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  • 1. Bjugn, Roger
    et al.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Hostmaelingen, Njal
    Simeon-Dubach, Daniel
    Petrini, Carlo
    What Are Some of the ELSI Challenges of International Collaborations Involving Biobanks, Global Sample Collection, and Genomic Data Sharing and How Should They Be Addressed?2015Inngår i: Biopreservation and Biobanking, ISSN 1947-5535, E-ISSN 1947-5543, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 70-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Evers, Kathinka
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Bioethics Unit, Biogem, Molecular Biology and Molecular Genetics Research Institute, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Pennartz, Cyriel
    Department of Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherland;Research Priority Area, Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Assessing the commensurability of theories of consciousness: on the usefulness of common denominators in differentiating, integrating and testing hypotheses2024Inngår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 119, artikkel-id 103668Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How deep is the current diversity in the panoply of theories to define consciousness, and to what extent do these theories share common denominators? Here we first examine to what extent different theories are commensurable (or comparable) along particular dimensions. We posit logical (and, when applicable, empirical) commensurability as a necessary condition for identifying common denominators among different theories. By consequence, dimensions for inclusion in a set of logically and empirically commensurable theories of consciousness can be proposed. Next, we compare a limited subset of neuroscience-based theories in terms of commensurability. This analysis does not yield a denominator that might serve to define a minimally unifying model of consciousness. Theories that seem to be akin by one denominator can be remote by another. We suggest a methodology of comparing different theories via multiple probing questions, allowing to discern overall (dis)similarities between theories. Despite very different background definitions of consciousness, we conclude that,  if attention is paid to the search for a common methological approach to brain-consciousness relationships, it should be possible in principle to overcome the current Babylonian confusion of tongues and eventually integrate and merge different theories.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Ancora uomo: Natura umana e postumanesimo2011 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [it]

    Il testo propone una ricostruzione storicoteoretica della prospettiva postumanistica, evidenziandone i principali snodi concettuali, a partire dalla Neue Anthropologie, dal pensiero di Foucault e di Deleuze, passando per la biologia evoluzionistica e l’infofilosofia fino a giungere alla tecnoscienza contemporanea, intesa come luogo di collisione e commistione del sapere e dell’agire umano. Accanto a tale ricognizione si propone una problematizzazione della semantica del postumano, sottolineandone il limite critico in una concezione riduttiva e riduzionista della natura umana, della quale, per contro, si propone un recupero del significato classico secondo il suo concetto non naturalistico, per il quale essa non è riducibile a semplice e statica materia, ma è da intendersi come ciò che ha in sé il principio di movimento e di quiete. Una natura umana così intesa comprende in sé gli attributi principali del pensiero postumanistico, in particolare dinamismo e ibridazione, restando nel contempo inscritta in un orizzonte ancora antropologico.

  • 4.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Brain, consciousness and disorders of consciousness at the intersection of neuroscience and philosophy2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation starts from the general claim that neuroscience is not neutral, with regard to theoretical questions like the nature of consciousness, but it needs to be complemented with dedicated conceptual analysis. Specifically, the argument for this thesis is that the combination of empirical and conceptual work is a necessary step for assessing the significant questions raised by the most recent study of the brain. Results emerging from neuroscience are conceptually very relevant in themselves but, notwithstanding its theoretical sophistication, neuroscience is not sufficient to provide a complete interpretation or an appropriate understanding of their impact. Consequently, the present thesis starts from the need for an interdisciplinary and hybrid field of research, i.e. fundamental neuroethics.

    Within this framework, the thesis takes consciousness and related disorders (i.e. Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State and Coma) and the addicted brain as illustrative cases of the potential fruitful collaboration between empirical and conceptual investigations.

    The general goal of the thesis is to contribute to the overall development of bridging the gap between empirical and conceptual understandings of consciousness. The first paper sets the theoretical framework, providing an empirically-based description of the brain with significant philosophical implications for an understanding of consciousness. The last three papers of the thesis try to apply the theoretical framework to illustrative cases. Papers II and III analyse the possible application of science and technology for an easier detection and clinical care of patients with disorders of consciousness, with particular attention to communication mediated by neurotechnology and the simulation of the conscious brain, respectively; paper IV provides a potentially new ethical analysis of addiction within the elaborated general conceptual framework.

    The conclusion of the thesis is that the impact of neuroscientific results needs that a dedicated conceptual approach reveals and investigates their conceptual meaning. This conceptual analysis is not exclusive but integrative and complementary to the empirical science. The case of consciousness, analysed from both an ethical and conceptual point of view, is highly illustrative in this respect. In the end, a conceptual/linguistic work of clarification is urgently needed.

    Delarbeid
    1. The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and Its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and Its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 197-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Science and philosophy still lack an overarching theory of consciousness. We suggest that a further step toward it requires going beyond the view of the brain as input-output machine and focusing on its intrinsic activity, which may express itself in two distinct modalities, i.e. aware and unaware. We specifically investigate the predisposition of the brain to evaluate and to model the world. These intrinsic activities of the brain retain a deep relation with consciousness. In fact the ability of the brain to evaluate and model the world can develop in two modalities, implicit or explicit, that correspond to what we usually refer to as the unconscious and consciousness, and both are multilevel configurations of the brain along a continuous and dynamic line. Starting from an empirical understanding of the brain as intrinsically active and plastic, we here distinguish between higher cognitive functions and basic phenomenal consciousness, suggesting that the latter might characterize the brain’s intrinsic activity as such, even if at a very basic level. We proceed to explore possible impacts of the notion of intrinsic cerebral phenomenality on our understanding of consciousness and its disorders, particularly on the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders of consciousness.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Imprint Academic, 2017
    Emneord
    Brain, Consciousness, Neuroscience, Philosophy
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Filosofi; Neurovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339292 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, Horizon 2020, 720270
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-01-17 Laget: 2018-01-17 Sist oppdatert: 2019-08-30bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Externalization of Consciousness: Scientific Possibilities and Clinical Implications
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Externalization of Consciousness: Scientific Possibilities and Clinical Implications
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Ethical Issues in Behavioural Neuroscience / [ed] G. Lee-J. Illes-F Ohl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, s. 205-222Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper starts by analyzing recent advancements in neurotechnological assessment of residual consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness and in neurotechnology-mediated communication with them. Ethical issues arising from these developments are described, with particular focus on informed consent. Against this background, we argue for the necessity of further scientific efforts and ethical reflection in neurotechnological assessment of consciousness and ‘cerebral communication’ with verbally non-communicative patients.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015
    Serie
    Current Topics in Behavioural Neuroscience, ISSN 1866-3370 ; 19
    Emneord
    Consciousness Disorders of consciousness Neurotechnology Informed consent
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Neurovetenskap; Bioetik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-245265 (URN)10.1007/7854_2014_338 (DOI)978-3-662-44866-3 (ISBN)
    Prosjekter
    Human Brain Project
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 604102
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-02-26 Laget: 2015-02-26 Sist oppdatert: 2019-08-30
    3. Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 585Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g. Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State.Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

    Emneord
    Consciousness, Consciousness Disorders, brain modeling, Neuroethics, brain simulation
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Neurovetenskap; Filosofi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347782 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00585 (DOI)000430833800001 ()29740372 (PubMedID)
    Prosjekter
    The human brain project
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, Horizon 2020, 720270
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-04-06 Laget: 2018-04-06 Sist oppdatert: 2022-02-10bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 595Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we suggest a potential new ethical analysis of addiction focusing on the relationship between aware and unaware processings in the brain, i.e. on what is consciously and what is non-consciously perceived by the individual. We take the case of the opioids epidemics to argue that a consideration of both aware and unaware processings provides a more comprehensive ethical framework to discuss the ethical issues raised by addiction.Finally, our hypothesis is that in addition to identified Central Nervous System’s neuronal/neurochemical factors contributing to addictive dynamics, the socio-economic status, i.e. the individual background, plays a causal role through epigenetic processes, originating the need for additional reward in the brain. This provides a strong base for a socio-political form of responsibility for preventing and managing addiction crisis.

    Emneord
    Addiction, Ethics of addiction, Unaware processing, Opioids Epidemics, Drugs addiction
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364429 (URN)10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00595 (DOI)000450456300001 ()30524319 (PubMedID)
    Prosjekter
    Human Brain Project
    Forskningsfinansiär
    EU, Horizon 2020, 785907
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-26 Laget: 2018-10-26 Sist oppdatert: 2024-01-17bibliografisk kontrollert
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  • 5.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    “Cerebral Communication” With Patients With Disorders of Consciousness.: Clinical Feasibility and Implications2015Inngår i: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 44-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Filosofia delle neuroscienze: Cervello, mente, persona2012 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [it]

    Nel presente lavoro, prescindendo dagli aspetti tecnici del sapere neuroscientifico, l’autore mette in evidenza il crescente primato esplicativo delle neuroscienze riguardo la conoscenza della natura umana; delinea come possibile alternativa a tale primato: la concezione del cervello come sistema plastico condizionato dall’ambiente esterno; avanza la tesi di un ripensamento dell’identità umana, superando gli antichi steccati tra il sé e l’altro da sé (l’altro biologico, ma anche l’altro tecnologico), senza con ciò giungere a negare qualsiasi presupposto identitario.

  • 7.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    In Need of Meta-Scientific Experts?2014Inngår i: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 243-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Neuro-bio-diritto: tra imputabilità e negazione di responsabilità. : Verso un nichilismo giuridico?2009Inngår i: Archivio giuridico Filippo Serafini, Vol. 229, nr 3, s. 317-355Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Neuroethics and Cultural Diversity2023Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing discussion concerning the relationship between neuroethical reflections and cultural diversity, which is among the most impactful factors in shaping neuroethics, both as a scientific discipline and a social enterprise. The impacts of culture on science and its public perception are particularly relevant to neuroethics, which aims to facilitate the creation of an interface between neuroscience and society at large. Time is ripe for neuroethics to review the influence of the culturally specific contexts from which it originated (i.e. North America and Western Europe) and to also include other cultural perspectives in the discussion.

    This book illustrates a convergent approach among different cultures in identifying the main issues raised by neuroscience and emerging technologies. This should be taken as a starting point for advancing in the search for shared solutions, which are, if not definitive, at least sufficiently reliable to be translated into democratic deliberative processes.

  • 10.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Neurotechnology–mediated communication: a new tool for personal rights of patients with disorders of consciousness?2016Inngår i: Mind, brain and education at Erice: ten years / [ed] Antonio M. Battro, Kurt W. Fischer & María Lourdes Majdalani, Erice: Ettore Majorana Foundation , 2016, s. 149-152Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the inspiring and friendly environment of the ninth International Summer School on Mind, Brain and Education, titled Body, Brain and Personal Identity: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, and directed by Antonio M. Battro, Kurt W. Fischer and Fernando Vidal, I presented the provisional results of my investigation of the impact of neurotechnology on the speechless subjects’ ability to communicate. In particular, I focused on the possible use of neurotechnology to communicate with comatose patients. 

  • 11.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Ritorno alla Physis2018Inngår i: Etica e Politica / Ethics and Politics, E-ISSN 1825-5167, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 487-496Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While I am quite in agreement with the critics to transhumanism elaborated by Allegra in the book Visioni transumane. Tecnica, salvezza, ideologia, the alternative to transhumanist perspective that he argues for in this book is not completely clear to me, unless it is just the revival of a metaphysical-anthropological framework grounded on a "strong" idea of human nature. Against such perspective I argue for the necessity to keep the difference between posthumanism and transhumanism and to go back to the original meaning of physis.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    The Ethical Pain: Detection of pain and suffering in patients with disorders of consciousness2013Inngår i: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 265-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The intriguing issue of pain and suffering in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs), particularly in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome/Vegetative State (UWS/VS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS), is assessed from a theoretical point of view, through an overview of recent neuroscientific literature, in order to sketch an ethical analysis. In conclusion, from a legal and ethical point of view, formal guidelines and a situationist ethics are proposed in order to best manage the critical scientific uncertainty about pain and suffering in DOCs and ensure the best possible care for the patient.

  • 13.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Research Institute.
    The Ethical Spectrum of Consciousness2023Inngår i: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 55-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an editorial to a special issue of AJOB Neuroscience which explores a number of ethical questions emerging from some of the most recent results of research on consciousness, including its moral interpretation, its technological manipulation, its artificial replication, its pharmacological alteration, and its possible attribution to engineered brain cells.

  • 14.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    The Posthuman Condition2013Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions / [ed] Springer Verlag, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    "Posthuman condition" (PC) is a complex and multifaceted concept that covers many assumptions and definitions of human being and becoming. These definitions are generally inspired by the development of contemporary technoscience.

    We can talk about a substantial ambiguity of the concept of PC, which can be declined according to two fundamental meanings: human has become posthuman because of the hybridization with technology (we could name this concept of PC "cultural posthumanism"); human is going to be overtaken by a new posthuman form of life emerging from the huge changes driven by technology (we could name this concept of PC "transhumanism" or "hyperhumanism" or "hyperbolic posthumanism" or "speculative posthumanism").

  • 15.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    The relevance of neuroscience for conceptualizing human nature2016Inngår i: Idee, ISSN 0394-3054, E-ISSN 1591-0733, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 121-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper starts from an outline of a possible cultural interpretation of neuroscience, namely the conceptual simplification of the complexity revealed by recent neuroscientific data and systematized in related theoretical views. On the basis of the conceptual significance of neuroscience, the paper suggests the epigenetic theory of neuronal development and the related informed materialism as fruitful theoretical frameworks for developing a neuro-philosophy that aims at overcoming classical dualistic interpretations such as brain/mind and nature/culture.

  • 16.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Alleva, Enrico
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Chiarotti, Flavia
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Macrì, Simone
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Clinicians’ attitudes towards patients with disorders of consciousness: a survey2014Inngår i: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 93-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Notwithstanding fundamental methodological advancements, scientific information about disorders of consciousness (DOCs)—e.g. Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS)—is incomplete. The possibility to discriminate between different levels of consciousness in DOC states entails treatment strategies and ethical concerns. Here we attempted to investigate Italian clinicians’ and basic scientists’ opinions regarding some issues emerging from the care and the research on patients with DOCs. From our survey emerged that Italian physicians working with patients with DOCs give a central role to ethics. Current Italian regulation regarding basic research conducted in patients with DOCs apparently risks to be inadequate to support scientific advancement, and would deserve a different assessment compared to ordinary treatments. We think the results of our survey deserve attention from an international audience because they exemplify the difficulty to define a shared approach to the issues related to patients with DOCs and the necessity to better assess both the ordinary and experimental treatment of patients with DOCs at the ethical and legal level.

  • 17.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Research Institute, Ariano Irpino (AV), Avellino, Italy.
    Baldassarre, Gianluca
    Cartoni, Emilio
    Leach, Antonia
    Petrovici, Mihai A.
    Rosemann, Achim
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Institute of Neuroethics, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Stahl, Bernd
    van Albada, Sacha J.
    A method for the ethical analysis of brain-inspired AI2024Inngår i: Artificial Intelligence Review, ISSN 0269-2821, E-ISSN 1573-7462, Vol. 57, nr 6, artikkel-id 133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its successes, to date Artificial Intelligence (AI) is still characterized by a number of shortcomings with regards to different application domains and goals. These limitations are arguably both conceptual (e.g., related to the underlying theoretical models, such as symbolic vs.connectionist), and operational (e.g., related to robustness and ability to generalize). Biologically inspired AI, and more specifically brain-inspired AI, promises to provide further biological aspects beyond those that are already traditionally included in AI, making it possible to assess and possibly overcome some of its present shortcomings. This article examines some conceptual, technical, and ethical issues raised by the development and use of brain-inspired AI. Against this background, the paper asks whether there is anything ethically unique about brain-inspired AI. The aim of the paper is to introduce a method that has a heuristic nature and that can be applied to identify and address the ethical issues arising from brain-inspired AI (and from AI more generally). The conclusion resulting from the application of this method is that, compared to traditional AI, brain-inspired AI raises new foundational ethical issues and some new practical ethical issues, and exacerbates some of the issues raised by traditional AI.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 18.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Biogem Molecular Biology and Genetics Research Institute, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Blumblyte, Inga A.
    Franssen, Casper
    Nitsch, Dorothea
    Zecchino, Irene
    Capasso, Giovambattista
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Department Translational Medical Science, University Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.
    Hafez, Gaye
    Cognitive decline related to chronic kidney disease as an exclusion factor from kidney transplantation: results from an international survey2024Inngår i: Clinical Kidney Journal, ISSN 2048-8505, E-ISSN 2048-8513, Vol. 17, nr 5, artikkel-id sfae114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and hypothesis

    There seems to be a lack of consensus on the necessity and the modality of psychological and specifically cognitive assessment of candidates for kidney transplantation. Both points are often delegated to individual hospitals/centres, whereas international guidelines are inconsistent. We think it is essential to investigate professionals' opinions to advance towards a consistent clinical practice.

    Methods

    This paper presents the results of an international survey among clinical professionals, mainly nephrologists from the CONNECT (Cognitive decline in Nephro-Neurology: European Cooperative Target) network and beyond (i.e. from personal contacts of CONNECT members). The survey investigated their opinions about the question of whether cognitive decline in patients with chronic kidney disease may affect their eligibility for kidney transplantation.

    Results

    Our results show that most clinicians working with patients affected by chronic kidney disease think that cognitive decline may challenge their eligibility for transplantation despite data that suggest that, in some patients, cognitive problems improve after kidney transplantation.

    Conclusion

    We conclude that three needs emerge as particularly pressing: defining agreed-on standards for a multifaceted and multifactorial assessment (i.e. including both clinical/medical and psychosocial factors) of candidates with chronic kidney disease to kidney transplantation; further investigating empirically the causal connection between chronic kidney disease and cognition; and further investigating empirically the possible partial reversibility of cognitive decline after kidney transplantation.

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  • 19.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Science and Society Unit Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Italy.
    Changeux, Jean-Pierre
    Neuroscience Department, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    About the compatibility between the perturbational complexity index and the global neuronal workspace theory of consciousness2023Inngår i: Neuroscience of Consciousness, E-ISSN 2057-2107, Vol. 2023, nr 1, s. 1-8, artikkel-id niad016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the compatibility between the theoretical framework of the global neuronal workspace theory (GNWT) of conscious processing and the perturbational complexity index (PCI). Even if it has been introduced within the framework of a concurrent theory (i.e. Integrated Information Theory), PCI appears, in principle, compatible with the main tenet of GNWT, which is a conscious process that depends on a long-range connection between different cortical regions, more specifically on the amplification, global propagation, and integration of brain signals. Notwithstanding this basic compatibility, a number of limited compatibilities and apparent differences emerge. This paper starts from the description of brain complexity, a notion that is crucial for PCI, to then summary of the main features of PCI and the main tenets of GNWT. Against this background, the text explores the compatibility between PCI and GNWT. It concludes that GNWT and PCI are fundamentally compatible, even though there are some partial disagreements and some points to further examine.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 20.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Brain Project Sub-Project 12, Uppsala University, Uppsala.; Biogem, Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Brain Project Sub-Project 12, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    The ethical relevance of the unconscious2017Inngår i: Philosophy Ethics and Humanities in Medicine, E-ISSN 1747-5341, Vol. 12, nr 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Ethical analyses of disorders of consciousness traditionally focus on residual awareness. Going one step further, this paper explores the potential ethical relevance of the unawareness retained by patients with disorders of consciousness, focusing specifically on the ethical implications of the description of the unconscious provided by recent scientific research.

    Methods

    A conceptual methodology is used, based on the review and analysis of relevant scientific literature on the unconscious and the logical argumentation in favour of the ethical conclusions.

    Results

    Two conditions (experiential wellbeing and having interests) that are generally considered critical components in the ethical discussion of patients with disorders of consciousness might arguably be both conscious and unconscious.

    Conclusions

    The unconscious, as well as consciousness, should be taken into account in the ethical discussions of patients with disorders of consciousness.

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  • 21.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Science and Society Unit, Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Changeux, Jean-Pierre
    Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 595Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we suggest a potential new ethical analysis of addiction focusing on the relationship between aware and unaware processings in the brain, i.e. on what is consciously and what is non-consciously perceived by the individual. We take the case of the opioids epidemics to argue that a consideration of both aware and unaware processings provides a more comprehensive ethical framework to discuss the ethical issues raised by addiction.Finally, our hypothesis is that in addition to identified Central Nervous System’s neuronal/neurochemical factors contributing to addictive dynamics, the socio-economic status, i.e. the individual background, plays a causal role through epigenetic processes, originating the need for additional reward in the brain. This provides a strong base for a socio-political form of responsibility for preventing and managing addiction crisis.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 22.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Biomedical research involving patients with disorders of consciousness: ethical and legal dimensions2014Inngår i: Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISSN 0021-2571, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 221-228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The directive 2001/20/UE and the research involving patients with docs. Researchinvolving patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) deserves special ethical andlegal attention because of its Janus-faced nature. On the one hand, it raises concernsabout the risk to expose the involved subjects to disproportionate risks not respectingtheir individual dignity, particularly their right to be cared for; on the other hand, researchis an essential tool in order to improve the clinical condition of patients withDOCs. The present paper concerns the ethical and legal dimensions of biomedical researchinvolving patients with disorders of consciousness. In particular, it focuses oninformed consent to experimental treatments, which is a challenging issue both from anethical and legal point of view. The first part reads the Directive 2001/20/EU in the lightof the experimentation of patients with DOCs, and suggests a revision in order to betterassess the issue of informed consent.The particular case of informed consent for observational studies of non-communicativepatients. The second part presents an informed consent form for studies throughvideo-recording of patients unable to communicate their own consent. This form hasbeen elaborated by the bioethics unit of the project “Review of the nosography of vegetativestates: application of methods of behavioral analysis to individuals in coma orvegetative state” developed at the Italian National Institute of Health.Relevance of the suggested form. The paper describes the conceptual framework ofthe form for informed consent to studies through video-recoding, which is a relevantexample of what issues should be included in an informed consent for any type of studiesthrough video-recording of patients unable to express their own consent. The article hasbeen sent on November the 7th 2013, before the adoption of the Regulation (EU) no.536/2014 (and consequent abrogation of the Directive 2001/20/EU) and the release ofthe new edition of the Italian Code of Medical Ethics.

  • 23.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas.
    Big Science, Brain Simulation and Neuroethics2016Inngår i: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 28-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We believe that it is valuable to investigate conceptual understandings of the brain andof simulation in order to better grasp the ethical implicationsof simulation technology in particular. Such conceptualexamination is offered by fundamental neuroethics. Inthis commentary we propose a reading of simulationwithin the framework of fundamental neuroethics.

  • 24.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Towards Establishing Criteria for the Ethical Analysisof Artificial Intelligence2020Inngår i: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 2413-2425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethical reflection on Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become a priority. In this article, we propose a methodological model for a comprehensive ethical analysis ofsome uses of AI, notably as a replacement of human actors in specific activities. Weemphasize the need for conceptual clarification of relevant key terms (e.g., intelligence) in order to undertake such reflection. Against that background, we distinguish two levels of ethical analysis, one practical and one theoretical. Focusing onthe state of AI at present, we suggest that regardless of the presence of intelligence,the lack of morally relevant features calls for caution when considering the role ofAI in some specific human activities.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 25.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Biogem – Istituto di ricerche genetiche, Ariano Irpino, Avellino.
    Ferrigno, Luigina
    Petrini, Carlo
    Rosmini, Francesco
    Codici, linee guida e commentari di etica della ricerca: la questione della qualità2014Inngår i: Epidemiologia & Prevenzione, ISSN 1120-9763, E-ISSN 2385-1937, Vol. 38, nr 3-4, s. 268-272Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    After an overview of the evolution of ethics laws for medical activities, we suggest a possible classification of documents regarding the ethical conduct of scientific research with human beings. The authors outline the necessity to define formal criteria for the development and the implementation of ethics standards.

  • 26.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Research Institute, Ariano Irpino, AV, Italy.
    Formisano, Rita
    Gosseries, Olivia
    Kato, Yoko
    Koboyashi, Shigeki
    Laureys, Steven
    Lejeune, Nicolas
    Martial, Charlotte
    Matar, Amal
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Morrisey, Ann-Marie
    Schnakers, Caroline
    Yakufujiang, Maidinamu
    Yamaki, Tomohiro
    Veeramuthu, Vigneswaran
    Zandalasini, Matteo
    Zasler, Nathan
    Magliacano, Alfonso
    Estraneo, Anna
    International survey on the implementation of the European and American guidelines on disorders of consciousness2024Inngår i: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459, Vol. 271, nr 1, s. 395-407Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic procedures for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (pDoCs) vary significantly across countries and clinical settings, likely due to organizational factors (e.g., research vs. non-academic hospitals), expertise and availability of resources (e.g., financial and human). Two international guidelines, one from the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) and one from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) in collaboration with the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) and the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR), were developed to facilitate consistent practice among professionals working with this challenging patient population. While the recommendations of both guidelines agree in principle, it remains an open issue how to implement them into clinical practice in the care pathway for patients with pDoCs. We conducted an online survey to explore health professional clinical practices related to the management of patients with pDoCs, and compare said practices with selected recommendations from both the guidelines. The survey revealed that while some recommendations are being followed, others are not and/or may require more honing/specificity to enhance their clinical utility. Particular attention should be given to the implementation of a multimodal assessment of residual consciousness, to the detection and treatment of pain, and to the impact of restrictions imposed by COVID-19 pandemics on the involvement of patients’ families/representatives.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 27.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Science and Society Unit, Biogem Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette
    Science for Life Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 585Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g. Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State.Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

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  • 28.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Laureys, Steven
    University of Liège, Liège, Belgium .
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Externalization of Consciousness: Scientific Possibilities and Clinical Implications2015Inngår i: Ethical Issues in Behavioural Neuroscience / [ed] G. Lee-J. Illes-F Ohl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, s. 205-222Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper starts by analyzing recent advancements in neurotechnological assessment of residual consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness and in neurotechnology-mediated communication with them. Ethical issues arising from these developments are described, with particular focus on informed consent. Against this background, we argue for the necessity of further scientific efforts and ethical reflection in neurotechnological assessment of consciousness and ‘cerebral communication’ with verbally non-communicative patients.

  • 29.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Laureys, Steven
    University and University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    The Intrinsic Activity of the Brain and Its Relation to Levels and Disorders of Consciousness2017Inngår i: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 197-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Science and philosophy still lack an overarching theory of consciousness. We suggest that a further step toward it requires going beyond the view of the brain as input-output machine and focusing on its intrinsic activity, which may express itself in two distinct modalities, i.e. aware and unaware. We specifically investigate the predisposition of the brain to evaluate and to model the world. These intrinsic activities of the brain retain a deep relation with consciousness. In fact the ability of the brain to evaluate and model the world can develop in two modalities, implicit or explicit, that correspond to what we usually refer to as the unconscious and consciousness, and both are multilevel configurations of the brain along a continuous and dynamic line. Starting from an empirical understanding of the brain as intrinsically active and plastic, we here distinguish between higher cognitive functions and basic phenomenal consciousness, suggesting that the latter might characterize the brain’s intrinsic activity as such, even if at a very basic level. We proceed to explore possible impacts of the notion of intrinsic cerebral phenomenality on our understanding of consciousness and its disorders, particularly on the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 30.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Science and Society Unit, Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Research Institute, Ariano Irpino, AV, Italy.
    Pennartz, Cyriel
    Annen, Jitka
    Cecconi, Benedetta
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Indicators and criteria of consciousness: ethical implications for the care of behaviourally unresponsive patients2022Inngår i: BMC Medical Ethics, ISSN 1472-6939, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 23, nr 30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Assessing consciousness in other subjects, particularly in non-verbal and behaviourally disabled subjects (e.g., patients with disorders of consciousness), is notoriously challenging but increasingly urgent. The high rate of misdiagnosis among disorders of consciousness raises the need for new perspectives in order to inspire new technical and clinical approaches.

    Main body

    We take as a starting point a recently introduced list of operational indicators of consciousness that facilitates its recognition in challenging cases like non-human animals and Artificial Intelligence to explore their relevance to disorders of consciousness and their potential ethical impact on the diagnosis and healthcare of relevant patients. Indicators of consciousness mean particular capacities that can be deduced from observing the behaviour or cognitive performance of the subject in question (or from neural correlates of such performance) and that do not define a hard threshold in deciding about the presence of consciousness, but can be used to infer a graded measure based on the consistency amongst the different indicators. The indicators of consciousness under consideration offer a potential useful strategy for identifying and assessing residual consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness, setting the theoretical stage for an operationalization and quantification of relevant brain activity.

    Conclusions

    Our heuristic analysis supports the conclusion that the application of the identified indicators of consciousness to its disorders will likely inspire new strategies for assessing three very urgent issues: the misdiagnosis of disorders of consciousness; the need for a gold standard in detecting consciousness and diagnosing its disorders; and the need for a refined taxonomy of disorders of consciousness.

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  • 31.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Biogem Genetic Research Institute, Via Camporeale, 83031, Ariano Irpino, AV, Italy .
    Petrini, C
    The Impact of Neuroscience and Genetics on the Law: A Recent Italian Case2012Inngår i: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 317-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of genetic testing and neuroscientific evidence in legal trials raises several issues. Often their interpretation is controversial: the same evidence can be used to sustain both the prosecution’s and defense’s argument. A recent Italian case confirms such concerns and stresses other relevant related questions.

  • 32.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Ethical Frameworks and Comparative Effectiveness Research2015Inngår i: Comparative Effectiveness Research in Health Services / [ed] Levy A & Sobolev B, New York: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, s. 1-37Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of comparative effectiveness research (CER) is assessed from an ethical point of view by comparison with the main ethical frameworks and by analysis of some of the relevant institutional documents. Two main conclusions emerge from the study: no ethical framework seems able to objectively and definitively assess CER; no institutional document, neither national nor international, has specifically assessed the ethical implications of CER. Nevertheless, this vacuum regarding CER raises relevant ethical concerns, thus revealing the necessity and urgency of an ethical evaluation of CER.

  • 33.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, Pontifical Faculty of Theology of Southern Italy S. Thomas, Naples, Italy .
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Medical Responsibility and Clinical Guidelines: A Few Remarks from Two Italian Juridical Cases2012Inngår i: Medicine Studies, ISSN SSN: 1876-4533 (print version) ISSN: 1876-4541 (electronic version), Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 157-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this paper is to assess the complex issue of responsibility in clinical practice. The paper focuses mainly on the relationship between personal- and medical-professional responsibility of practitioners and clinical guidelines.

    Methods

    After a theoretical review of the different definitions of responsibility in selected bioethical and biojuridical literature, two recent juridical proceedings concerning medical responsibility from Italian Courts are discussed. Subsequently, a theoretical analysis of the definition of clinical practice guidelines is proposed in order to show their feasibility to assess personal- and medical-professional responsibility.

    Results

    The definitions of responsibility and the two Italian cases show the theoretical and practical difficulties of shared assessments of both personal-professional and medical-professional responsibility in clinical practice. Clinical practice guidelines cannot be assumed as an objective code of action stating exactly a rule of conduct in all situations, but as a tool suggesting how to decide what to do in different conditions.

    Conclusions

    Responsibility in clinical practice is such a complex issue to deserve a special ethical assessment. The clinician’s personal-professional responsibility cannot be replaced or reduced by clinical practice guidelines, because medicine is as such a relationship focused on the expertize of practitioners. Nonetheless, a shared approach to different clinical conditions is needed in order to avoid a relativist outcome and protect patients’ and even clinicians’ rights. Formal guidelines (that describe not exactly what to do but how to decide what to do) are proposed as potential useful tool to achieve this aim.

  • 34.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Misdiagnosis as an ethical and scientific challenge2014Inngår i: Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISSN 0021-2571, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 229-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Difficulties of behavioral assessment of consciousness. An astonishingly high rateof misdiagnosis between vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimallyconscious state has been detected. This raises the issue of the adequacy of theconsciousness’ assessment in patients with disorders of consciousness. The behavioralassessment of consciousness could be not able to detect covert awareness, which is increasinglyidentified by the instrumental assessment.Ancillary methods. Neurotechnology, particularly neuroimaging, provides relevant dataconcerning the neurological underlying condition of patients with DOCs, but the instrumentalapproach has still to assess some technical issues.Ethical considerations. A correct diagnosis of a DOC is not only an instrumental issue,but also an ethically relevant demand to the scientific community. Finally, an integrationbetween behavioral and instrumental assessments seems to be the most adequate strategyin order to decrease the rate of misdiagnosis.

  • 35.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    On the Stand: Another Episode of Neuroscience and Law Discussion From Italy2014Inngår i: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 243-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    After three proceedings in which neuro-science was a relevant factor for the final verdict inItalian courts, for the first time a recent case puts inquestion the legal relevance of neuroscientific evidence.This decision deserves international attention in itsunderlining that the uncertainty still affecting neuroscien-tific knowledge can have a significant impact on thelaw. It urges the consideration of such uncertainty andthe development of a shared management of it.

  • 36.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Biogem, Genetic Reseach Centre, Ariano Irpino (AV) Italy.
    Petrini, Carlo
    The Impact of Contemporary Neurotechnology on Diagnosing and Treating Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: A Review2013Inngår i: International Journal of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnosis, ISSN 2332-2926, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 12-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disorders of consciousness, especially Vegetative State, are assessed from a theoretical (historical and ethical) and empirical (neuroscientific) points of view, through a review of the most relevant recent literature. Both the potentiality of neuroscientific investigation and the limitations of its clinical (diagnostic and prognostic) application are underlined, showing the urgency of a collaboration between science, law and ethics in order to define the most appropriate nosography and to ensure the best therapy to patients with disorders of consciousness.

  • 37.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Science and Society Unit, Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Via Camporeale, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Programa de Neuroetica, Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    American and European Guidelines on Disorders of Consciousness: Ethical Challenges of Implementation2022Inngår i: The journal of head trauma rehabilitation, ISSN 0885-9701, E-ISSN 1550-509X, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 258-262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently published Guidelines on Disorders of Consciousness (DoCs) by the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) and by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) in collaboration with the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) and the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) stand as the most ambitious international attempts to provide clear and standardized recommendations to clinicians working with patients with DoCs. They offer an updated, timely, and wide-ranging list of recommendations for the diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical care of affected patients. However, while commendable, the guidelines pose a number of questions including some related to the practical implementation of their recommendations. The paper introduces the Distributed Responsibility Model as a tool for maximizing the impact of recommendations in clinical practice

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  • 38.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach2018Inngår i: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 717-727Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we begin by identifying three main neuroethical approaches: neurobioethics, empirical neuroethics, and conceptual neuroethics. Our focus is on conceptual approaches that generally emphasize the need to develop and use a methodological modus operandi for effectively linking scientific (i.e., neuroscience) and philosophical (i.e., ethics) interpretations. We explain and assess the value of conceptual neuroethics approaches and explain and defend one such approach that we propose as being particularly fruitful for addressing the various issues raised by neuroscience: fundamental neuroethics.

  • 39.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute , Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Zecchino, Irene
    Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio , Benevento , Italy.
    Capasso, Giovambattista
    Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute , Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy;Department Translational Medical Science, University Campania Luigi Vanvitelli , Naples , Italy.
    The need for a multi-disciplinary reflection about frailty and cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease2022Inngår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, ISSN 0931-0509, E-ISSN 1460-2385, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 1064-1066Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Editorial outlines the need for a multidisciplinary reflection about the impact of chronic kidney disease on cognitive impairment and its implications for ethically salient notions, like self-determination and autonomy.

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  • 40. George, Ogoh
    et al.
    Akintoye, Simisola
    Eke, Damian
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Fernow, Josepine
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Grasenick, Karin
    Guerrero, Manuel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Rosemann, Achim
    Salles, Arleen
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Ulnicane, Inga
    Developing Capabilities for Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI)2023Inngår i: Journal of Responsible Technology, ISSN 2666-6596, s. 100065-100065, artikkel-id 100065Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the notion of capability development through the lens of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). It describes how RRI capabilities can be promoted and developed through capacity-building activities by drawing on a reflection of the experiences of some members of the Ethics and Society team of the EU-funded Human Brain Project (HBP) who have contributed to the development of an extensive RRI capacity building programme for HBP researchers, EBRAINS research infrastructure developers and users, as well as interested external audiences. It also highlights some of the outcomes of the RRI capacity-building exercise and the challenge of assessing the impact of such activities.

  • 41. Gini, Adriana
    et al.
    Larrivee, Denis
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Sironi, Vittorio
    Keeping the human: neuroethics and the conciliation of dissonant values in the 21st century2015Inngår i: Neuroscience and neuroeconomics, ISSN 2230-3561, Vol. 4, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studied since antiquity, the human brain has recently been the inspiration for an international neuroscientific entrepreneurship, the Human Brain Project in Europe and the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative in the USA. Different in their approach, both regard the human brain as one of the greatest challenges of 21st century science and the organ that makes us “human”. However, it is mainly the necessity of developing new therapies that affect up to a billion people worldwide, which has propelled the search for extensive expertise and investment in neuroscience research. The debate on ethical and social policy issues as well as the research and medical strategies of such gigantic efforts has involved participants as diverse as neuroscientists, philosophers, scholars in ethics and law, politicians, and the general public, rendering modern neuroscience an interdisciplinary and conflictual endeavor. In fact, the brain is described as the biological underpinning of our thoughts, emotions, perceptions, free willed actions, and memories, features unique to our humanity. In this review, three neuroscientists and a philosopher from the neuroethics community provide their perspectives for an up-to-date survey of salient neuroethical issues, ie, modulation of free will and neuropharmaceuticals and neurotechnologies that enhance cognitive capacities, as well as an introduction of the reader to the controversial new discipline of neuroethics. Written for nonexperts in the field, it is intended to reflect on and to impart information helpful in understanding the challenges and the perils of modern neuroscience, whose tools are so powerful as to jeopardize what is uniquely “human” through willful mind manipulation. We conclude that, for any future effort to “recreate” the mind and, at the same time, keep what is uniquely ours, it will be necessary to reflect ethically and review carefully man's past best efforts at self-understanding.

  • 42. Larrivee, Denis
    et al.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Science and Society Unit, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Realigning the Neural Paradigm for Death2019Inngår i: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, ISSN 1176-7529, E-ISSN 1872-4353, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 259-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole brain failure constitutes the diagnostic criterion for death determination in most clinical settings across the globe. Yet the conceptual foundation for its adoption was slow to emerge, has evoked extensive scientific debate since inception, underwent policy revision, and remains contentious in praxis even today. Complications result from the need to relate a unitary construal of the death event with an adequate account of organismal integration and that of the human organism in particular. Advances in the neuroscience of higher human faculties, such as the self, personal identity, and consciousness, and dynamical philosophy of science accounts, however, are yielding a portrait of higher order global integration shared between body and brain. Such conceptual models of integration challenge a praxis relying exclusively on a neurological criterion for death.

  • 43.
    Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.
    et al.
    Department of Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands ; Research Priority Area, Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Indicators and Criteria of Consciousness in Animals and Intelligent Machines: An Inside-Out Approach2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5137, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 25Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society, it becomes increasingly important to assess which non-human and non-verbal beings possess consciousness. This review article aims to delineate criteria for consciousness especially in animals, while also taking into account intelligent artifacts. First, we circumscribe what we mean with “consciousness” and describe key features of subjective experience: qualitative richness, situatedness, intentionality and interpretation, integration and the combination of dynamic and stabilizing properties. We argue that consciousness has a biological function, which is to present the subject with a multimodal, situational survey of the surrounding world and body, subserving complex decision-making and goal-directed behavior. This survey reflects the brain’s capacity for internal modeling of external events underlying changes in sensory state. Next, we follow an inside-out approach: how can the features of conscious experience, correlating to mechanisms inside the brain, be logically coupled to externally observable (“outside”) properties? Instead of proposing criteria that would each define a “hard” threshold for consciousness, we outline six indicators: (i) goal-directed behavior and model-based learning; (ii) anatomic and physiological substrates for generating integrative multimodal representations; (iii) psychometrics and meta-cognition; (iv) episodic memory; (v) susceptibility to illusions and multistable perception; and (vi) specific visuospatial behaviors. Rather than emphasizing a particular indicator as being decisive, we propose that the consistency amongst these indicators can serve to assess consciousness in particular species. The integration of scores on the various indicators yields an overall, graded criterion for consciousness, somewhat comparable to the Glasgow Coma Scale for unresponsive patients. When considering theoretically derived measures of consciousness, it is argued that their validity should not be assessed on the basis of a single quantifiable measure, but requires cross-examination across multiple pieces of evidence, including the indicators proposed here. Current intelligent machines, including deep learning neural networks (DLNNs) and agile robots, are not indicated to be conscious yet. Instead of assessing machine consciousness by a brief Turing-type of test, evidence for it may gradually accumulate when we study machines ethologically and across time, considering multiple behaviors that require flexibility, improvisation, spontaneous problem-solving and the situational conspectus typically associated with conscious experience.

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  • 44.
    Petrini, Carlo
    et al.
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Farisco, Michele
    Biogem IRGS, Institute of Research “Gaetano Salvatore”, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy Correspondence: Michele Farisco, Biogem IRGS, Institute of Research “Gaetano Salvatore”, Via Camporeale, 83031 Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Informed Consent for Cord Blood Donation: A Theoretical and Empirical Study2011Inngår i: Blood Transfusion, ISSN 1723-2007, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 292-300Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) banking and therapeutic use raiseseveral ethical issues: medical indications, legal framework, public versus private biobanks,autologous versus allogeneic use, ownership, commercialisation, quality assurance and manyothers. Surrogate informed consent is one of the most notable controversial ethical issues. Theaim of this study was to analyse and compare informed consent forms for CB collection, storageand use in the 18 accredited biobanks of the Italian Network.

    Material and methods

    The first part of the article gives a brief overview of the scientificframework, the comparison of allogeneic and autologous use and Italian regulations. In thesecond part the contents of the consent forms from the 18 Italian biobanks are compared with the"NetCord-FACT International Standards for Cord Blood Collection, Banking, and Release forAdministration".

    Results

    Most of the Italian consent forms differ significantly from the NetCord-FACTStandards, with regards both to formal and substantial aspects.

    Conclusion

    Italian forms for CB collection, storage and use need standardisation to meetinternational criteria.

  • 45. Pigorini, Andrea
    et al.
    Avanzini, Pietro
    Barborica, Andrei
    Bénar, Christian-G.
    David, Olivier
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Science and Society Unit Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Via Camporeale snc, Ariano Irpino (AV) 83031, Italy.
    Keller, Corey J.
    Manfridi, Alfredo
    Mikulan, Ezequiel
    Paulk, Angelique C.
    Roehri, Nicolas
    Subramanian, Ajay
    Vulliémoz, Serge
    Zelmann, Rina
    Simultaneous invasive and non-invasive recordings in humans: a novel Rosetta stone for deciphering brain activity2024Inngår i: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, ISSN 0165-0270, E-ISSN 1872-678X, artikkel-id 110160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous noninvasive and invasive electrophysiological recordings provide a unique opportunity to achieve a comprehensive understanding of human brain activity, much like a Rosetta stone for human neuroscience. In this review we focus on the increasingly-used powerful combination of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) with scalp electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG). We first provide practical insight on how to achieve these technically challenging recordings. We then provide examples from clinical research on how simultaneous recordings are advancing our understanding of epilepsy. This is followed by the illustration of how human neuroscience and methodological advances could benefit from these simultaneous recordings. We conclude with a call for open data sharing and collaboration, while ensuring neuroethical approaches and argue that only with a true collaborative approach the promises of simultaneous recordings will be fulfilled.

  • 46. Racine, Eric
    et al.
    Dubljevic, Veljko
    Jox, Ralf J.
    Baertschi, Bernard
    Christensen, Julia F.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Jotterand, Fabrice
    Kahane, Guy
    Muller, Sabine
    Can Neuroscience contribute to practical ethics?: A critical review and discussion of the methodological and translational challenges of the neuroscience of ethics2017Inngår i: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 2017, nr 31, s. 328-337, artikkel-id 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an "ethics of neuroscience" and a "neuroscience of ethics". However, questions surface as to whether a "neuroscience of ethics" is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions. In this article, we examine why the neuroscience of ethics is a promising area of research and summarize what we have learned so far regarding its most promising goals and contributions. We then review some of the key methodological challenges which may have hindered the use of results generated thus far by the neuroscience of ethics. Strategies are suggested to address these challenges and improve the quality of research and increase neuroscience's usefulness for applied ethics and society at large. Finally, we reflect on potential outcomes of a neuroscience of ethics and discuss the different strategies that could be used to support knowledge transfer to help different stakeholders integrate knowledge from the neuroscience of ethics. 

  • 47.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Bjaalie, Jan
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Fothergill, Tyr
    Guerrero, Manuel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Maslen, Hannah
    Muller, Jeffrey
    Prescott, Tony
    Stahl, Bernd
    Walter, Henrik
    Zilles, Karl
    Amunts, Katrin
    The Human Brain Project: Responsible Brain Research for the Benefit of Society2019Inngår i: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 101, nr 3, s. 380-384Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
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  • 48.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas (CIF),F), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Camporeale, Italy.
    Anthropomorphism in AI2020Inngår i: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 88-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AI research is growing rapidly raising various ethical issues related to safety, risks, and other effects widely discussed in the literature. We believe that in order to adequately address those issues and engage in a productive normative discussion it is necessary to examine key concepts and categories. One such category is anthropomorphism. It is a well-known fact that AI’s functionalities and innovations are often anthropomorphized (i.e., described and conceived as characterized by human traits). The general public’s anthropomorphic attitudes and some of their ethical consequences (particularly in the context of social robots and their interaction with humans) have been widely discussed in the literature. However, how anthropomorphism permeates AI research itself (i.e., in the very language of computer scientists, designers, and programmers), and what the epistemological and ethical consequences of this might be have received less attention. In this paper we explore this issue. We first set the methodological/theoretical stage, making a distinction between a normative and a conceptual approach to the issues. Next, after a brief analysis of anthropomorphism and its manifestations in the public, we explore its presence within AI research with a particular focus on brain-inspired AI. Finally, on the basis of our analysis, we identify some potential epistemological and ethical consequences of the use of anthropomorphic language and discourse within the AI research community, thus reinforcing the need of complementing the practical with a conceptual analysis.

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  • 49.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Programa de Neuroetica, Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Biogem Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project2019Inngår i: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 201-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is an important ethical, legal, and political theme for the European Commission. Although variously defined, it is generally understood as an interactive process that engages social actors, researchers, and innovators who must be mutually responsive and work towards the ethical permissibility of the relevant research and its products. The framework of RRI calls for contextually addressing not just research and innovation impact but also the background research process, specially the societal visions underlying it and the norms and priorities that shape scientific agendas. This requires the integration of anticipatory, inclusive, and responsive dimensions, and the nurturing of a certain type of reflexivity among a variety of stakeholders, from scientists to funders. In this paper, we do not address potential limitations but focus on the potential contribution of philosophical reflection to RRI in the context of the Ethics and Society subproject of the Human Brain Project (HBP). We show how the type of conceptual analysis provided by philosophically oriented approaches theoretically and ethically broadens research and innovation within the HBP. We further suggest that overt inclusion of philosophical reflection can promote the aims and objectives of RRI.

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  • 50.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Centrum för forsknings- och bioetik. Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    The Need for a Conceptual Expansion of Neuroethics2019Inngår i: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 126-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In “Neuroethics at 15: The Current and Future Environment for Neuroethics” the Emerging Issues Task Force of the INS provides an overview of the current and future topics for neuroethics and the foreseeable challenges that the field will face. The authors note that these challenges, emerging both at individual, societal, and often global levels, are importantly connected to increasing knowledge of the brain and neurotechnical capabilities, to increasing awareness of value diversity and of the need to attend to a global landscape, and to novel applications (commercial, military, governmental) of neuroscientific findings. The overarching theme, the authors note, is expansion. In this commentary we focus on the fourth needed expansion: an expansion in how neuroethics and its methodologies are conceived and how neuroethical issues should be approached. Accordingly, we explore the key role that  conceptual analysis plays in normative discussions, in refining our empirical knowledge, and in fostering a clearer and more reliable vision on how to respond the many philosophical issues raised by neuroscientific knowledge and neurotechnologies

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