, Bjorn
    Lund Univ, Biomed Nutr Pure & Appl Biochem, S-22100 Lund, Sweden;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Nutr, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Hukkanen, Janne
    Univ Oulu, Dept Internal Med, Oulu 90014, Finland;Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr, Oulu 90014, Finland.
    Herzig, Karl-Heinz
    Univ Oulu, MRC, Inst Biomed, Oulu 90014, Finland;Univ Oulu, MRC, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland;Univ Hosp, Oulu 90014, Finland;Poznan Univ Med Sci, Dept Gastroenterol & Metab, PL-1061701 Poznan, Poland.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Unit Nutr Res, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland;Landspitali Natl Univ Hosp Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Poutanen, Kaisa S.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio 70211, Finland;VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, Espoo 02044, Finland.
    Savolainen, Markku J.
    Univ Oulu, Dept Internal Med, Oulu 90014, Finland;Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Med Res Ctr, Oulu 90014, Finland.
    Schwab, Ursula
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio 70211, Finland;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Med Endocrinol & Clin Nutr, Kuopio 70029, Finland.
    Arner, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med H7, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Publ Hlth & Clin Nutr, Kuopio 70211, Finland.
    Ulven, Stine M.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Healthy Nordic Diet Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to Mitochondrial Function and Immune Response in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome-A SYSDIET Sub-Study2019In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 63, no 13, article id 1801405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scope To explore the effect of a healthy Nordic diet on the global transcriptome profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods and results Subjects with metabolic syndrome undergo a 18/24 week randomized intervention study comparing an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet with an average habitual Nordic diet served as control (SYSDIET study). Altogether, 68 participants are included. PBMCs are obtained before and after intervention and total RNA is subjected to global transcriptome analysis. 1302 probe sets are differentially expressed between the diet groups (p-value < 0.05). Twenty-five of these are significantly regulated (FDR q-value < 0.25) and are mainly involved in mitochondrial function, cell growth, and cell adhesion. The list of 1302 regulated probe sets is subjected to functional analyses. Pathways and processes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, immune response, and cell cycle are downregulated in the healthy Nordic diet group. In addition, gene transcripts with common motifs for 42 transcription factors, including NFR1, NFR2, and NF-kappa B, are downregulated in the healthy Nordic diet group. Conclusion These results suggest that benefits of a healthy diet may be mediated by improved mitochondrial function and reduced inflammation.

  • 18.
    Perfilyev, Alexander
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Diabet Ctr, Epigenet & Diabet Unit,Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gillberg, Linn
    Rigshosp, Dept Endocrinol, Diabet & Metab, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Volkov, Petr
    Lund Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Diabet Ctr, Epigenet & Diabet Unit,Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Emma
    Lund Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Diabet Ctr, Epigenet & Diabet Unit,Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Ling, Charlotte
    Lund Univ, Clin Res Ctr, Diabet Ctr, Epigenet & Diabet Unit,Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden..
    Impact of polyunsaturated and saturated fat overfeeding on the DNA-methylation pattern in human adipose tissue: a randomized controlled trial2017In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 991-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dietary fat composition can affect ectopic lipid accumulation and, thereby, insulin resistance. Diets that are high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have different metabolic responses. Objective: We investigated whether the epigenome of human adipose tissue is affected differently by dietary fat composition and general overfeeding in a randomized trial. Design: We studied the effects of 7 wk of excessive SFA (n = 17) or PUFA (n = 14) intake (+750 kcal/d) on the DNA methylation of similar to 450,000 sites in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both diets resulted in similar body weight increases. We also combined the data from the 2 groups to examine the overall effect of overfeeding on the DNA methylation in adipose tissue. Results: The DNA methylation of 4875 Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites was affected differently between the 2 diets. Furthermore, both the SFA and PUFA diets increased the mean degree of DNA methylation in adipose tissue, particularly in promoter regions. However, although the mean methylation was changed in 1797 genes [e.g., alpha-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase (FTO), interleukin 6 (IL6), insulin receptor (INSR), neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] by PUFAs, only 125 genes [e.g., adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing (ADIPOQ)] were changed by SFA overfeeding. In addition, the SFA diet significantly altered the expression of 28 transcripts [e.g., acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1)], whereas the PUFA diet did not significantly affect gene expression. When the data from the 2 diet groups were combined, the mean methylation of 1444 genes, including fatty acid binding protein 1 (FABP1), fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), MC3R, PPARG coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), was changed in adipose tissue by overfeeding. Moreover, the baseline DNA methylation of 12 CpG sites that was annotated to 9 genes [e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MAPK7), melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), and splicing factor SWAP homolog (SFRS8)] was associated with the degree of weight increase in response to extra energy intake. Conclusions: SFA overfeeding and PUFA overfeeding induce distinct epigenetic changes in human adipose tissue. In addition, we present data that suggest that baseline DNA methylation can predict weight increase in response to overfeeding in humans.

  • 19.
    Petrus, P
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Edholm, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dahlman, I
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Arner, P
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rydén, M
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Depot-specific differences in fatty acid composition and distinct associations with lipogenic gene expression in abdominal adipose tissue of obese women2017In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1295-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiometabolic diseases are primarily linked to enlarged visceral adipose tissue (VAT). However, some data suggest heterogeneity within the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) depot with potential metabolic differences between the superficial SAT (sSAT) and deep SAT (dSAT) compartments. We aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of these three depots with regard to fatty acid (FA) composition and gene expression. Adipose tissue biopsies were collected from 75 obese women undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. FA composition and gene expression were determined with gas chromatography and quantitative real-time-PCR, respectively. Stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) activity was estimated by product-to-precursor FA ratios. All polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA) with 20 carbons were consistently lower in VAT than either SAT depots, whereas essential PUFA (linoleic acid, 18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3) were similar between all three depots. Lauric and palmitic acid were higher and lower in VAT, respectively. The SCD-1 product palmitoleic acid as well as estimated SCD-1 activity was higher in VAT than SAT. Overall, there was a distinct association pattern between lipid metabolizing genes and individual FAs in VAT. In conclusion, SAT and VAT are two distinct depots with regard to FA composition and expression of key lipogenic genes. However, the small differences between sSAT and dSAT suggest that FA metabolism of SAT is rather homogenous.

  • 20. Petrus, Paul
    et al.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Edholm, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Mejhert, Niklas
    Arner, Peter
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Ryden, Mikael
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Saturated fatty acids in human visceral adipose tissue are associated with increased 11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 1 expression2015In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 14, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Visceral fat accumulation is associated with metabolic disease. It is therefore relevant to study factors that regulate adipose tissue distribution. Recent data shows that overeating saturated fatty acids promotes greater visceral fat storage than overeating unsaturated fatty acids. Visceral adiposity is observed in states of hypercortisolism, and the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta-hsd1) is a major regulator of cortisol activity by converting inactive cortisone to cortisol in adipose tissue. We hypothesized that tissue fatty acid composition regulates body fat distribution through local effects on the expression of 11 beta-hsd1 and its corresponding gene (HSD11B1) resulting in altered cortisol activity. Findings: Visceral- and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery from 45 obese women (BMI; 41 +/- 4 kg/m(2)). The fatty acid composition of each biopsy was measured and correlated to the mRNA levels of HSD11B1. 11 beta-hsd1 protein levels were determined in a subgroup (n = 12) by western blot analysis. Our main finding was that tissue saturated fatty acids (e.g. palmitate) were associated with increased 11 beta-hsd1 gene- and protein-expression in visceral but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. Conclusions: The present study proposes a link between HSD11B1 and saturated fatty acids in visceral, but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. Nutritional regulation of visceral fat mass through HSD11B1 is of interest for the modulation of metabolic risk and warrants further investigation.

  • 21.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dietary Fatty Acids, Body Composition and Ectopic Fat : Results from Overfeeding Studies in Humans2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on body composition and ectopic fat in humans, with emphasis on the role of the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and the saturated fatty acid (SFA) palmitic acid (16:0). The overall hypothesis was that linoleic acid would be beneficial compared with palmitic acid during overfeeding, as previously indicated in animals.

    Papers I, II and IV were double-blinded, randomized interventions in which different dietary fats were provided to participants and Paper III was a cross-sectional study in a community-based cohort (PIVUS) in which serum fatty acid composition was assessed as a biomarker of dietary fat intake.

    In Paper I, overfeeding with sunflower oil (n-6 PUFA) for 7 weeks caused less accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat (as assessed by MRI) compared with palm oil (SFA) in young and lean subjects despite similar weight gain among groups. Instead, sunflower oil caused a larger accumulation of lean tissue.

    In Paper II, plasma from Paper I was analyzed with NMR-based metabolomics, aiming to identify metabolites differentially affected by the two dietary treatments. Acetate decreased by PUFA and increased by SFA whereas lactate increased by PUFA and decreased by SFA.

    In Paper III, the proportion of linoleic acid in serum was inversely associated with contents of visceral-, subcutaneous- and total body adipose tissue whereas the proportion of palmitic acid was directly associated with visceral- and total body adipose tissue in 70-year old men and women.

    In Paper IV, overfeeding with sunflower oil for 8 weeks caused less accumulation of liver fat compared with palm oil also in overweight and obese subjects. SFA increased visceral fat in men only. Accumulation of lean tissue was similar between groups.

    In conclusion, SFA (palmitic acid) from palm oil promotes marked liver fat accumulation in both normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects during overeating, whereas n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) from sunflower oil prevents such liver fat accumulation. Diverging effects of SFA and PUFA on visceral adipose tissue and lean tissue may only be applicable in some groups and/or circumstances. These results imply that negative effects associated with weight gain (e.g. fatty liver) may be partly counteracted by the type fat in the diet, overall supporting a beneficial role of diets higher in unsaturated fat compared with saturated fat for preventing liver fat accumulation. 

    List of papers
    1. Overfeeding Polyunsaturated and Saturated Fat Causes Distinct Effects on Liver and Visceral Fat Accumulation in Humans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overfeeding Polyunsaturated and Saturated Fat Causes Distinct Effects on Liver and Visceral Fat Accumulation in Humans
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 63, no 7, p. 2356-2368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Excess ectopic fat storage is linked to type 2 diabetes. The importance of dietary fat composition for ectopic fat storage in humans is unknown. We investigated liver fat accumulation and body composition during overfeeding saturated (SFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat. LIPOGAIN was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial. Thirty-nine young and normal-weight individuals were overfed muffins high in SFA (palm oil) or n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) for 7 weeks. Liver fat, visceral (VAT), subcutaneous abdominal (SAT), and total adipose tissue (TAT), pancreatic fat, and lean tissue was assessed by MRI. Transcriptomics were performed in SAT. Both groups gained similar weight. SFA however markedly increased liver fat compared with PUFA and caused 2-fold larger increase in VAT than PUFA. Conversely, PUFA caused a nearly 3-fold larger increase in lean tissue than SFA. Increase in liver fat directly correlated with changes in plasma SFA and inversely with PUFA. Genes involved in regulating energy dissipation, insulin resistance, body composition and fat cell differentiation in SAT were differentially regulated between diets, and associated with increased PUFA in SAT. In conclusion, overeating SFA promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage whereas excess energy from PUFA may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans.

    National Category
    Endocrinology and Diabetes
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-223915 (URN)10.2337/db13-1622 (DOI)000337918200025 ()24550191 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-04-28 Created: 2014-04-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass.
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Nutrition & Diabetes, ISSN 2044-4052, E-ISSN 2044-4052, Vol. 5, no 19, p. e182-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation.

    METHODS: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), n=39 healthy individuals were overfed with muffins containing SFA or PUFA. Plasma samples were precipitated with cold acetonitrile and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques were used to overview the data, identify variables contributing to group classification and to correlate metabolites with fat accumulation.

    RESULTS: We previously reported that SFA causes a greater accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat, whereas lean tissue levels increases less compared with PUFA, despite comparable weight gain. In this study, lactate and acetate were identified as important contributors to group classification between SFA and PUFA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fat depots (total body fat, visceral adipose tissue and liver fat) and lean tissue correlated (P(corr)>0.5) all with two or more metabolites (for example, branched amino acids, alanine, acetate and lactate). The metabolite composition differed in a manner that may indicate higher insulin sensitivity after a diet with PUFA compared with SFA, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies.

    CONCLUSION: A non-lipid metabolic profiling approach only identified a few metabolites that differentiated between SFA and PUFA overfeeding. Whether these metabolite changes are involved in depot-specific fat storage and increased lean tissue mass during overeating needs further investigation.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Nutrition and Dietetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267034 (URN)10.1038/nutd.2015.31 (DOI)000368899900002 ()26479316 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, K2015-54X-22081-04-3Swedish Diabetes Association
    Note

    Rosqvist, Engskog, Haglöf, Riséus and Pettersson contributed equally to this work.

    Available from: 2015-11-17 Created: 2015-11-17 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    3. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue content is diversely associated with serum polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue content is diversely associated with serum polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids
    Show others...
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280947 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2018-11-30
    4. Effects of overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat on lean tissue, liver fat and visceral fat accumulation in overweight and obese humans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat on lean tissue, liver fat and visceral fat accumulation in overweight and obese humans
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280948 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2016-04-29
  • 22.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Bjermo, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters and phospholipids is linked to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue content in elderly individuals: a cross-sectional study2017In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 16, p. 1-10, article id 68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and truncal fat predict cardiometabolic disease. Intervention trials suggest that saturated fatty acids (SFA), e. g. palmitic acid, promote abdominal and liver fat storage whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), e. g. linoleic acid, prevent fat accumulation. Such findings require investigation in population-based studies of older individuals. We aimed to investigate the relationships of serum biomarkers of PUFA intake as well as serum levels of palmitic acid, with abdominal and total adipose tissue content.

    Methods: In a population-based sample of 287 elderly subjects in the PIVUS cohort, we assessed fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) by gas chromatography and the amount of VAT and abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), liver fat by MR spectroscopy (MRS), and total body fat, trunk fat and leg fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR.

    Results: VAT and trunk fat showed the strongest correlation with insulin resistance (r = 0.49, P < 0.001). Linoleic acid in both CE and PL was inversely related to all body fat depots (r = -0.24 to -0.33, P < 0.001) including liver fat measured in a sub-group (r = -0.26, P < 0.05, n = 73), whereas n-3 PUFA showed weak inverse (18: 3n-3) or positive (20: 5n-3) associations. Palmitic acid in CE, but not in PL, was directly correlated with VAT (r = 0.19, P < 0.001) and trunk fat (r = 0.18, P = 0.003). Overall, the significant associations remained after adjusting for energy intake, height, alcohol, sex, smoking, education and physical activity. The inverse correlation between linoleic acid and VAT remained significant after further adjustment for total body fat.

    Conclusions: Serum linoleic acid is inversely related to body fat storage including VAT and trunk fat whereas palmitic acid was less consistently but directly associated, in line with recent feeding studies. Considering the close link between VAT and insulin resistance, a potential preventive role of plant-based PUFA in VAT accumulation warrants further study.

  • 23.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Cedernaes, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Johansson, Hans-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Arner, Peter
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Overfeeding Polyunsaturated and Saturated Fat Causes Distinct Effects on Liver and Visceral Fat Accumulation in Humans2014In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 63, no 7, p. 2356-2368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excess ectopic fat storage is linked to type 2 diabetes. The importance of dietary fat composition for ectopic fat storage in humans is unknown. We investigated liver fat accumulation and body composition during overfeeding saturated (SFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat. LIPOGAIN was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial. Thirty-nine young and normal-weight individuals were overfed muffins high in SFA (palm oil) or n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) for 7 weeks. Liver fat, visceral (VAT), subcutaneous abdominal (SAT), and total adipose tissue (TAT), pancreatic fat, and lean tissue was assessed by MRI. Transcriptomics were performed in SAT. Both groups gained similar weight. SFA however markedly increased liver fat compared with PUFA and caused 2-fold larger increase in VAT than PUFA. Conversely, PUFA caused a nearly 3-fold larger increase in lean tissue than SFA. Increase in liver fat directly correlated with changes in plasma SFA and inversely with PUFA. Genes involved in regulating energy dissipation, insulin resistance, body composition and fat cell differentiation in SAT were differentially regulated between diets, and associated with increased PUFA in SAT. In conclusion, overeating SFA promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage whereas excess energy from PUFA may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans.

  • 24.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Univ Oxford, Churchill Hosp, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England.
    McNeil, Catriona A.
    Univ Oxford, Churchill Hosp, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England.
    Pramfalk, Camilla
    Univ Oxford, Churchill Hosp, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England;Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Karolinska Inst, Div Clin Chem, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parry, Sion A.
    Univ Oxford, Churchill Hosp, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England.
    Low, Wee Suan
    Univ Oxford, Churchill Hosp, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England.
    Cornfield, Thomas
    Univ Oxford, Churchill Hosp, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England.
    Fielding, Barbara A.
    Univ Surrey, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Guildford, Surrey, England.
    Hodson, Leanne
    Univ Oxford, Churchill Hosp, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford, England;Churchill Hosp, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England.
    Fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis is not reliably assessed using circulating fatty acid markers2019In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 260-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Observational studies often infer hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) by measuring circulating fatty acid (FA) markers; however, it remains to be elucidated whether these markers accurately reflect hepatic DNL. Objectives: We investigated associations between fasting hepatic DNL and proposed FA markers of DNL in subjects consuming their habitual diet. Methods: Fasting hepatic DNL was assessed using (H2O)-H-2(deuterated water) in 149 nondiabetic men and women and measuring the synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) palmitate. FA markers of blood lipid fractions were determined by gas chromatography. Results: Neither the lipogenic index (16: 0/18: 2n-6) nor the SCD index (16: 1n-7/16: 0) in VLDL-TG was associated with isotopically assessed DNL (r = 0.13, P = 0.1 and r = -0.08, P = 0.35, respectively). The relative abundances (mol%) of 14: 0, 16: 0, and 18: 0 in VLDL-TG were weakly (r <= 0.35) associated with DNL, whereas the abundances of 16: 1n-7, 18: 1n-7, and 18: 1n-9 were not associated. When the cohort was split by median DNL, only the abundances of 14: 0 and 18: 0 in VLDL-TG could discriminate between subjects having high (11.5%) and low(3.8%) fasting hepatic DNL. Based on a subgroup, FA markers in total plasma TG, plasma cholesteryl esters, plasma phospholipids, and red blood cell phospholipids were generally not associated with DNL. Conclusions: The usefulness of circulating FAs as markers of hepatic DNL in healthy individuals consuming their habitual diet is limited due to their inability to discriminate clearly between individuals with low and high fasting hepatic DNL.

  • 25.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Smedman, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lindmark-Mansson, Helena
    Paulsson, Marie
    Petrus, Paul
    Straniero, Sara
    Rudling, Mats
    Dahlman, Ingrid
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Potential role of milk fat globule membrane in modulating plasma lipoproteins, gene expression, and cholesterol metabolism in humans: a randomized study2015In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 20-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Butter is rich in saturated fat [saturated fatty acids (SFAs)] and can increase plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, compared with other dairy foods, butter is low in milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) content, which encloses the fat. We hypothesized that different dairy foods may have distinct effects on plasma lipids because of a varying content of MFGM. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether the effects of milk fat on plasma lipids and cardiometabolic risk markers are modulated by the MFGM content. Design: The study was an 8-wk, single-blind, randomized, controlled isocaloric trial with 2 parallel groups including overweight men and women (n = 57 randomly assigned). For the intervention, subjects consumed 40 g milk fat/d as either whipping cream (MFGM diet) or butter oil (control diet). Intervention foods were matched for total fat, protein, carbohydrates, and calcium. Subjects were discouraged from consuming any other dairy products during the study. Plasma markers of cholesterol absorption and hepatic cholesterol metabolism were assessed together with global gene-expression analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results: As expected, the control diet increased plasma lipids, whereas the MFGM diet did not [total cholesterol (+/- SD): +0.30 +/- 0.49 compared with 0.04 +/- 0.49 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.024); LDL cholesterol: +0.36 +/- 0.50 compared with +0.04 +/- 0.36 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.024); apolipoprotein B:apolipoprotein A-I ratio: +0.03 +/- 0.09 compared with 0.05 +/- 0.10 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.007); and non-HDL cholesterol: +0.24 +/- 0.49 compared with 0.14 +/- 0.51 mmol/L, respectively (P = 0.013)]. HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, sitosterol, lathosterol, campesterol, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 plasma concentrations and fatty acid compositions did not differ between groups. Nineteen genes were differentially regulated between groups, and these genes were mostly correlated with lipid changes. Conclusions: In contrast to milk fat without MFGM, milk fat enclosed by MFGM does not impair the lipoprotein profile. The mech-anism is not clear although suppressed gene expression by MFGM correlated inversely with plasma lipids. The food matrix should be considered when evaluating cardiovascular aspects of different dairy foods.

  • 26.
    Straniero, S
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Edholm, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Rudling, M
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Acute caloric restriction counteracts hepatic bile acid and cholesterol deficiency in morbid obesity2017In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 281, no 5, p. 507-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated by BA signalling in the liver and by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), synthesized and released from the intestine. In morbid obesity, faecal excretion and hepatic synthesis of BAs and cholesterol are strongly induced and caloric restriction reduces their faecal excretion considerably. We hypothesized that the high intestinal food mass in morbidly obese subjects promotes faecal excretion of BAs and cholesterol, thereby creating a shortage of both BAs and cholesterol in the liver.

    METHODS: Ten morbidly obese women (BMI 42 ± 2.6 kg m(-2) ) were monitored on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after beginning a low-calorie diet (800-1100 kcal day(-1) ). Serum was collected and liver size and fat content determined. Synthesis of BAs and cholesterol was evaluated from serum markers, and the serum levels of lipoproteins, BAs, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), insulin, glucose and FGF19 were monitored. Fifty-four nonobese women (BMI <25 kg m(-2) ) served as controls.

    RESULTS: At baseline, synthesis of both BAs and cholesterol and serum levels of BAs and PCSK9 were elevated in the obese group compared to controls. Already after 3 days on a low-calorie diet, BA and cholesterol synthesis and serum BA and PCSK9 levels normalized, whereas LDL cholesterol increased. FGF19 and triglyceride levels were unchanged, and liver volume was reduced by 10%.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that hepatic BAs and cholesterol are deficient in morbid obesity. Caloric restriction rapidly counteracts these deficiencies, normalizing BA and cholesterol synthesis and circulating PCSK9 levels, indicating that overproduction of cholesterol in enlarged peripheral tissues cannot explain this phenotype. We propose that excessive food intake promotes faecal loss of BAs and cholesterol contributing to their hepatic deficiencies.

  • 27.
    Straniero, S.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Edholm, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Rudling, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Increased Bile Acid And Cholesterol Syntheses And PCSK9 In Morbid Obesity Are Rapidly Normalized Following Acute Caloric Restriction2016In: ATHEROSCLEROSIS, ISSN 0021-9150, Vol. 252, p. E94-E95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Uusitupa, M.
    et al.
    Hermansen, K.
    Savolainen, M. J.
    Schwab, U.
    Kolehmainen, M.
    Brader, L.
    Mortensen, L. S.
    Cloetens, L.
    Johansson-Persson, A.
    Onning, G.
    Landin-Olsson, M.
    Herzig, K. -H
    Hukkanen, J.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Paananen, J.
    Pulkki, K. J.
    Siloaho, M.
    Dragsted, L.
    Barri, T.
    Overvad, K.
    Knudsen, K. E. Bach
    Hedemann, M. S.
    Arner, P.
    Dahlman, I.
    Borge, G. I. A.
    Baardseth, P.
    Ulven, S. M.
    Gunnarsdottir, I.
    Jonsdottir, S.
    Thorsdottir, I.
    Oresic, M.
    Poutanen, K. S.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Akesson, B.
    Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome: a randomized study (SYSDIET)2013In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 274, no 1, p. 52-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. Methods We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18-24weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55years, BMI 31.6kgm-2, 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. Results Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmolL-1 95% CI -0.35; -0.01, P=0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (-0.15, -0.28; -0.00, P=0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (-0.04, -0.07; -0.00, P=0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference -84, -133; -37ngL-1, P= 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P=0.049) and magnesium (mg, -0.23, -0.41; -0.05, P=0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra. Conclusions Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation.

1 - 28 of 28
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf