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  • 1. Lindwall, Oskar
    et al.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Inquiries of the body: Novice questions and the instructable observability of endodontic scenes2014In: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 271-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores questions posed by students in response to live video broadcasts of dental treatments. The aim of the study is to show and discuss the reflexive relationship between the questions, what they were occasioned by and how they are responded to. Procedures and anatomical features, that for the seminar leader are unproblematically seen in endodontic terms, repeatedly present problems for the students. Visible but unrecognized shifts in the dentist’s work, for instance, provide occasions for questions of the form ‘What is he doing now?’. In the midst of an ongoing procedure, questions tend to be formulated as noticings that elicit instruction either about some detail of the dentist’s actions or about what a generic ‘one should’ or ‘should not do’, what ‘frequently’ happens and so on. It is shown, however, that the movement between specific here-and-now features on the one hand and more general issues on the other characterizes the entire scope of the relevant material, particularly because the seminar leaders’ answers tend to place even minute details within more general endodontic considerations.

  • 2.
    Lindwall, Oskar
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The dark matter of lab work: Illuminating the negotiation of disciplined perception in mechanics2008In: The Journal of the Learning Sciences, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 180-224Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Lindwall, Oskar
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The limits of professional vision: The observability and reportability of endodontic procedures2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One characteristic of the modern society is a clear division of labour and a high level of specialisation. Many professions, like surgery, astrophysics and archaeology necessitate a complex mix of manual, visual, technological and discursive skills – skills that are not readily available or easily accessible to people outside professional communities. Without the relevant skills, one is not only incapable performing the work, but also unable to see and say what members are medically, astronomically, and archeologically doing. Objects such as cystic arteries, optic pulsars and ancient post molds are not just there for one’s naked and untrained eye to see. What is relevant here is not so much the cognitive mechanisms of individuals, but the skills and practices that are shared among “a community of competent practitioners, most of whom have never met each other but nonetheless expect each other to be able to see and categorize the world in ways that are relevant to the work, tools, and artefacts that constitute their profession” (Goodwin, 1994; p. 615).

    In this presentation, a general interest in «professional vision» and the observability and reportability of action will be investigated in the context of dentistry and dental education. With an approach informed by ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, the study investigates a series of seminars organized around live video broadcasts of endodontic procedures. In the seminars, groups of students under the guidance of a seminar leader are watching root canal treatments that take place in an adjacent room. During the broadcasted procedures, the seminar leaders continuously (and reg- ularly confidently) describe what the dentists do, see, think and feel. Central to these commentaries is the ability to see embodied actions in terms of formal procedures. However, there are also limits to this access. Despite the fact that the seminar leader and the dentist share an expertise in endodontics, not all aspects of professional conduct are similarly accessible or describable for an onlooker. For instance, while it is possible for seminar leaders to see that a dentist is searching for a root canal, it is much harder to describe in contingent detail what this searching consists of. In cases like this, the seminar leader might instead ask the dentist who is performing the procedure to explicate his or her actions and reasoning.

    The investigated setting actualizes a number of questions of general concern. What does it mean to observe and describe the professional actions of others? To what extent, or in which ways, can vision and perception be shared? Are some features of professional action less accessible or describable than others? In the investigated setting, these questions are central to the members themselves as instructional concerns. However, the observability and describability of professional conduct are also central methodological concerns for the social scientists who want to analyze such practices. Given that expert sometimes are unable to identify what other experts are doing, to what extent are those same actions describable by non-experts.

    Goodwin, C. (1994). Professional vision. American Anthropologist, 96(3), 606-633. 

  • 4.
    Lindwall, Oskar
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Uses of "understand"€ in science education2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 452-474Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Lindwall, Oskar
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Greiffenhagen, Christian
    Loughborough University.
    The sequential analysis of instruction2015In: The handbook of classroom discourse and interaction / [ed] Numa Markee, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present chapter takes an interest in instructions and the ways in which sequential analysis under the auspices of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis can contribute to their explication. This interest is explored in four contexts: textual instructions on how to crochet, instructions in textile workshops, feedback in academic supervision, and seminars in dental education. Initially, some general features of instructions are discussed in relation to the textual instructions – the irremediable incompleteness of instructions, how the sense of instructions is found in attempts to follow them, and the ties between instructions and assessment. The remaining three cases are used to highlight some differences with regards to the organization of instructions – how instructions are formulated, how instructions are responded to, the access teachers have to student understanding, what the relevant materializations of competence are, and the temporal organization in which these instructions are embedded. The temporal-material organization of a given setting is something with which both participants and analysts have to contend. How teachers and students do that – how they for instance orient to and manage the essential absence of relevant displays of understanding as a condition of their work – is what that the sequential analysis of instruction sets out to explicate.

  • 6.
    Lundmark, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, S-14189 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Analogies in interaction: Practical reasoning and participatory design2016In: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, E-ISSN 1860-7349, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 705-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines a set of discussions among professional counselors in the area of youth counseling, as they participate in the development and design of an online video-mediated communication platform. With an overarching interest in how participatory design is performed through conversations, the analysis focuses on analogical reasoning through which the envisaged system is anchored to existing technologies and work practices. Three forms of analogical reasoning are identified: formulating design alternatives; challenging problem formulations; and telling stories. In various ways, these forms of analogical reasoning inform the ongoing design decision-making process, where the hypothetical technology and its organizational and work-related implications are evaluated. The study contributes to how analogical reasoning is done in interaction, and places the findings in the context of participatory design and studies of design reasoning.

  • 7.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Assessing the realization of intention: The case of architectural education2013In: Human Studies, ISSN 0163-8548, E-ISSN 1572-851X, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 533-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study provides an ethnomethodologically informed respecification of intention in the context of architectural education. The analyses focus on the ways in which participants deal with the relation between formulations of intention and designed objects. Claimed mismatches between stated intention and design make relevant instructional sequences elaborating alternative ways of understanding the design and possible routes by which articulated intentions could have been realized. The practice of topicalizing intentions appears to be a technique by which aspects of architectural competence are made visible and instructed. In particular, the practice makes otherwise unattended aspects of the design process accountably available for assessment and remark. Furthermore, the complexities of architectural consequence in relation to individual design decisions are addressed as an instructional matter. The study expands existing work on intention ascription and avowal by examining a setting where participants deal with the intentional status of designed objects. It is argued that the analyzed assessment sequences are shaped and organized with reference to the particularities of architectural knowledge as well as to the educational character of the activity. Their basic logic, however, is grounded in ordinary understandings of action and intentionality.

  • 8. Lymer, Gustav
    Demonstrating professional vision: The work of critique in architectural education2009In: Mind, culture and activity, ISSN 1074-9039, E-ISSN 1532-7884, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 145-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides an account of how architectural competencies are made visible in the work of critique in architectural education. It shows how critics enact a set of disciplined visual practices through which architectural qualities of proposed buildings become available for competent remark. Particularly prominent among these practices is the seamless fusion of gestural elaborations of architecture's designed objects with the envisaged spaces of a hypothetically perceived built environment. Furthermore, critics topicalize the communicative and rhetorical organization of the presentation as a designed object in itself. In shifts between topicalizations of proposed buildings and the designed representations of those buildings, critics construe qualities of the buildings as simultaneously visible and invisible: visible to the critic, but invisible to potential other viewers. This practice subjects students' work to a variety of pedagogically configured gazes. The student's socialization into a specialized field of practice, in which objects are designed according to professional rationalities that go beyond what is readily visible or accessible to the nonarchitect, is thereby made accountable for the communicative demands of professional practice.

  • 9.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik, kommunikation och lärande.
    The work of critique in architectural education2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research reported here is an investigation of instruction and assessment in architectural education. The focus is on the practice of critique, an educational activity in which instructors and professional architects give students feedback on their finished projects. Taking an ethnomethodologically informed approach, the interests of the thesis revolve around questions of how critique is done as an occasioned instructional practice. The empirical material consists of video recordings of critique sessions at a Swedish school of architecture. The core of the thesis consists of four empirical studies. Study 1 deals with issues of professional vision and the ways in which the graphical surface of the presentation is seen. Study 2 addresses the significance of intentions in the setting. The study examines how the relation between students’ stated intentions and the presented designs is treated by participants. Study 3 deals with the use of precedents and references, analyzing how critics respond to students’ ways of handling intertextual aspects of architectural design. Study 4 focuses on the material and spatial set-up of critique—the differing affordances of digital slideshows and posters for presentation and discussion. Critique is found to be a site where architectural proposals are treated for the purposes of instruction as provisional and improvable, and where their significances are detailed in exhibitions of architectural reasoning and judgment. Such exhibiting involves identifying and elaborating on problems and qualities, and articulating values that are visible in the envisaged buildings and their graphical representations. These interpretations may be juxtaposed with the expressed intentions of students, as these appear in verbal presentations or in textual accounts. Their interrelations are inspected and discrepancies are noted and discussed. On the basis of the analyses in the thesis, the function of critique is argued to centre on the juxtaposition of student-produced objects with professional competences for seeing, articulating, assessing, and contextualizing these objects. In organizing the educational program around cycles of production and critique, architecture is provided with a powerful means through which design competences, and the assessment practices that lie at their core, can be made massively present within, and constitutive of, the developmental processes through which students acquire the intellectual, aesthetic, and discursive repertoires necessary for competent architectural work.

  • 10.
    Lymer, Gustav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ivarsson, Jonas
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindwall, Oskar
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Contrasting the use of tools for presentation and critique: Some cases from architectural education2009In: International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 423-444Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Lymer, Gustav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ivarsson, Jonas
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Rystedt, Hans
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    A. Johnson, Åse
    Göteborgs Universitet och Sahlgrenska Akademin.
    Asplund, Sara
    Göteborgs Universitet och Sahlgrenska Akademin.
    Båth, Magnus
    Göteborgs Universitet och Sahlgrenska Akademin.
    Situated abstraction: From the particular to the general in second-order diagnostic work2014In: Discourse Studies, ISSN 1461-4456, E-ISSN 1461-7080, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 185-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the work of a group of medical scientists as they identify interpretative ‘pitfalls’ – recurrent sources of error – in the use of a new radiographic technique, formulate suggestions on how these pitfalls can be avoided and communicate their findings in the form of a scientific publication. The analysis focuses on a session in which previously diagnosed cases are discussed, and demonstrates the ways in which a certain source of diagnostic error gradually emerges as a taken-for-granted in the interaction. An increased sense of recognition, recurrence and typicality is discernible in the treatment of the cases. Talk characterized by expansions and elaborations, displays of understanding in the form of reformulations, understanding checks, and so on, leave room for brief typifications and reifications of interpretative difficulties in characteristics of the imaging technique. Topical treatment of perception and interpretation, as well as embodied engagement, become decreasingly salient. It is argued that the abstracted formulations in the published text rely on the case-by-case working up of generality from particularity; from individualized accounts of why ‘I’ interpreted the image in a certain way to proffered generalizations achieved through articulated perceptions of a generalized ‘one’. If these proffers are ratified, a potential ground is established for the consensual formulation of a pitfall. The formulation of novel instructions is consequently made relevant, projecting a re-instructed diagnostic practice.

  • 12.
    Lymer, Gustav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindwall, Oskar
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Ivarsson, Jonas
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Space and discourse interleaved: intertextuality and interpretation in the education of architects2011In: Social Semiotics, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 197-217Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Weilenmann, Alexandra
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lymer, Gustav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Incidental and essential objects in interaction: Paper documents in journalistic work2014In: Interacting with objects: Language, materiality, and social activity / [ed] Maurice Nevile, Pentti Haddington,Trine Heinemann, Mirka Rauniomaa, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 319-338Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of work points to the special status of paper documents in the ecology of objects in the workplace. In this chapter, we revisit this work, focusing on the role of paper in the everyday work of journalists. We examine three quite different empirical examples where paper documents feature in interaction, supporting, in turn, the structuring of conversation, collaboration and inter-organisational interaction. Based on these examples we argue for a distinction between object-focused interactions and object-implicating interactions. In addition, and related to the dual nature of documents being both material objects and carriers of information, we identify an analytic dimension along which interactions with objects can be placed, that from incidental to essential.

1 - 13 of 13
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