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  • 1.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology. Swedish Defence University.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Manufacturing Miniature Langmuir probes by Fusing Platinum Bond Wires2015In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 105012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel method for manufacturing microscopic Langmuir probes with spherical tips from platinum bond wires for plasma characterization in microplasma sources by fusing. Here, the resulting endpoints, formed by droplets of a fused wire, are intended to act as a spherical Langmuir probe. For studying the fusing behavior, bond wires were wedge-bonded over a 2 mm wide slit, to emulate the final application, and fused at different currents and voltages. For electrical isolation, a set of wires were coated with a 4 µm thick layer of Parylene before they were fused. After fusing, the gap size, as well as the shape and area of the ends of the remaining stubs were measured. The yield of the process was also investigated, and the fusing event was studied using a high-speed camera for analyzing the dynamics of fusing. Four characteristic tip shapes were observed: spherical, semi-spherical, serpentine shaped and folded. The stub length leveled out at ~420µm. The fusing of the coated wires required a higher power for attaining a spherical shape. Finally, a Parylene coated bond wire was integrated into a stripline split-ring resonator (SSRR) microplasma source, and fused to form two Langmuir probes with spherical endpoints. These probes were used for measuring the I-V characteristics of a plasma generated by the SSRR. In a voltage range between -60 V and 60 V, the fused stubs exhibited the expected behavior of spherical Langmuir probes and will be considered for future integration.

  • 2.
    Hogmark, Sture
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Jacobson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    On the mechanisms of friction between skis and snow and implications on how to prepare the skis for optimum glide2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Khaji, Zahra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology. Swedish National Defence College.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Design and fabrication of a miniaturized combustor with integrated oxygen storage and release element2014In: 25th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe workshop  (MME 2014),2014, P19 (4 pp), 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A miniature combustor for converting organic samples into CO2 with application in carbon isotopic measurements of small samples has been manufactured and evaluated. The combustor was made by machining and laminating High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (HTCC) 99.99% alumina green tapes and screen printing platinum conductors on them. The device has a built-in heater and a temperature sensor made of platinum, which were co-sintered with the ceramic. A metal oxide (copper oxide) oxygen supply was added to the combustor after sintering by in-situ electroplating of copper on the heater pattern followed by thermal oxidation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used to study electroplating, oxidation and the oxide decompo-sition processes.

  • 4.
    Khaji, Zahra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology. Swedish National Defence College.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic microcombustor with integrated oxygen storage and release element2015In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 104006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A microscale ceramic high-temperature combustor with a built-in temperature sensor and source of oxygen has been designed, manufactured and characterized. The successful in situ electroplating and oxidation of copper, and the use of copper oxide as the source of oxygen were demonstrated. It was shown that residual stresses from electroplating, copper oxidation and oxide decomposition did not cause much deformation of the substrate but influenced mainly the integrity and adhesion of the metal films. The process had influence on the electrical resistances, however. Calibration of the temperature sensor and correlation with IR thermography up to 1000°C revealed a nearly linear sensor behavior. Demonstration of combustion in a vacuum chamber proved that no combustion had occurred before release of oxygen from the metal oxide resource.

  • 5.
    Khaji, Zhara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Extending Microsensor Technology to Very High Temperatures2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Berglund, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Khaji, Zahra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC). Swedish Def Univ, Div Mil Technol, Dept Mil Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Optogalvanic spectroscopy with microplasma sources – Current status and development towards lab on a chip2016In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 26, no 10, article id 104003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Miniaturized optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) shows excellent prospects of becoming ahighly sensitive method for gas analysis in micro total analysis systems. Here, a status reporton the current development of microwave induced microplasma sources for OGS is presented,together with the first comparison of the sensitivity of the method to conventional single-passabsorption spectroscopy. The studied microplasma sources are stripline split-ring resonators(SSRRs), with typical ring radii between 3.5 and 6 mm and operation frequencies around2.6 GHz. A linear response (R2 = 0.9999), and a stability of more than 100 s are demonstratedwhen using the microplasma source as an optogalvanic detector. Additionally, saturationeffects at laser powers higher than 100 mW are observed, and the temporal response of theplasma to periodic laser perturbation with repletion rates between 20 Hz and 200 Hz arestudied. Finally, the potential of integrating additional functionality with the detector isdiscussed, with the particular focus on a pressure sensor and a miniaturized combustor toallow for studies of solid samples.

  • 7.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Berglund, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Khaji, Zahra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Söderberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Optogalvanic spectroscopy with microplasma sources – Current status and development towards Lab-On-A-Chip2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Miniaturized optogalvanic spectros-copy shows excellent prospects of becoming a highly sensitive method for gas analysis in micro total analysis systems. Here, a status report on the current development of microplasma sources for optogalvan-ic spectroscopy is presented, together with the first comparison of the sensitivity of the method to con-ventional single-pass absorption spectroscopy. The stability and reproducibility of the microplasma source when used as a detector for optogalvanic spectroscopy is also investigated, and a roadmap of future developments is presented, with the particular focus of integrating sensors for measuring the pres-sure, temperature and flow of the sample gas through the detector, and combining the detector with a miniaturized combustor to allow for studies of solid samples.

  • 8.
    Seton, Ragnar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology. Dept. of Military Sciences, Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Investigating the plasma properties of a Xe-microplasma thruster2018In: 29th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe workshop, Bratislava, Slovakia, August 26-29, 2018, Bratislava, Slovenia, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and Langumuir probes, the plasma properties of a Xenon-microplasma thruster have been investigated. Using IV-curve analysis the properties of the plasma have been determined and correlated to the power fed into it. Satisfactory agreement has been obtained with the results of OES measurements (line-ratio technique) and shock-cell distance calculations. While the fuel consumption of the thruster decreased very linearly with the power fed to the plasma, the plasma properties was found to have behave in a more complex way. In the studied power range, the density ratio between at least two ions, with upper configurations 5p5(2P◦3/2)7p and 5p5(2P◦3/2)6p, strongly indicated that the ionization processes of the former was favorable in terms of thrust for the geometry of the nozzle. This was supported electron temperature measurements from IV-curves. 

  • 9.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC). Försvarshögskolan/Swedish National Defence College.
    Sense, Actuate and Survive: Ceramic Microsystems for High-Temperature Aerospace Applications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In aerospace applications, but also in manufacturing, mining, energy industry and natural hazards, high temperature, corrosion, erosion and radiation, challenge the performance and being of hardware.

    In this work, high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) alumina and platinum have been used for a range of devices intended for aerospace applications at up to 1000°C.

    The thermomechanics of a pressure sensor was investigated, and the interfacing was attained by wireless powering and reading. However, read range was limited and sensitivity decreased with temperature. Silver, electroplated after sintering, was found to remedy this until it eventually alloyed with platinum.

    Copper was electroplated and oxidized for oxygen storage in a microcombustor, intended for sample preparation for optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) to indicate extraterrestrial life. Despite delamination, caused by residual stresses, the device operated successfully.

    Conversely, pre-firing metallization by integration of platinum wires was studied. Freely suspended, and despite heat-induced shape irregularities, these were found advantageous over screen printed elements for gas heating, and temperature and pressure sensing. By fusing off the wires, spherical tips, allowing for impedance monitoring of microplasma sources in, e.g., OGS, were formed.

    Microplasma sources can also be used for gas heating. This, together with screen printed and suspended resistive heaters, was evaluated in a microthruster, showing that plasma heating is the most effective, implying fuel consumption reduction in satellite propulsion.

    In conclusion, HTCC alumina microdevices are thermally stable and could benefit several aerospace applications, especially with the complementary metallization schemes devised here.

    Future developments are expected to include both processing and design, all with the intention of sensing, actuating and surviving in high-temperature environments.

    List of papers
    1. Thermomechanical properties and performance of ceramic resonators for wireless pressure reading in high temperatures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermomechanical properties and performance of ceramic resonators for wireless pressure reading in high temperatures
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 9, article id 095016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication and thermomechanical study of ceramic LC resonators for wireless pressure reading, verified at room temperature, at 500 °C and at 1000 °C for pressures up to 2.5 bar. Five different devices were fabricated of high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC) and characterized. Alumina green tape sheets were screen printed with platinum paste, micromachined, laminated and fired. The resulting samples were 21 x 19 mm2 with different thicknesses. An embedded communicator part was integrated with either a passive backing part or with a pressure-sensing element, including an 80 μm thick and 6 mm diameter diaphragm. The study includes measuring thermally and mechanically induced resonance frequency shifts, and thermally induced deformations. For the pressure sensor device, contributions from changes in the relative permittivity and from expanding air, trapped in the cavity, were extracted. The devices exhibited thermomechanical robustness during heating, regardless of the thickness of the backing. The pressure sensitivity decreased with increasing temperature from 15 050 ppm/bar at room temperature to 2400 ppm/bar at 1000°C, due to the decreasing pressure difference between the external pressure and the air pressure inside the cavity. 

    Keywords
    Wireless Reading, HTCC, Pressure sensing, Harsh Environments, Thermomechanical properties
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-253555 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/25/9/095016 (DOI)000365167700023 ()
    Funder
    Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-05-29 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
    2. Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures – Investigation of the Effect of Metallizationon on Read Range
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures – Investigation of the Effect of Metallizationon on Read Range
    2017 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 2411-2421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A study on the relationship between circuit metallization, made by double-layer screen printing of platinum and electroplating of silver on top of platinum, and its impact on practical read range of ceramic LC resonators for high-temperature pressure measurements is presented. Also included is the first realization of membranes by draping a graphite insert with ceramic green body sheets. As a quality factor circuit reference, two-port microstrip meander devices were positively evaluated and to study interdiffusion between silver and platinum, test samples were annealed at 500 degrees C, 700 degrees C, and 900 degrees C for 4, 36, 72, and 96 h. The LC resonators were fabricated with both metallization methods, and the practical read range at room temperature was evaluated. Pressure-sensitive membranes were characterized for pressures up to 2.5 bar at room temperature, 500 degrees C and up to 900 degrees C. Samples electroplated with silver exhibited performance equal to or better than double-layer platinum samples for up to 60 h at 500 degrees C, 20 h at 700 degrees C, and for 1 h at 900 degrees C, which was correlated with the degree of interdiffusion as determined from cross-sectional analysis. The LC resonator samples with double-layer platinum exhibited a read range of 61 mm, and the samples with platinum and silver exhibited a read range of 59 mm. The lowest sheet resistance, and, thereby, the highest read range of 86 mm, was obtained with a silver electroplated LC resonator sample after 36 h of annealing at 500 degrees C.

    Keywords
    Alternative metallization, ceramic membrane, harsh environment sensor, high temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC), HTCC processing, LC resonator, pressure sensor, wireless reading
    National Category
    Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302852 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2017.2671418 (DOI)000398890800016 ()
    Available from: 2016-09-11 Created: 2016-09-11 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
    3. Manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic microcombustor with integrated oxygen storage and release element
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic microcombustor with integrated oxygen storage and release element
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 104006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A microscale ceramic high-temperature combustor with a built-in temperature sensor and source of oxygen has been designed, manufactured and characterized. The successful in situ electroplating and oxidation of copper, and the use of copper oxide as the source of oxygen were demonstrated. It was shown that residual stresses from electroplating, copper oxidation and oxide decomposition did not cause much deformation of the substrate but influenced mainly the integrity and adhesion of the metal films. The process had influence on the electrical resistances, however. Calibration of the temperature sensor and correlation with IR thermography up to 1000°C revealed a nearly linear sensor behavior. Demonstration of combustion in a vacuum chamber proved that no combustion had occurred before release of oxygen from the metal oxide resource.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Physics (IOP), 2015
    Keywords
    isotopic analysis, HTCC, combustor, EDS, TGA, RGA, oxygen release
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264147 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/25/10/104006 (DOI)000366827400007 ()
    Funder
    Swedish National Space Board
    Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-10-06 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
    4. Pirani Microgauge Fabricated of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics with Integrated Platinum Wires
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pirani Microgauge Fabricated of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics with Integrated Platinum Wires
    2019 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 285, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the integration and pressure sensor operation of platinum bond wires in High-Temperature Co-fired alumina (HTCC). Devices were fabricated with a 50 μm diameter wire suspended across a 500 μm wide cavity in green-body state HTCC, electrically connected to screen printed alumina conductors. The substrate shrinkage during sintering to a cavity width of 400 μm causes the wire element to elevate from the cavity´s bottom surface. Resulting devices were compared with reference devices, containing screen-printed sensor elements, as Pirani gauges operated at 100 °C in constant-resistance mode, and in dynamic mode with a feeding current of 1 A in a pressure range from 10−4 Torr to atmospheric pressure. Also, devices with wire lengths between 500 and 3500 μm were operated and studied in constant-resistance and dynamic mode. Lastly, a device is demonstrated in operation at a mean temperature of 830 °C. The results include wire elements with a consistent elevation from their substrate surfaces, with irregularities along the wires. The wire devices exhibit a faster pressure response in dynamic mode than the reference devices do but operate similarly in constant-resistance mode. Increasing the wire element length shows an increasing dynamic pressure range but a decreasing maximum sensitivity. The sensitivity is retained in high temperature mode, but the dynamic range is extended from about 10 Torr to about 700 Torr.

    Keywords
    HTCC, Pirani gauge, High temperature, Bond wires
    National Category
    Ceramics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356481 (URN)10.1016/j.sna.2018.10.008 (DOI)000456902600002 ()
    Available from: 2018-07-30 Created: 2018-07-30 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
    5. Manufacturing Miniature Langmuir probes by Fusing Platinum Bond Wires
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manufacturing Miniature Langmuir probes by Fusing Platinum Bond Wires
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 105012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a novel method for manufacturing microscopic Langmuir probes with spherical tips from platinum bond wires for plasma characterization in microplasma sources by fusing. Here, the resulting endpoints, formed by droplets of a fused wire, are intended to act as a spherical Langmuir probe. For studying the fusing behavior, bond wires were wedge-bonded over a 2 mm wide slit, to emulate the final application, and fused at different currents and voltages. For electrical isolation, a set of wires were coated with a 4 µm thick layer of Parylene before they were fused. After fusing, the gap size, as well as the shape and area of the ends of the remaining stubs were measured. The yield of the process was also investigated, and the fusing event was studied using a high-speed camera for analyzing the dynamics of fusing. Four characteristic tip shapes were observed: spherical, semi-spherical, serpentine shaped and folded. The stub length leveled out at ~420µm. The fusing of the coated wires required a higher power for attaining a spherical shape. Finally, a Parylene coated bond wire was integrated into a stripline split-ring resonator (SSRR) microplasma source, and fused to form two Langmuir probes with spherical endpoints. These probes were used for measuring the I-V characteristics of a plasma generated by the SSRR. In a voltage range between -60 V and 60 V, the fused stubs exhibited the expected behavior of spherical Langmuir probes and will be considered for future integration.

    Keywords
    Langmuir probe; bond wire; fusing; microplasma source
    National Category
    Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-251306 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/25/10/105012 (DOI)000366827400028 ()
    Funder
    Swedish National Space BoardKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
    6. Effect of Resistive and Plasma Heating on the Specific Impulse of a Ceramic Cold Gas Thruster
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Resistive and Plasma Heating on the Specific Impulse of a Ceramic Cold Gas Thruster
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The research and development of small satellites has continued to expand over the last decades. However, the propulsion systems with adequate performance have persisted to be a great challenge. In this paper, the effects of three different heaters on the specific impulse and overall thrust efficiency of a cold gas microthruster are presented. They consisted of a conventional, printed resistive thick-film element, a freely suspended wire, and a stripline split-ring resonator microplasma source, and were integrated in a single device made from the high-temperature co-fired ceramics. The devices were evaluated in two setups, where the first measured thrust and the other measured shock cell geometry. In addition, the resistive elements were evaluated as gas temperature sensors. The microplasma source was found to provide the greatest improvement in both specific impulse and thrust efficiency, increasing the former from an un-heated level of 44–56 s when heating with a power of 1.1 W. This corresponded to a thrust efficiency of 55%, which could be compared with the results from the wire and printed heaters which were 51s and 18%, and 45s and 14%, respectively. The combined results also showed that imaging the shock cells of a plasma heated thruster was a simple and effective way to determine its performance, when compared to the traditional thrust balance method.

    Keywords
    Microthruster, HTCC, Resistive Heating, Plasma Heating, Specific Impulse, Shock Cells
    National Category
    Aerospace Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356675 (URN)10.1109/JMEMS.2019.2893359 (DOI)000463623600008 ()
    Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
    7. On the Applicability and Military Utility of Microsystems in Military Jet Engines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Applicability and Military Utility of Microsystems in Military Jet Engines
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    HTCC, jet engine control, applicability, military utility
    National Category
    Aerospace Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356691 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-08-03 Created: 2018-08-03 Last updated: 2018-08-03
  • 10.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC). Försvarshögskolan/Swedish National Defence College.
    Berglund, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Söderberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Fabrication of Suspended All-Metal Sensor Elements in Ceramic Laminates2016In: Proc. of Micronano System Workshop 2016, Lund, Sweden, May 17-18, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To target a wide range of high-temperature applications [1-4], the Ångström Space Technology Centre has added High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics, HTTC, technology to its repertoire. Usually, this technology follows a processing scheme where thin sheets of green-body ceramics are metallized through screen printing and structured by embossing, punching or milling, before they are laminated and sintered to form components. A limitation with this, is the difficulty of realizing freely suspended metal structures, which is a disadvantage in, e.g., the fabrication of calorimetric sensors or electric field probes. In this work, the embedding of platinum wires in HTCC is explored experimentally, and demonstrated for use in pressure and plasma I-V sensing.

  • 11.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology. Försvarshögskolan/Swedish National Defence College.
    Khaji, Zahra Atena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Knaust, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sundqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thermomechanical stability and integrability of an embedded ceramic antenna with an integrated sensor element for wireless reading in harsh environments2013In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series: Volume 476 / [ed] Paul Mitcheson and Steve Beeby, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the design, manufacturing and evaluation of a small, wirelessly powered and read resonating antenna circuit with an integrated pressure sensor. The work aims at developing miniature devices suitable for harsh environments, where high temperature prevents the use of conventional, silicon-based microdevices. Here, the device is made of alumina with platinum as conducting material. Ceramic green tapes were structured using high-precision milling, metallized using screen printing, and subsequently laminated to form stacks before they were sintered. The device's frequency shift as a function of temperature was studied up to 900°C. The contributions to the shift both from the thermomechanical deformation of the device at large, and from the integrated and, so far, self-pressurized sensor were sorted out. A total frequency shift of 3200 ppm was observed for the pressure sensor for heating over the whole range. Negligible levels of thermally induced radius of curvature were observed. With three-point bending, a frequency shift of 180 ppm was possible to induce with a curvature of radius of 220 m at a 10 N load. The results indicate that a robust pressure sensor node, which can register pressure changes of a few bars at 900°C and wirelessly transmit the signal, is viable.

  • 12.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology. Swedish Def Univ, Dept Mil Sci, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Khaji, Zahra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures – Investigation of the Effect of Metallizationon on Read Range2017In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 2411-2421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study on the relationship between circuit metallization, made by double-layer screen printing of platinum and electroplating of silver on top of platinum, and its impact on practical read range of ceramic LC resonators for high-temperature pressure measurements is presented. Also included is the first realization of membranes by draping a graphite insert with ceramic green body sheets. As a quality factor circuit reference, two-port microstrip meander devices were positively evaluated and to study interdiffusion between silver and platinum, test samples were annealed at 500 degrees C, 700 degrees C, and 900 degrees C for 4, 36, 72, and 96 h. The LC resonators were fabricated with both metallization methods, and the practical read range at room temperature was evaluated. Pressure-sensitive membranes were characterized for pressures up to 2.5 bar at room temperature, 500 degrees C and up to 900 degrees C. Samples electroplated with silver exhibited performance equal to or better than double-layer platinum samples for up to 60 h at 500 degrees C, 20 h at 700 degrees C, and for 1 h at 900 degrees C, which was correlated with the degree of interdiffusion as determined from cross-sectional analysis. The LC resonator samples with double-layer platinum exhibited a read range of 61 mm, and the samples with platinum and silver exhibited a read range of 59 mm. The lowest sheet resistance, and, thereby, the highest read range of 86 mm, was obtained with a silver electroplated LC resonator sample after 36 h of annealing at 500 degrees C.

  • 13.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Khaji, Zahra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Knaust, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thermomechanical properties and performance of ceramic resonators for wireless pressure reading in high temperatures2015In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 9, article id 095016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication and thermomechanical study of ceramic LC resonators for wireless pressure reading, verified at room temperature, at 500 °C and at 1000 °C for pressures up to 2.5 bar. Five different devices were fabricated of high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC) and characterized. Alumina green tape sheets were screen printed with platinum paste, micromachined, laminated and fired. The resulting samples were 21 x 19 mm2 with different thicknesses. An embedded communicator part was integrated with either a passive backing part or with a pressure-sensing element, including an 80 μm thick and 6 mm diameter diaphragm. The study includes measuring thermally and mechanically induced resonance frequency shifts, and thermally induced deformations. For the pressure sensor device, contributions from changes in the relative permittivity and from expanding air, trapped in the cavity, were extracted. The devices exhibited thermomechanical robustness during heating, regardless of the thickness of the backing. The pressure sensitivity decreased with increasing temperature from 15 050 ppm/bar at room temperature to 2400 ppm/bar at 1000°C, due to the decreasing pressure difference between the external pressure and the air pressure inside the cavity. 

  • 14.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC). Swedish Def Univ, Dept Mil Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Pirani Microgauge Fabricated of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics with Integrated Platinum Wires2019In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 285, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the integration and pressure sensor operation of platinum bond wires in High-Temperature Co-fired alumina (HTCC). Devices were fabricated with a 50 μm diameter wire suspended across a 500 μm wide cavity in green-body state HTCC, electrically connected to screen printed alumina conductors. The substrate shrinkage during sintering to a cavity width of 400 μm causes the wire element to elevate from the cavity´s bottom surface. Resulting devices were compared with reference devices, containing screen-printed sensor elements, as Pirani gauges operated at 100 °C in constant-resistance mode, and in dynamic mode with a feeding current of 1 A in a pressure range from 10−4 Torr to atmospheric pressure. Also, devices with wire lengths between 500 and 3500 μm were operated and studied in constant-resistance and dynamic mode. Lastly, a device is demonstrated in operation at a mean temperature of 830 °C. The results include wire elements with a consistent elevation from their substrate surfaces, with irregularities along the wires. The wire devices exhibit a faster pressure response in dynamic mode than the reference devices do but operate similarly in constant-resistance mode. Increasing the wire element length shows an increasing dynamic pressure range but a decreasing maximum sensitivity. The sensitivity is retained in high temperature mode, but the dynamic range is extended from about 10 Torr to about 700 Torr.

  • 15.
    Sturesson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC). Försvarshögskolan/Swedish National Defence College.
    Seton, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Persson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology, Ångström Space Technology Centre (ÅSTC).
    Effect of Resistive and Plasma Heating on the Specific Impulse of a Ceramic Cold Gas Thruster2019In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research and development of small satellites has continued to expand over the last decades. However, the propulsion systems with adequate performance have persisted to be a great challenge. In this paper, the effects of three different heaters on the specific impulse and overall thrust efficiency of a cold gas microthruster are presented. They consisted of a conventional, printed resistive thick-film element, a freely suspended wire, and a stripline split-ring resonator microplasma source, and were integrated in a single device made from the high-temperature co-fired ceramics. The devices were evaluated in two setups, where the first measured thrust and the other measured shock cell geometry. In addition, the resistive elements were evaluated as gas temperature sensors. The microplasma source was found to provide the greatest improvement in both specific impulse and thrust efficiency, increasing the former from an un-heated level of 44–56 s when heating with a power of 1.1 W. This corresponded to a thrust efficiency of 55%, which could be compared with the results from the wire and printed heaters which were 51s and 18%, and 45s and 14%, respectively. The combined results also showed that imaging the shock cells of a plasma heated thruster was a simple and effective way to determine its performance, when compared to the traditional thrust balance method.

  • 16.
    Åkerfeldt, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Sturesson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology. Swedish National Defence College.
    Thornell, Greger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Taking ceramic microcomponents to higher temperatures2018Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 16 of 16
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