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  • 1. Bjugn, Roger
    et al.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Hostmaelingen, Njal
    Simeon-Dubach, Daniel
    Petrini, Carlo
    What Are Some of the ELSI Challenges of International Collaborations Involving Biobanks, Global Sample Collection, and Genomic Data Sharing and How Should They Be Addressed?2015In: Biopreservation and Biobanking, ISSN 1947-5535, E-ISSN 1947-5543, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 70-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Ancora uomo: Natura umana e postumanesimo2011 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [it]

    Il testo propone una ricostruzione storicoteoretica della prospettiva postumanistica, evidenziandone i principali snodi concettuali, a partire dalla Neue Anthropologie, dal pensiero di Foucault e di Deleuze, passando per la biologia evoluzionistica e l’infofilosofia fino a giungere alla tecnoscienza contemporanea, intesa come luogo di collisione e commistione del sapere e dell’agire umano. Accanto a tale ricognizione si propone una problematizzazione della semantica del postumano, sottolineandone il limite critico in una concezione riduttiva e riduzionista della natura umana, della quale, per contro, si propone un recupero del significato classico secondo il suo concetto non naturalistico, per il quale essa non è riducibile a semplice e statica materia, ma è da intendersi come ciò che ha in sé il principio di movimento e di quiete. Una natura umana così intesa comprende in sé gli attributi principali del pensiero postumanistico, in particolare dinamismo e ibridazione, restando nel contempo inscritta in un orizzonte ancora antropologico.

  • 3.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Brain, consciousness and disorders of consciousness at the intersection of neuroscience and philosophy2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation starts from the general claim that neuroscience is not neutral, with regard to theoretical questions like the nature of consciousness, but it needs to be complemented with dedicated conceptual analysis. Specifically, the argument for this thesis is that the combination of empirical and conceptual work is a necessary step for assessing the significant questions raised by the most recent study of the brain. Results emerging from neuroscience are conceptually very relevant in themselves but, notwithstanding its theoretical sophistication, neuroscience is not sufficient to provide a complete interpretation or an appropriate understanding of their impact. Consequently, the present thesis starts from the need for an interdisciplinary and hybrid field of research, i.e. fundamental neuroethics.

    Within this framework, the thesis takes consciousness and related disorders (i.e. Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State and Coma) and the addicted brain as illustrative cases of the potential fruitful collaboration between empirical and conceptual investigations.

    The general goal of the thesis is to contribute to the overall development of bridging the gap between empirical and conceptual understandings of consciousness. The first paper sets the theoretical framework, providing an empirically-based description of the brain with significant philosophical implications for an understanding of consciousness. The last three papers of the thesis try to apply the theoretical framework to illustrative cases. Papers II and III analyse the possible application of science and technology for an easier detection and clinical care of patients with disorders of consciousness, with particular attention to communication mediated by neurotechnology and the simulation of the conscious brain, respectively; paper IV provides a potentially new ethical analysis of addiction within the elaborated general conceptual framework.

    The conclusion of the thesis is that the impact of neuroscientific results needs that a dedicated conceptual approach reveals and investigates their conceptual meaning. This conceptual analysis is not exclusive but integrative and complementary to the empirical science. The case of consciousness, analysed from both an ethical and conceptual point of view, is highly illustrative in this respect. In the end, a conceptual/linguistic work of clarification is urgently needed.

    List of papers
    1. The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and Its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and Its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness
    2017 (English)In: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 197-219Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Science and philosophy still lack an overarching theory of consciousness. We suggest that a further step toward it requires going beyond the view of the brain as input-output machine and focusing on its intrinsic activity, which may express itself in two distinct modalities, i.e. aware and unaware. We specifically investigate the predisposition of the brain to evaluate and to model the world. These intrinsic activities of the brain retain a deep relation with consciousness. In fact the ability of the brain to evaluate and model the world can develop in two modalities, implicit or explicit, that correspond to what we usually refer to as the unconscious and consciousness, and both are multilevel configurations of the brain along a continuous and dynamic line. Starting from an empirical understanding of the brain as intrinsically active and plastic, we here distinguish between higher cognitive functions and basic phenomenal consciousness, suggesting that the latter might characterize the brain’s intrinsic activity as such, even if at a very basic level. We proceed to explore possible impacts of the notion of intrinsic cerebral phenomenality on our understanding of consciousness and its disorders, particularly on the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Imprint Academic, 2017
    Keywords
    Brain, Consciousness, Neuroscience, Philosophy
    National Category
    Philosophy Ethics Neurology
    Research subject
    Philosophy; Neuroscience
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339292 (URN)
    Funder
    EU, Horizon 2020, 720270
    Available from: 2018-01-17 Created: 2018-01-17 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Externalization of Consciousness: Scientific Possibilities and Clinical Implications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Externalization of Consciousness: Scientific Possibilities and Clinical Implications
    2015 (English)In: Ethical Issues in Behavioural Neuroscience / [ed] G. Lee-J. Illes-F Ohl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, p. 205-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper starts by analyzing recent advancements in neurotechnological assessment of residual consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness and in neurotechnology-mediated communication with them. Ethical issues arising from these developments are described, with particular focus on informed consent. Against this background, we argue for the necessity of further scientific efforts and ethical reflection in neurotechnological assessment of consciousness and ‘cerebral communication’ with verbally non-communicative patients.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015
    Series
    Current Topics in Behavioural Neuroscience, ISSN 1866-3370 ; 19
    Keywords
    Consciousness Disorders of consciousness Neurotechnology Informed consent
    National Category
    Neurology
    Research subject
    Neuroscience; Bioethics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-245265 (URN)10.1007/7854_2014_338 (DOI)978-3-662-44866-3 (ISBN)
    Projects
    Human Brain Project
    Funder
    EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 604102
    Available from: 2015-02-26 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2019-08-30
    3. Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues
    2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g. Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State.Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

    Keywords
    Consciousness, Consciousness Disorders, brain modeling, Neuroethics, brain simulation
    National Category
    Computer Systems Ethics Philosophy Neurology Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
    Research subject
    Neuroscience; Philosophy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347782 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00585 (DOI)000430833800001 ()29740372 (PubMedID)
    Projects
    The human brain project
    Funder
    EU, Horizon 2020, 720270
    Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics
    2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 595Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we suggest a potential new ethical analysis of addiction focusing on the relationship between aware and unaware processings in the brain, i.e. on what is consciously and what is non-consciously perceived by the individual. We take the case of the opioids epidemics to argue that a consideration of both aware and unaware processings provides a more comprehensive ethical framework to discuss the ethical issues raised by addiction.Finally, our hypothesis is that in addition to identified Central Nervous System’s neuronal/neurochemical factors contributing to addictive dynamics, the socio-economic status, i.e. the individual background, plays a causal role through epigenetic processes, originating the need for additional reward in the brain. This provides a strong base for a socio-political form of responsibility for preventing and managing addiction crisis.

    Keywords
    Addiction, Ethics of addiction, Unaware processing, Opioids Epidemics, Drugs addiction
    National Category
    Psychiatry Ethics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364429 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00595 (DOI)000450456300001 ()30524319 (PubMedID)
    Projects
    Human Brain Project
    Funder
    EU, Horizon 2020, 785907
    Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    “Cerebral Communication” With Patients With Disorders of Consciousness.: Clinical Feasibility and Implications2015In: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 44-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Filosofia delle neuroscienze: Cervello, mente, persona2012 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [it]

    Nel presente lavoro, prescindendo dagli aspetti tecnici del sapere neuroscientifico, l’autore mette in evidenza il crescente primato esplicativo delle neuroscienze riguardo la conoscenza della natura umana; delinea come possibile alternativa a tale primato: la concezione del cervello come sistema plastico condizionato dall’ambiente esterno; avanza la tesi di un ripensamento dell’identità umana, superando gli antichi steccati tra il sé e l’altro da sé (l’altro biologico, ma anche l’altro tecnologico), senza con ciò giungere a negare qualsiasi presupposto identitario.

  • 6.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    In Need of Meta-Scientific Experts?2014In: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 243-245Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neuro-bio-diritto: tra imputabilità e negazione di responsabilità. : Verso un nichilismo giuridico?2009In: Archivio giuridico Filippo Serafini, Vol. 229, no 3, p. 317-355Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neurotechnology–mediated communication: a new tool for personal rights of patients with disorders of consciousness?2016In: Mind, brain and education at Erice: ten years / [ed] Antonio M. Battro, Kurt W. Fischer & María Lourdes Majdalani, Erice: Ettore Majorana Foundation , 2016, p. 149-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the inspiring and friendly environment of the ninth International Summer School on Mind, Brain and Education, titled Body, Brain and Personal Identity: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, and directed by Antonio M. Battro, Kurt W. Fischer and Fernando Vidal, I presented the provisional results of my investigation of the impact of neurotechnology on the speechless subjects’ ability to communicate. In particular, I focused on the possible use of neurotechnology to communicate with comatose patients. 

  • 9.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Ritorno alla Physis2018In: Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics, ISSN 1825-5167, E-ISSN 1825-5167, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 487-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While I am quite in agreement with the critics to transhumanism elaborated by Allegra in the book Visioni transumane. Tecnica, salvezza, ideologia, the alternative to transhumanist perspective that he argues for in this book is not completely clear to me, unless it is just the revival of a metaphysical-anthropological framework grounded on a "strong" idea of human nature. Against such perspective I argue for the necessity to keep the difference between posthumanism and transhumanism and to go back to the original meaning of physis.

  • 10.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    The Ethical Pain: Detection of pain and suffering in patients with disorders of consciousness2013In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intriguing issue of pain and suffering in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs), particularly in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome/Vegetative State (UWS/VS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS), is assessed from a theoretical point of view, through an overview of recent neuroscientific literature, in order to sketch an ethical analysis. In conclusion, from a legal and ethical point of view, formal guidelines and a situationist ethics are proposed in order to best manage the critical scientific uncertainty about pain and suffering in DOCs and ensure the best possible care for the patient.

  • 11.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    The Posthuman Condition2013In: Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions / [ed] Springer Verlag, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "Posthuman condition" (PC) is a complex and multifaceted concept that covers many assumptions and definitions of human being and becoming. These definitions are generally inspired by the development of contemporary technoscience.

    We can talk about a substantial ambiguity of the concept of PC, which can be declined according to two fundamental meanings: human has become posthuman because of the hybridization with technology (we could name this concept of PC "cultural posthumanism"); human is going to be overtaken by a new posthuman form of life emerging from the huge changes driven by technology (we could name this concept of PC "transhumanism" or "hyperhumanism" or "hyperbolic posthumanism" or "speculative posthumanism").

  • 12.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    The relevance of neuroscience for conceptualizing human nature2016In: Idee, ISSN 0394-3054, E-ISSN 1591-0733, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 121-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper starts from an outline of a possible cultural interpretation of neuroscience, namely the conceptual simplification of the complexity revealed by recent neuroscientific data and systematized in related theoretical views. On the basis of the conceptual significance of neuroscience, the paper suggests the epigenetic theory of neuronal development and the related informed materialism as fruitful theoretical frameworks for developing a neuro-philosophy that aims at overcoming classical dualistic interpretations such as brain/mind and nature/culture.

  • 13.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Alleva, Enrico
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Chiarotti, Flavia
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Macrì, Simone
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Clinicians’ attitudes towards patients with disorders of consciousness: a survey2014In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 93-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notwithstanding fundamental methodological advancements, scientific information about disorders of consciousness (DOCs)—e.g. Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS)—is incomplete. The possibility to discriminate between different levels of consciousness in DOC states entails treatment strategies and ethical concerns. Here we attempted to investigate Italian clinicians’ and basic scientists’ opinions regarding some issues emerging from the care and the research on patients with DOCs. From our survey emerged that Italian physicians working with patients with DOCs give a central role to ethics. Current Italian regulation regarding basic research conducted in patients with DOCs apparently risks to be inadequate to support scientific advancement, and would deserve a different assessment compared to ordinary treatments. We think the results of our survey deserve attention from an international audience because they exemplify the difficulty to define a shared approach to the issues related to patients with DOCs and the necessity to better assess both the ordinary and experimental treatment of patients with DOCs at the ethical and legal level.

  • 14.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Brain Project Sub-Project 12, Uppsala University, Uppsala.; Biogem, Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Brain Project Sub-Project 12, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    The ethical relevance of the unconscious2017In: Philosophy Ethics and Humanities in Medicine, ISSN 1747-5341, E-ISSN 1747-5341, Vol. 12, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Ethical analyses of disorders of consciousness traditionally focus on residual awareness. Going one step further, this paper explores the potential ethical relevance of the unawareness retained by patients with disorders of consciousness, focusing specifically on the ethical implications of the description of the unconscious provided by recent scientific research.

    Methods

    A conceptual methodology is used, based on the review and analysis of relevant scientific literature on the unconscious and the logical argumentation in favour of the ethical conclusions.

    Results

    Two conditions (experiential wellbeing and having interests) that are generally considered critical components in the ethical discussion of patients with disorders of consciousness might arguably be both conscious and unconscious.

    Conclusions

    The unconscious, as well as consciousness, should be taken into account in the ethical discussions of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  • 15.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Science and Society Unit, Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Changeux, Jean-Pierre
    Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics2018In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we suggest a potential new ethical analysis of addiction focusing on the relationship between aware and unaware processings in the brain, i.e. on what is consciously and what is non-consciously perceived by the individual. We take the case of the opioids epidemics to argue that a consideration of both aware and unaware processings provides a more comprehensive ethical framework to discuss the ethical issues raised by addiction.Finally, our hypothesis is that in addition to identified Central Nervous System’s neuronal/neurochemical factors contributing to addictive dynamics, the socio-economic status, i.e. the individual background, plays a causal role through epigenetic processes, originating the need for additional reward in the brain. This provides a strong base for a socio-political form of responsibility for preventing and managing addiction crisis.

  • 16.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions2014In: Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISSN 0021-2571, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 221-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The directive 2001/20/UE and the research involving patients with docs. Researchinvolving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) deserves special ethical andlegal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concernsabout the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respectingtheir individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, researchis an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients withDOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical researchinvolving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses oninformed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from anethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the lightof the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to betterassess the issue of informed consent.The particular case of informed consent for observational studies of non-communicativepatients. The second part presents an informed consent form for studies throughvideo-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form hasbeen elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project “Review of the nosography of vegetativestates: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma orvegetative state” developed at the Italian National Institute of Health.Relevance of the suggested form. The paper describes the conceptual framework ofthe form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevantexample of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studiesthrough video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article hasbeen sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU) no.536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001/20/EU) and the release ofthe new edition of the Italian Code of Medical Ethics.

  • 17.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas.
    Big Science, Brain Simulation and Neuroethics2016In: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 28-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We believe that it is valuable to investigate conceptual understandings of the brain andof simulation in order to better grasp the ethical implicationsof simulation technology in particular. Such conceptualexamination is offered by fundamental neuroethics. Inthis commentary we propose a reading of simulationwithin the framework of fundamental neuroethics.

  • 18.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Biogem – Istituto di ricerche genetiche, Ariano Irpino, Avellino.
    Ferrigno, Luigina
    Petrini, Carlo
    Rosmini, Francesco
    Codici, linee guida e commentari di etica della ricerca: la questione della qualità2014In: Epidemiologia & Prevenzione, ISSN 1120-9763, Vol. 38, no 3-4, p. 268-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After an overview of the evolution of ethics laws for medical activities, we suggest a possible classification of documents regarding the ethical conduct of scientific research with human beings. The authors outline the necessity to define formal criteria for the development and the implementation of ethics standards.

  • 19.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Science and Society Unit, Biogem Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette
    Science for Life Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g. Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State.Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

  • 20.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Laureys, Steven
    University of Liège, Liège, Belgium .
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Externalization of Consciousness: Scientific Possibilities and Clinical Implications2015In: Ethical Issues in Behavioural Neuroscience / [ed] G. Lee-J. Illes-F Ohl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, p. 205-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper starts by analyzing recent advancements in neurotechnological assessment of residual consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness and in neurotechnology-mediated communication with them. Ethical issues arising from these developments are described, with particular focus on informed consent. Against this background, we argue for the necessity of further scientific efforts and ethical reflection in neurotechnological assessment of consciousness and ‘cerebral communication’ with verbally non-communicative patients.

  • 21.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Laureys, Steven
    University and University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and Its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness2017In: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 197-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science and philosophy still lack an overarching theory of consciousness. We suggest that a further step toward it requires going beyond the view of the brain as input-output machine and focusing on its intrinsic activity, which may express itself in two distinct modalities, i.e. aware and unaware. We specifically investigate the predisposition of the brain to evaluate and to model the world. These intrinsic activities of the brain retain a deep relation with consciousness. In fact the ability of the brain to evaluate and model the world can develop in two modalities, implicit or explicit, that correspond to what we usually refer to as the unconscious and consciousness, and both are multilevel configurations of the brain along a continuous and dynamic line. Starting from an empirical understanding of the brain as intrinsically active and plastic, we here distinguish between higher cognitive functions and basic phenomenal consciousness, suggesting that the latter might characterize the brain’s intrinsic activity as such, even if at a very basic level. We proceed to explore possible impacts of the notion of intrinsic cerebral phenomenality on our understanding of consciousness and its disorders, particularly on the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders of consciousness.

  • 22.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Biogem Genetic Research Institute, Via Camporeale, 83031, Ariano Irpino, AV, Italy .
    Petrini, C
    The Impact of Neuroscience and Genetics on the Law: A Recent Italian Case2012In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 317-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of genetic testing and neuroscientific evidence in legal trials raises several issues. Often their interpretation is controversial: the same evidence can be used to sustain both the prosecution’s and defense’s argument. A recent Italian case confirms such concerns and stresses other relevant related questions.

  • 23.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Ethical Frameworks and Comparative Effectiveness Research2015In: Comparative Effectiveness Research in Health Services / [ed] Levy A & Sobolev B, New York: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, p. 1-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of comparative effectiveness research (CER) is assessed from an ethical point of view by comparison with the main ethical frameworks and by analysis of some of the relevant institutional documents. Two main conclusions emerge from the study: no ethical framework seems able to objectively and definitively assess CER; no institutional document, neither national nor international, has specifically assessed the ethical implications of CER. Nevertheless, this vacuum regarding CER raises relevant ethical concerns, thus revealing the necessity and urgency of an ethical evaluation of CER.

  • 24.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, Pontifical Faculty of Theology of Southern Italy S. Thomas, Naples, Italy .
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Medical Responsibility and Clinical Guidelines: A Few Remarks from Two Italian Juridical Cases2012In: Medicine Studies, ISSN SSN: 1876-4533 (print version) ISSN: 1876-4541 (electronic version), Vol. 3, no 3, p. 157-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this paper is to assess the complex issue of responsibility in clinical practice. The paper focuses mainly on the relationship between personal- and medical-professional responsibility of practitioners and clinical guidelines.

    Methods

    After a theoretical review of the different definitions of responsibility in selected bioethical and biojuridical literature, two recent juridical proceedings concerning medical responsibility from Italian Courts are discussed. Subsequently, a theoretical analysis of the definition of clinical practice guidelines is proposed in order to show their feasibility to assess personal- and medical-professional responsibility.

    Results

    The definitions of responsibility and the two Italian cases show the theoretical and practical difficulties of shared assessments of both personal-professional and medical-professional responsibility in clinical practice. Clinical practice guidelines cannot be assumed as an objective code of action stating exactly a rule of conduct in all situations, but as a tool suggesting how to decide what to do in different conditions.

    Conclusions

    Responsibility in clinical practice is such a complex issue to deserve a special ethical assessment. The clinician’s personal-professional responsibility cannot be replaced or reduced by clinical practice guidelines, because medicine is as such a relationship focused on the expertize of practitioners. Nonetheless, a shared approach to different clinical conditions is needed in order to avoid a relativist outcome and protect patients’ and even clinicians’ rights. Formal guidelines (that describe not exactly what to do but how to decide what to do) are proposed as potential useful tool to achieve this aim.

  • 25.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Misdiagnosis as an ethical and scientific challenge2014In: Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISSN 0021-2571, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 229-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Difficulties of behavioral assessment of consciousness. An astonishingly high rateof misdiagnosis between vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimallyconscious state has been detected. This raises the issue of the adequacy of theconsciousness’ assessment in patients with disorders of consciousness. The behavioralassessment of consciousness could be not able to detect covert awareness, which is increasinglyidentified by the instrumental assessment.Ancillary methods. Neurotechnology, particularly neuroimaging, provides relevant dataconcerning the neurological underlying condition of patients with DOCs, but the instrumentalapproach has still to assess some technical issues.Ethical considerations. A correct diagnosis of a DOC is not only an instrumental issue,but also an ethically relevant demand to the scientific community. Finally, an integrationbetween behavioral and instrumental assessments seems to be the most adequate strategyin order to decrease the rate of misdiagnosis.

  • 26.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    On the Stand: Another Episode of Neuroscience and Law Discussion From Italy2014In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 243-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After three proceedings in which neuro-science was a relevant factor for the final verdict inItalian courts, for the first time a recent case puts inquestion the legal relevance of neuroscientific evidence.This decision deserves international attention in itsunderlining that the uncertainty still affecting neuroscien-tific knowledge can have a significant impact on thelaw. It urges the consideration of such uncertainty andthe development of a shared management of it.

  • 27.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Biogem, Genetic Reseach Centre, Ariano Irpino (AV) Italy.
    Petrini, Carlo
    The Impact of Contemporary Neurotechnology on Diagnosing and Treating Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: A Review2013In: International Journal of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnosis, ISSN 2332-2926, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 12-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disorders of consciousness, especially Vegetative State, are assessed from a theoretical (historical and ethical) and empirical (neuroscientific) points of view, through a review of the most relevant recent literature. Both the potentiality of neuroscientific investigation and the limitations of its clinical (diagnostic and prognostic) application are underlined, showing the urgency of a collaboration between science, law and ethics in order to define the most appropriate nosography and to ensure the best therapy to patients with disorders of consciousness.

  • 28.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach2018In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 717-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we begin by identifying three main neuroethical approaches: neurobioethics, empirical neuroethics, and conceptual neuroethics. Our focus is on conceptual approaches that generally emphasize the need to develop and use a methodological modus operandi for effectively linking scientific (i.e., neuroscience) and philosophical (i.e., ethics) interpretations. We explain and assess the value of conceptual neuroethics approaches and explain and defend one such approach that we propose as being particularly fruitful for addressing the various issues raised by neuroscience: fundamental neuroethics.

  • 29. Gini, Adriana
    et al.
    Larrivee, Denis
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Sironi, Vittorio
    Keeping the human: neuroethics and the conciliation of dissonant values in the 21st century2015In: Neuroscience and neuroeconomics, ISSN 2230-3561, Vol. 4, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studied since antiquity, the human brain has recently been the inspiration for an international neuroscientific entrepreneurship, the Human Brain Project in Europe and the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative in the USA. Different in their approach, both regard the human brain as one of the greatest challenges of 21st century science and the organ that makes us “human”. However, it is mainly the necessity of developing new therapies that affect up to a billion people worldwide, which has propelled the search for extensive expertise and investment in neuroscience research. The debate on ethical and social policy issues as well as the research and medical strategies of such gigantic efforts has involved participants as diverse as neuroscientists, philosophers, scholars in ethics and law, politicians, and the general public, rendering modern neuroscience an interdisciplinary and conflictual endeavor. In fact, the brain is described as the biological underpinning of our thoughts, emotions, perceptions, free willed actions, and memories, features unique to our humanity. In this review, three neuroscientists and a philosopher from the neuroethics community provide their perspectives for an up-to-date survey of salient neuroethical issues, ie, modulation of free will and neuropharmaceuticals and neurotechnologies that enhance cognitive capacities, as well as an introduction of the reader to the controversial new discipline of neuroethics. Written for nonexperts in the field, it is intended to reflect on and to impart information helpful in understanding the challenges and the perils of modern neuroscience, whose tools are so powerful as to jeopardize what is uniquely “human” through willful mind manipulation. We conclude that, for any future effort to “recreate” the mind and, at the same time, keep what is uniquely ours, it will be necessary to reflect ethically and review carefully man's past best efforts at self-understanding.

  • 30. Larrivee, Denis
    et al.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Science and Society Unit, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Realigning the Neural Paradigm for Death2019In: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, ISSN 1176-7529, E-ISSN 1872-4353, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 259-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole brain failure constitutes the diagnostic criterion for death determination in most clinical settings across the globe. Yet the conceptual foundation for its adoption was slow to emerge, has evoked extensive scientific debate since inception, underwent policy revision, and remains contentious in praxis even today. Complications result from the need to relate a unitary construal of the death event with an adequate account of organismal integration and that of the human organism in particular. Advances in the neuroscience of higher human faculties, such as the self, personal identity, and consciousness, and dynamical philosophy of science accounts, however, are yielding a portrait of higher order global integration shared between body and brain. Such conceptual models of integration challenge a praxis relying exclusively on a neurological criterion for death.

  • 31.
    Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.
    et al.
    Department of Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands ; Research Priority Area, Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Indicators and Criteria of Consciousness in Animals and Intelligent Machines: An Inside-Out Approach2019In: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5137, E-ISSN 1662-5137, Vol. 13, article id 25Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society, it becomes increasingly important to assess which non-human and non-verbal beings possess consciousness. This review article aims to delineate criteria for consciousness especially in animals, while also taking into account intelligent artifacts. First, we circumscribe what we mean with “consciousness” and describe key features of subjective experience: qualitative richness, situatedness, intentionality and interpretation, integration and the combination of dynamic and stabilizing properties. We argue that consciousness has a biological function, which is to present the subject with a multimodal, situational survey of the surrounding world and body, subserving complex decision-making and goal-directed behavior. This survey reflects the brain’s capacity for internal modeling of external events underlying changes in sensory state. Next, we follow an inside-out approach: how can the features of conscious experience, correlating to mechanisms inside the brain, be logically coupled to externally observable (“outside”) properties? Instead of proposing criteria that would each define a “hard” threshold for consciousness, we outline six indicators: (i) goal-directed behavior and model-based learning; (ii) anatomic and physiological substrates for generating integrative multimodal representations; (iii) psychometrics and meta-cognition; (iv) episodic memory; (v) susceptibility to illusions and multistable perception; and (vi) specific visuospatial behaviors. Rather than emphasizing a particular indicator as being decisive, we propose that the consistency amongst these indicators can serve to assess consciousness in particular species. The integration of scores on the various indicators yields an overall, graded criterion for consciousness, somewhat comparable to the Glasgow Coma Scale for unresponsive patients. When considering theoretically derived measures of consciousness, it is argued that their validity should not be assessed on the basis of a single quantifiable measure, but requires cross-examination across multiple pieces of evidence, including the indicators proposed here. Current intelligent machines, including deep learning neural networks (DLNNs) and agile robots, are not indicated to be conscious yet. Instead of assessing machine consciousness by a brief Turing-type of test, evidence for it may gradually accumulate when we study machines ethologically and across time, considering multiple behaviors that require flexibility, improvisation, spontaneous problem-solving and the situational conspectus typically associated with conscious experience.

  • 32.
    Petrini, Carlo
    et al.
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Farisco, Michele
    Biogem IRGS, Institute of Research “Gaetano Salvatore”, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy Correspondence: Michele Farisco, Biogem IRGS, Institute of Research “Gaetano Salvatore”, Via Camporeale, 83031 Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Informed Consent for Cord Blood Donation: A Theoretical and Empirical Study2011In: Blood Transfusion, ISSN 1723-2007, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 292-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) banking and therapeutic use raiseseveral ethical issues: medical indications, legal framework, public versus private biobanks,autologous versus allogeneic use, ownership, commercialisation, quality assurance and manyothers. Surrogate informed consent is one of the most notable controversial ethical issues. Theaim of this study was to analyse and compare informed consent forms for CB collection, storageand use in the 18 accredited biobanks of the Italian Network.

    Material and methods

    The first part of the article gives a brief overview of the scientificframework, the comparison of allogeneic and autologous use and Italian regulations. In thesecond part the contents of the consent forms from the 18 Italian biobanks are compared with the"NetCord-FACT International Standards for Cord Blood Collection, Banking, and Release forAdministration".

    Results

    Most of the Italian consent forms differ significantly from the NetCord-FACTStandards, with regards both to formal and substantial aspects.

    Conclusion

    Italian forms for CB collection, storage and use need standardisation to meetinternational criteria.

  • 33. Racine, Eric
    et al.
    Dubljevic, Veljko
    Jox, Ralf J.
    Baertschi, Bernard
    Christensen, Julia F.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Jotterand, Fabrice
    Kahane, Guy
    Muller, Sabine
    Can Neuroscience contribute to practical ethics?: A critical review and discussion of the methodological and translational challenges of the neuroscience of ethics2017In: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 2017, no 31, p. 328-337, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an "ethics of neuroscience" and a "neuroscience of ethics". However, questions surface as to whether a "neuroscience of ethics" is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions. In this article, we examine why the neuroscience of ethics is a promising area of research and summarize what we have learned so far regarding its most promising goals and contributions. We then review some of the key methodological challenges which may have hindered the use of results generated thus far by the neuroscience of ethics. Strategies are suggested to address these challenges and improve the quality of research and increase neuroscience's usefulness for applied ethics and society at large. Finally, we reflect on potential outcomes of a neuroscience of ethics and discuss the different strategies that could be used to support knowledge transfer to help different stakeholders integrate knowledge from the neuroscience of ethics. 

  • 34.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Bjaalie, Jan
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Fothergill, Tyr
    Guerrero, Manuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Maslen, Hannah
    Muller, Jeffrey
    Prescott, Tony
    Stahl, Bernd
    Walter, Henrik
    Zilles, Karl
    Amunts, Katrin
    The Human Brain Project: Responsible Brain Research for the Benefit of Society2019In: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 380-384Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Programa de Neuroetica, Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Biogem Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project2019In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is an important ethical, legal, and political theme for the European Commission. Although variously defined, it is generally understood as an interactive process that engages social actors, researchers, and innovators who must be mutually responsive and work towards the ethical permissibility of the relevant research and its products. The framework of RRI calls for contextually addressing not just research and innovation impact but also the background research process, specially the societal visions underlying it and the norms and priorities that shape scientific agendas. This requires the integration of anticipatory, inclusive, and responsive dimensions, and the nurturing of a certain type of reflexivity among a variety of stakeholders, from scientists to funders. In this paper, we do not address potential limitations but focus on the potential contribution of philosophical reflection to RRI in the context of the Ethics and Society subproject of the Human Brain Project (HBP). We show how the type of conceptual analysis provided by philosophically oriented approaches theoretically and ethically broadens research and innovation within the HBP. We further suggest that overt inclusion of philosophical reflection can promote the aims and objectives of RRI.

  • 36.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    The Need for a Conceptual Expansion of Neuroethics2019In: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 126-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In “Neuroethics at 15: The Current and Future Environment for Neuroethics” the Emerging Issues Task Force of the INS provides an overview of the current and future topics for neuroethics and the foreseeable challenges that the field will face. The authors note that these challenges, emerging both at individual, societal, and often global levels, are importantly connected to increasing knowledge of the brain and neurotechnical capabilities, to increasing awareness of value diversity and of the need to attend to a global landscape, and to novel applications (commercial, military, governmental) of neuroscientific findings. The overarching theme, the authors note, is expansion. In this commentary we focus on the fourth needed expansion: an expansion in how neuroethics and its methodologies are conceived and how neuroethical issues should be approached. Accordingly, we explore the key role that  conceptual analysis plays in normative discussions, in refining our empirical knowledge, and in fostering a clearer and more reliable vision on how to respond the many philosophical issues raised by neuroscientific knowledge and neurotechnologies

  • 37.
    Farisco, Michele (Editor)
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Evers, Kathinka (Editor)
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication: New insights and responsibilities concerning speechless but communicative subjects2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication focuses on recent neuroscientific investigations of infant brains and of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), both of which are at the forefront of contemporary neuroscience. The prospective use of neurotechnology to access mental states in these subjects, including neuroimag- ing, brain simulation, and brain computer interfaces, offers new opportunities for clinicians and researchers, but has also received specific attention from philosophi- cal, scientific, ethical, and legal points of view. This book offers the first systematic assessment of these issues, investigating the tools neurotechnology offers to care for verbally non-communicative subjects and suggesting a multidisciplinary approach to the ethical and legal implications of ordinary and experimental practices.

    The book is divided into three parts: the first and second focus on the scientific and clinical implications of neurological tools for DOC patient and infant care. With refer- ence to these developments, the third and final part presents the case for re-evaluating classical ethical and legal concepts, such as authority, informed consent, and privacy.

    Neurotechnology and Direct Brain Communication will appeal to researchers and postgraduate students in the fields of cognitive science, medical ethics, medical technology, and the philosophy of the mind. With implications for patient care, it will also be a useful resource for clinicians, medical centres, and health practitioners. 

1 - 37 of 37
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