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  • 1.
    Aitola, Kerttu
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, SB ISIC LSPM, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Halme, Janne
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci, Dept Appl Phys, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Kaskela, Antti
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci, Dept Appl Phys, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Nasibulin, Albert G.
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci, Dept Appl Phys, Aalto 00076, Finland.;Skolkovo Inst Sci & Technol, Skolkovo, Russia..
    Kauppinen, Esko I.
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci, Dept Appl Phys, Aalto 00076, Finland..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Carbon nanotube film replacing silver in high-efficiency solid-state dye solar cells employing polymer hole conductor2015In: Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, ISSN 1432-8488, E-ISSN 1433-0768, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 3139-3144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A semitransparent, flexible single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film was efficiently used in place of evaporated silver as the counter electrode of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polymer-based solid-state dye solar cell (SSDSC): the solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of the SWCNT-SSDSC was 4.8 % when it was 5.2 % for the Ag-SSDSC. The efficiency difference stemmed from a 0.1-V difference in the open-circuit voltage, whose reason was speculated to be related to the different recombination processes in the two types of SSDSCs.

  • 2.
    Delices, Annette
    et al.
    Univ Paris Diderot Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS UMR CNRS 7086, 15 Rue Jean Antoine de Baif, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Santoni, Marie-Pierre
    Univ Paris Diderot Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS UMR CNRS 7086, 15 Rue Jean Antoine de Baif, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Dong, Chang-Zhi
    Univ Paris Diderot Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS UMR CNRS 7086, 15 Rue Jean Antoine de Baif, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Maurel, Francois
    Univ Paris Diderot Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS UMR CNRS 7086, 15 Rue Jean Antoine de Baif, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, EPFL FSB ISIC LSPM, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, Chemin Alambics,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, EPFL FSB ISIC LSPM, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, Chemin Alambics,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Jouini, Mohamed
    Univ Paris Diderot Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS UMR CNRS 7086, 15 Rue Jean Antoine de Baif, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    New covalently bonded dye/hole transporting material for better charge transfer in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells2018In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 269, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel metal-free organic dye based on triarylamine functionalized by a carbazole unit is synthesized and used in solid state dye sensitized solar cells (sDSC). The carbazole is co-polymerized with bis-EDOT by in-situ photo-electrochemical polymerization leading to a hole transporting polymer material covalently bonded to the light active centre. These first photovoltaic performances results are promising in sDSCs applications.

  • 3.
    Freitag, Marina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pazoki, Meysam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Kári
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China..
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    High-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells with molecular copper phenanthroline as solid hole conductor2015In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 2634-2637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper phenanthroline complexes in the solid phase can act as efficient molecular hole transporting material (HTM) for hybrid solar cells. We prepared solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with the organic dye LEG4 and bis(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)copper(I/II) (Cu(dmp)(2)) and achieved power conversion efficiencies of more than 8% under 1000 W m(-2) AM1.5G illumination, with open-circuit potentials of more than 1.0 V. The successful application of a copper-complex based HTM paves the way for low-cost and efficient hybrid solar cells, as well as for other opto-electronic devices.

  • 4.
    Hua, Yong
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Ctr Mol Devices, Organ Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Ctr Mol Devices, Organ Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liu, Peng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Appl Phys Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cheng, Ming
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Ctr Mol Devices, Organ Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Appl Phys Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Erik M.J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Kari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Aitola, Kerttu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Ctr Mol Devices, Organ Chem, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.; Dalian Univ Technol, State Key Lab Fine Chem, DUT KTH Joint Res Ctr Mol Devices, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China.
    Facile Synthesis of Fluorene-based Hole Transport Materials for Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells and Solid-State Dye-sensitized Solar Cells2016In: Nano Energy, ISSN ISSN 2211-2855, EISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 26, p. 108-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two novel low-cost fluorene-based hole transport materials (HTMs) HT1 and HT2 as alternatives to the expensive HTM Spiro-OMeTAD have been designed and synthesized for the application in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (ssDSCs). The two HTMs were prepared through a facile two-step reaction from cheap starting material and with a total yield higher than 90%. These HTMs exhibit good solubility and charge-transport ability. PSCs based on HT2 achieved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.04% under air conditions, which is comparable to that of the cell employing the commonly used Spiro-OMeTAD (18.27%), while HT1-based cell showed a slightly worse performance with a PCE of 17.18%. For ssDSCs, the HT2-based device yielded a PCE of 6.35%, which is also comparable to that of a cell fabricated based on Spiro-OMeTAD (6.36%). We found that the larger dimensional structure and molecular weight of HT2 enable better photovoltaic performance than that of the smaller one HT1. These results show that easily synthesized fluorene-based HTMs have great potential to replace the expensive Spiro-OMeTAD for both PSCs and ssDSCs.

  • 5.
    Leandri, Valentina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Mijangos, Edgar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Ott, Sascha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Incorporation of a fluorophenylene spacer into a highly efficient organic dye for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells2016In: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, ISSN 1010-6030, E-ISSN 1873-2666, Vol. 328, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new efficient organic dye LEG4F, incorporating a fluorine-substituted phenylene unit in the π-spacer, has been synthesized and tested in dye-sensitized solar cells. Direct comparison with the parent dye LEG4 shows very similar performances in case of liquid electrolyte devices based on iodide/triiodide, yielding a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% under 1 sun and 8.0–8.2% under 0.5 sun illumination. However, LEG4F outperforms its fluorine-free analogue when the liquid electrolyte is replaced by the solid-state hole-transport material Spiro-OMeTAD, reaching 5.3% efficiency compared to 4.8% achieved by LEG4. We show that this improvement is due to the enhancement of the electron lifetime, which reduces recombination at the TiO2/dye/Spiro-OMeTAD interfaces.

  • 6.
    Liu, Peng
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Xu, Bo
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hua, Yong
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cheng, Ming
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Aitola, Kerttu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Kári
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices,Appl Phys Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Design, synthesis and application of a pi-conjugated, non-spiro molecular alternative as hole-transport material for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells and perovskite solar cells2017In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 344, p. 11-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two low-cost, easily synthesized pi-conjugated molecules have been applied as hole-transport materials (HTMs) for solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs). For X1-based devices, high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 5.8% and 14.4% in ssDSSCs and PSCs has been demonstrated. For X14-based devices, PCEs were improved to 6.1% and 16.4% in ssDSCs and PSCs, respectively.

  • 7. Liu, Peng
    et al.
    Xu, Bo
    Karlsson, Karl Martin
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    Kloo, Lars
    The combination of a new organic D-pi-A dye with different organic hole-transport materials for efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 4420-4427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new organic donor-pi-acceptor sensitizer MKA253 has been applied for highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). Using 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-pi-methoxyphenyl-amine) 9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) as the hole transport material (HTM), an excellent power conversion efficiency of 6.1% was recorded together with a high short-circuit current of 12.4 mA cm(-2) under standard AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). Different combinations of dyes and HTMs have also been investigated in the ssDSSC device. The results showed that small molecule HTM based devices suffer from comparably high electron recombination losses, thus causing low open-circuit voltage. In addition, photo-induced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy showed that the small-molecule HTMs lead to more efficient dye regeneration in comparison with Spiro-OMeTAD, despite a lower thermodynamic driving force. The results of this study also show that optimized energy levels for the dye-HTMs could be a vital factor for highly efficient ssDSSCs.

  • 8.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Kári
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Aitola, Kerttu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Malin B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, EPFL SB ISIC LSPM, CH G1 523,Chemin Alamb,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, EPFL SB ISIC LSPM, CH G1 523,Chemin Alamb,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, Phys Chem, Box 523, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Ambient air-processed mixed-ion perovskites for high-efficiency solar cells2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 42, p. 16536-16545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-ion (FAPbI(3))(1-x)(MAPbBr(3))(x) perovskite solar cells have achieved power conversion efficiencies surpassing 20%. However, in order to obtain these high efficiencies the preparation is performed in a controlled inert atmosphere. Here, we report a procedure for manufacturing highly efficient solar cells with a mixed-ion perovskite in ambient atmosphere. By including a heating step at moderate temperatures of the mesoporous titanium dioxide substrates, and spin-coating the perovskite solution on the warm substrates in ambient air, a red intermediate phase is obtained. Annealing the red phase at 100 degrees C results in a uniform and crystalline perovskite film, whose thickness is dependent on the substrate temperature prior to spin-coating. The temperature was optimized between 20 and 100 degrees C and it was observed that 50 degrees C substrate temperature yielded the best solar cell performances. The average efficiency of the best device was 17.6%, accounting for current-voltage (I-V) measurement hysteresis, with 18.8% performance in the backward scan direction and 16.4% in the forward scan direction. Our results show that it is possible to manufacture high-efficiency mixed-ion perovskite solar cells under ambient conditions, which is relevant for large-scale and low-cost device manufacturing processing.

  • 9. Vlachopoulos, Nick
    et al.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Dye-sensitized Solar Cells: New Approaches with Organic Solid-state Hole Conductors2015In: Chimia (Basel), ISSN 0009-4293, Vol. 69, no 1-2, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) in which a solid organic charge-transfer medium, or hole conductor (HC), is interposed between a dye-coated mesoporous oxide electrode and a conductive counter electrode, have attracted considerable interest as viable alternatives to the more ubiquitous mediator-electrolyte DSC. Of particular importance to efficient operation are, in addition to the useful processes contributing to current generation (light harvesting, electron injection and current collection), the recombinative deleterious processes. The organic HCs are highly reactive toward electrons in the oxide or the conducting glass support, therefore necessitating the inclusion of a carefully prepared thin blocking oxide underlayer support as well as the molecular design of special dark current-suppressing dyes. Initially (mid-1990s) sDSCs with organic small molecular weight hole conductors have undergone systematic investigation. At the same time the first tests of sDSCs with conducting polymer hole conductors were published, with subsequent emphasis on the in situ generation of the HC inside the pores. For both types of devices a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency, in the 5-10% range for several dye-HC combinations, approaches that of the most efficient DSCs with non-volatile liquid electrolytes, thereby encouraging further efforts for obtaining stable, efficient and inexpensive sDSCs.

  • 10. Xu, Bo
    et al.
    Sheibani, Esmaeil
    Liu, Peng
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Kloo, Lars
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    Carbazole-Based Hole-Transport Materials for Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Perovskite Solar Cells2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 38, p. 6629-6634Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Xu, Bo
    et al.
    Tian, Haining
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Lin, Lili
    Qian, Deping
    Chen, Hong
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Luo, Yi
    Zhang, Fengling
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    Integrated Design of Organic Hole Transport Materials for Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2015In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 1401185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of triphenylamine-based small molecule organic hole transport materials (HTMs) with low crystallinity and high hole mobility are systematically investigated in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). By using the organic dye LEG4 as a photosensitizer, devices with X3 and X35 as the HTMs exhibit desirable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 5.8% and 5.5%, respectively. These values are slightly higher than the PCE of 5.4% obtained by using the state-of-the-art HTM Spiro-OMeTAD. Meanwhile, transient photovoltage decay measurement is used to gain insight into the complex influences of the HTMs on the performance of devices. The results demonstrate that smaller HTMs induce faster electron recombination in the devices and suggest that the size of a HTM plays a crucial role in device performance, which is reported for the first time.

  • 12. Xu, Bo
    et al.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hua, Yong
    Liu, Peng
    Wang, Linqin
    Ruan, Changqing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Li, Yuanyuan
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M.J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Kloo, Lars
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Jen, Alex K.-Y.
    Sun, Licheng
    Tailor-Making Low-Cost Spiro[fluorene-9,9′-xanthene]-Based 3D Oligomers for Perovskite Solar Cells2017In: Chem, ISSN 2451-9294, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 676-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have increased rapidly from about 4% to 22% during the past few years. One of the major challenges for further improvement of the efficiency of PSCs is the lack of sufficiently good hole transport materials (HTMs) to efficiently scavenge the photogenerated holes and aid the transport of the holes to the counter-electrode in the PSCs. In this study, we tailor-made two low-cost spiro[fluorene-9,9?-xanthene] (SFX)-based 3D oligomers, termed X54 and X55, by using a one-pot synthesis approach for PSCs. One of the HTMs, X55, gives a much deeper HOMO level and a higher hole mobility and conductivity than the state-of-the-art HTM, Spiro-OMeTAD. PSC devices based on X55 as the HTM show a very impressive PCE of 20.8% under 100 mW·cm?2 AM1.5G solar illumination, which is much higher than the PCE of the reference devices based on Spiro-OMeTAD (18.8%) and X54 (13.6%) under the same conditions.

  • 13.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Zhu, Zonglong
    Univ Washington, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Liu, Hongbin
    Univ Washington, Dept Chem, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Chueh, Chu-Chen
    Univ Washington, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Li, Xiaosong
    Univ Washington, Dept Chem, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Jen, Alex K. -Y.
    Univ Washington, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Chem, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;City Univ Hong Kong, Dept Biol & Chem, Tat Chee Ave, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    4-Tert-butylpyridine Free Organic Hole Transporting Materials for Stable and Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells2017In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 7, no 19, article id 1700683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    4-Tert-butylpyridine (tBP) is an important additive in triarylamine-based organic hole-transporting materials (HTMs) for improving the efficiency and steady-state performance of perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). However, the low boiling point of tBP (196 degrees C) significantly affects the long-term stability and device performance of PVSCs. Herein, the design and synthesis of a series of covalently linked Spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene] (SFX)-based organic HTMs and pyridine derivatives to realize efficient and stable planar PVSCs are reported. One of the tailored HTMs, N2, N2, N7, N7-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-3', 6'bis( pyridin-4-ylmethoxy) spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthene]-2,7-diamine (XPP) with two para-position substituted pyridines that immobilized on the SFX core unit shows a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.2% in planar CH3NH3PbI3-based PVSCs under 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5G solar illumination, which is much higher than the efficiency of 5.5% that using the well-known 2,2', 7,7'-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxy-phenyl-amine) 9,9'-spirobifluorene (SpiroOMeTAD) as HTM (without tBP) under the same condition. Most importantly, the pyridine-functionalized HTM-based PVSCs without tBP as additive show much better long-term stability than that of the state-of-the-art HTM SpiroOMeTAD- based solar cells that containing tBP as additive. This is the first case that the tBP-free HTMs are demonstrated in PVSCs with high PCEs and good stability. It paves the way to develop highly efficient and stable tBP-free HTMs for PVSCs toward commercial applications.

  • 14.
    Yang, Lei
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Shen, Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Park, Byung-Wook
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Bi, Dongqin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Häggman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Snedden, Alan
    Kloo, Lars
    Jarboui, Adel
    Chams, Amani
    Perruchot, Christian
    Jouini, Mohamed
    New Approach for Preparation of Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Photoelectrochemical Polymerization in Aqueous Micellar Solution2013In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-7185, E-ISSN 1948-7185, Vol. 4, no 23, p. 4026-4031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hereby, we present a new, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method of preparing an efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (sDSC) using a PEDOT conducting polymer as the hole conductor and a recently developed organic sensitizer. PEDOT is generated and deposited on the dye-sensitized TiO2 electrode by in situ photoelectropolymerization of bis-EDOT in aqueous micellar solution. The advantages of this approach are the use of water as the solvent and the obtainment of a sDSC simply by adding a silver layer on the as-obtained polymer film deposited on dye/TiO2 without the need for electrolytic solution. The sDSC containing the film prepared as above is compared to those where the organic dye is used to generate the same polymer film but in organic solvent. The energy conversion efficiency values of the two cells appear comparable, 4.8% for sDSC prepared in the aqueous-phase polymerized PEDOT and 6% for the sDSC prepared with in organic-phase polymerized PEDOT.

  • 15.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Organic Hole Transport Materials for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) and recently developed perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted a great attention in the scientific field of photovoltaics due to their low cost, absence of solvent, simple fabrication and promising power conversion efficiency (PCE). In these types of solar cell, the dye molecule or the perovskite can harvest the light on the basis of electron excitation. Afterwards, the electron and hole are collected at the charge transport materials.

    Photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) is employed in this thesis to synthesize conducting polymer hole transport materials (HTMs) for ssDSSCs. We have for the first time developed aqueous PEP in comparison with the conventional organic PEP with acetonitrile as solvent. This water-based PEP could potentially provide a low-cost, environmental-friendly method for efficient deposition of polymer HTM for ssDSSCs. In addition, new and simple precursors have been tested with PEP method. The effects of dye molecules on the PEP were also systematically studied, and we found that (a) the bulky structure of dye is of key importance for blocking the interfacial charge recombination; and (b) the matching of the energy levels between the dye and the precursor plays a key role in determining the kinetics of the PEP process.

    In PSCs, the HTM layer is crucial for efficient charge collection and its long term stability. We have studied different series of new molecular HTMs in order to understand fundamentally the influence of alkyl chains, molecular energy levels, and molecular geometry of the HTM on the photovoltaic performance. We have identified several important factors of the HTMs for efficient PSCs, including high uniformity of the HTM capping layer, perovskite-HTM energy level matching, good HTM solubility, and high conductivity. These factors affect interfacial hole injection, hole transport, and charge recombination in PSCs. By systematical optimization, a promising PCE of 19.8% has been achieved by employing a new HTM H11. We believe that this work could provide important guidance for the future development of new and efficient HTMs for PSCs.

    List of papers
    1. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Hole-Transporting Material Generated by Photoelectrochemical Polymerization in Aqueous and Organic Medium for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Hole-Transporting Material Generated by Photoelectrochemical Polymerization in Aqueous and Organic Medium for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 118, no 30, p. 16591-16601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We applied organic donor-pi-acceptor (D-pi-A) sensitizers for photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) because of their appropriate energy levels and high light absorption. The polymerized conducting polymer PEDOT was used as hole conductor in all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). By combination of the D-pi-A sensitizers and the generated PEDOT from PEP of bis-EDOT in acetonitrile, the resulting device showed an average power conversion efficiency of 5.6%. Furthermore, the PEP in aqueous micellar electrolytic medium was also employed because of the ability to decrease oxidation potential of the precursor, thereby making the polymerization process easier. The latter method is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach. Using as hole conductor the so-obtained PEDOT from PEP of bis-EDOT in aqueous electrolyte, the devices exhibited impressive power conversion efficiency of 5.2%. To compare the properties of the generated polymer from bis-EDOT in these two PEP methods, electron lifetime, photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectra, and UV-vis-NIR spectra were measured. The results showed that PEDOT from organic PEP exhibits a delocalized conformation with high conductivity and a smooth and compact morphology; a rough morphology with high porosity and polymer structure of relatively shorter chains was assumed to be obtained from aqueous PEP. Therefore, better dye regeneration but faster charge recombination was observed in the device based on PEDOT from aqueous PEP of bis-EDOT. Subsequently, to extend the aqueous PEP approach in consideration of the ability to decrease the oxidation potential of the precursor, the easily available precursor EDOT was for the first time used for PEP in aqueous medium in a variant of the aforementioned procedure, and the device based on the so-obtained PEDOT shows a more than 70-fold increase in efficiency, 3.0%, over that based on the polymer generated from EDOT by PEP in organic media. It was demonstrated that aqueous micellar PEP with EDOT as monomer is an efficient strategy for generation of conducting polymer hole-transporting materials.

    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-231291 (URN)10.1021/jp412504s (DOI)000339930900037 ()
    Available from: 2014-09-08 Created: 2014-09-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Photoelectrochemical Polymerization of EDOT for Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Role of Dye and Solvent
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photoelectrochemical Polymerization of EDOT for Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Role of Dye and Solvent
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 179, p. 220-227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aromatic-unit, commercially available, and cost-effective precursor 3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), was employed instead of bis-EDOT to generate by in-situ photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) a conducting polymer-type hole conductor poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) for dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) devices. In order to conduct efficiently the PEP of EDOT, two electrolytic media, aqueous micellar and organic, and two Donor-pi-Acceptor sensitizers, were investigated. By using the electrolytic aqueous micellar medium, the PEP was efficient due to the low oxidation potential of the precursor in water. A DSC device based on PEDOT generated from aqueous PEP showed an energy conversion efficiency (eta) of 3.0% under 100 mWcm (2), higher by two orders of magnitude than that of a DSC device based on PEDOT from organic PEP (eta = 0.04%). The comparison of the properties of the as-obtained PEDOT polymers from aqueous and organic PEP by UV-VIS-NIR measurements shows the formation of PEDOT at a highly doped state from aqueous PEP. The thermodynamic and kinetic requirements for efficiency of PEP process in each medium are investigated and discussed on the basis of the light absorption abilities and electrochemical redox potentials measured for the two organic sensitizers.

    Keywords
    aqueous micellar electrolyte, conducting polymer, EDOT, hole conductor, solid state dye sensitized solar cell
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265671 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2015.01.077 (DOI)000362292200029 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencyStandUpSwedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
    Available from: 2015-11-05 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    3. Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Poly( 3,4ethylenedioxypyrrole) and Metal-Free Organic Dyes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Poly( 3,4ethylenedioxypyrrole) and Metal-Free Organic Dyes
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: ChemPhysChem, ISSN 1439-4235, E-ISSN 1439-7641, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1043-1047Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) (PEDOP), combined with metal-free organic sensitizers, is efficiently used for the first time as the hole-transporting material in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices employing PEDOP as the hole conductor and D35 or D21 L6 as the sensitizer show a ten-times-higher energy-conversion efficiency (of 4.5% and 3.3%, respectively) compared to Ru-Z907-based devices. This is due to the efficient suppression of electron recombination.

    Keywords
    dye-sensitized solar cells, electrochemistry, hole-transporting materials, organic sensitizers, photoelectrochemical polymerization
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-225021 (URN)10.1002/cphc.201301075 (DOI)000334080700008 ()
    Available from: 2014-05-26 Created: 2014-05-26 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Efficient solid-state dye sensitized solar cells: The influence of dye molecular structures for the in-situ photoelectrochemically polymerized PEDOT as hole transporting material
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient solid-state dye sensitized solar cells: The influence of dye molecular structures for the in-situ photoelectrochemically polymerized PEDOT as hole transporting material
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    2016 (English)In: NANO ENERGY, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 19, p. 455-470Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) with organic small molecule hole transporting materials (HTMs) have limited efficiencies due to the incomplete pore filling of the HTMs in the thick mesoporous electrodes and the low hole conductivity of HTMs. Hereby, highly efficient sDSCs with power conversion efficiency of 7.11% and record photocurrent of 13.4 mA cm-2 are reported, prepared by effectively incorporating in-situ photoelectrochemically polymerized PEDOT as HTM in combination with a multifunctional organic, metal-free dye. In order to fundamentally understand how the dye molecules affect the photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP), the properties of the generated PEDOT and the photovoltaic performance, sDSCs based on a series of dyes are systematically investigated. Detailed comparative studies reveal that the difference between the dye redox potential and monomer onset oxidation potential plays a crucial role in the PEP kinetics and the doping density of PEDOT HTM. The structure of the dyes, functioning as an electron blocking layer, affects the charge recombination at the TiO2/dye/PEDOT interface. The analysis shows that a donor-n-acceptor dye with well-tuned energy levels and bulky structure results in an in-situ electrochemically doped PEDOT HTM with a high hole conductivity (2.0 S cm(-1)) in sDSCs, leading to efficient dye regeneration and photocharge collection. It is hoped that this work will further encourage research on the future design of new dye molecules for an efficient PEP in order to further enhance the photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye sensitized solar cells.

    Keywords
    Hole conductor, PEDOT, Dyes, Solar cells
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279644 (URN)10.1016/j.nanoen.2015.09.010 (DOI)000369565400043 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 22191-5StandUpSwedish Research Council, C0482101Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2011.0067
    Available from: 2016-03-08 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2016-08-25Bibliographically approved
    5. Constructive Effects of Alkyl Chains: A Strategy to Design Simple and Non-Spiro Hole Transporting Materials for High-Efficiency Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constructive Effects of Alkyl Chains: A Strategy to Design Simple and Non-Spiro Hole Transporting Materials for High-Efficiency Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells
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    2016 (English)In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 6, no 13, article id 1502536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300464 (URN)10.1002/aenm.201502536 (DOI)000379314700002 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencyStandUpSwedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council Formas
    Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2016-08-25Bibliographically approved
    6. Strategy to Boost the Efficiency of Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells: Changing Geometry of the Hole Transporting Material.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategy to Boost the Efficiency of Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells: Changing Geometry of the Hole Transporting Material.
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    2016 (English)In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 6816-6825Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The hole transporting material (HTM) is an essential component in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for efficient extraction and collection of the photoinduced charges. Triphenylamine- and carbazole-based derivatives have extensively been explored as alternative and economical HTMs for PSCs. However, the improvement of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), as well as further investigation of the relationship between the chemical structure of the HTMs and the photovoltaic performance, is imperatively needed. In this respect, a simple carbazole-based HTM X25 was designed on the basis of a reference HTM, triphenylamine-based X2, by simply linking two neighboring phenyl groups in a triphenylamine unit through a carbon-carbon single bond. It was found that a lowered highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level was obtained for X25 compared to that of X2. Besides, the carbazole moiety in X25 improved the molecular planarity as well as conductivity property in comparison with the triphenylamine unit in X2. Utilizing the HTM X25 in a solar cell with mixed-ion perovskite [HC(NH2)2]0.85(CH3NH3)0.15Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3, a highest reported PCE of 17.4% at 1 sun (18.9% under 0.46 sun) for carbazole-based HTM in PSCs was achieved, in comparison of a PCE of 14.7% for triphenylamine-based HTM X2. From the steady-state photoluminescence and transient photocurrent/photovoltage measurements, we conclude that (1) the lowered HOMO level for X25 compared to X2 favored a higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) in PSCs; (2) a more uniform formation of X25 capping layer than X2 on the surface of perovskite resulted in more efficient hole transport and charge extraction in the devices. In addition, the long-term stability of PSCs with X25 is significantly enhanced compared to X2 due to its good uniformity of HTM layer and thus complete coverage on the perovskite. The results provide important information to further develop simple and efficient small molecular HTMs applied in solar cells.

    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300728 (URN)10.1021/acsnano.6b02442 (DOI)000380576600046 ()27304078 (PubMedID)
    External cooperation:
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencyStandUpSwedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research Council Formas
    Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-11 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
    7. The Role of 3D Molecular Structural Control in New Hole Transport Materials Outperforming Spiro-OMeTAD in Perovskite Solar Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of 3D Molecular Structural Control in New Hole Transport Materials Outperforming Spiro-OMeTAD in Perovskite Solar Cells
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 6, no 19, article id 1601062Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents new hole-transport materials (HTMs) to replace the central spiro linkage inspiro-OMeTAD by a CC bond in H11 and CC double bond in H12. This structural change results in a facile synthetic process and a significant change in the molecular geometry. EmployingH11 as HTM in combination with mixed ion perovskite [HC(NH2)2]0.85(CH3NH3)0.15Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3, gives a solar cell power conversion efficiency of 19.8%.

    National Category
    Physical Chemistry Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300736 (URN)10.1002/aenm.201601062 (DOI)000387134800013 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy AgencyStandUpSwedish Research CouncilKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development)Swedish Research Council Formas
    Available from: 2016-08-12 Created: 2016-08-12 Last updated: 2016-12-19Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Ellis, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Yang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Shevchenko, Denys
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Comparison of In Situ Photoelectrochemical Polymerization in Aqueous Micellar and Organic Media2015In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 3942-3948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) are devoid of such issues as electrolyte evaporation or leakage and electrode corrosion, which are typical for traditional liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most popular and efficient p-type conducting polymers that are used in sDSCs as a solid-state hole-transporting material. The most convenient way to deposit this insoluble polymer into the dye-sensitized mesoporous working electrode is in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization. Apparently, the structure and the physicochemical properties of the generated conducting polymer, which determine the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cell, can be significantly affected by the preparation conditions. Therefore, a simple and fast analytical method that can reveal information on polymer chain length, possible chemical modifications, and impurities is strongly required for the rapid development of efficient solar energy-converting devices. In this contribution, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) for the analysis of PEDOT directly on sDSCs. It was found that the PEDOT generated in aqueous micellar medium possesses relatively shorter polymeric chains than the PEDOT deposited from an organic medium. Furthermore, the micellar electrolyte promotes a transformation of one of the thiophene terminal units to thiophenone. The introduction of a carbonyl group into the PEDOT molecule impedes the growth of the polymer chain and reduces the conductivity of the final polymer film. Both the simplicity of sample preparation (only application of the organic matrix onto the solar cell is needed) and the rapidity of analysis hold the promise of making MALDI MS an essential tool for the physicochemical characterization of conducting polymer-based sDSCs.

  • 17.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Yang, Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Mohammadi, Hajar
    Univ Isfahan, Dept Chem, Esfahan 8174673441, Iran.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, CH G1 523, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Ctr Mol Devices, Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, CH G1 523, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Sheibani, Esmaeil
    Univ Isfahan, Dept Chem, Esfahan 8174673441, Iran.
    Electrochemically polymerized poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) as efficient and transparent counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells2019In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 300, p. 482-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new conducting polymer poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) is synthesized by the electrochemical polymerization technique with different solvents. We find that solvents used in electrochemical polymerization play important roles for the catalytic activity and morphology of the formed conducting polymers. The obtained poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) is for the first time employed as counter electrode electrocatalyst in dye sensitized solar cells with cobalt-based electrolytes. We demonstrate that a polymer prepared from a mixed acetonitrile-dichloromethane solvent exhibit higher catalytic activity for redox reactions, as compared to that from a single solvent, dichloromethane. The devices based on this mixed solvent-based polymer from a mixed solvents show a high power conversion efficiency of 5.97%. An additional advantageous feature of the electrochemically polymerized poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) for solar cell applications is the high transparency in the visible and nearinfrared region. We also investigate the beneficial effect of the poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) layer thickness on device performance, and concluded that the series resistance and charge transfer resistance are greatly influenced by the thickness of polymer, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The optimal thickness for poly (3, 4-phenylenedioxythiophene) is about 100 nm. Furthermore, the high catalytic activity and transparency of the new conducting polymer as counter electrode shows great promise for other optoelectronic applications.

  • 18.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Hua, Yong
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Ctr Mol Devices, Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Ctr Mol Devices, Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Liu, Peng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices, Appl Phys Chem, Teknikringen 30, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Malin B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomolecular Sci, FSB,ISIC,LSPM, Chemin Alambics Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices, Appl Phys Chem, Teknikringen 30, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Ctr Mol Devices, Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomolecular Sci, FSB,ISIC,LSPM, Chemin Alambics Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    The Role of 3D Molecular Structural Control in New Hole Transport Materials Outperforming Spiro-OMeTAD in Perovskite Solar Cells2016In: Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 6, no 19, article id 1601062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents new hole-transport materials (HTMs) to replace the central spiro linkage inspiro-OMeTAD by a CC bond in H11 and CC double bond in H12. This structural change results in a facile synthetic process and a significant change in the molecular geometry. EmployingH11 as HTM in combination with mixed ion perovskite [HC(NH2)2]0.85(CH3NH3)0.15Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3, gives a solar cell power conversion efficiency of 19.8%.

  • 19.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Häggman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Jouini, Mohamed
    Jarboui, Adel
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Poly( 3,4ethylenedioxypyrrole) and Metal-Free Organic Dyes2014In: ChemPhysChem, ISSN 1439-4235, E-ISSN 1439-7641, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1043-1047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxypyrrole) (PEDOP), combined with metal-free organic sensitizers, is efficiently used for the first time as the hole-transporting material in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Devices employing PEDOP as the hole conductor and D35 or D21 L6 as the sensitizer show a ten-times-higher energy-conversion efficiency (of 4.5% and 3.3%, respectively) compared to Ru-Z907-based devices. This is due to the efficient suppression of electron recombination.

  • 20.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Jarboui, Adel
    CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Inst Univ Paris Diderot Paris 7, ITODYS UMR 7086, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, FSB ISIC LSPM, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Jouini, Mohamed
    CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Inst Univ Paris Diderot Paris 7, ITODYS UMR 7086, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, FSB ISIC LSPM, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;King Abdulaziz Univ, Ctr Excellence Adv Mat Res, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia..
    Photoelectrochemical Polymerization of EDOT for Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Role of Dye and Solvent2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 179, p. 220-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aromatic-unit, commercially available, and cost-effective precursor 3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), was employed instead of bis-EDOT to generate by in-situ photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) a conducting polymer-type hole conductor poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) for dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) devices. In order to conduct efficiently the PEP of EDOT, two electrolytic media, aqueous micellar and organic, and two Donor-pi-Acceptor sensitizers, were investigated. By using the electrolytic aqueous micellar medium, the PEP was efficient due to the low oxidation potential of the precursor in water. A DSC device based on PEDOT generated from aqueous PEP showed an energy conversion efficiency (eta) of 3.0% under 100 mWcm (2), higher by two orders of magnitude than that of a DSC device based on PEDOT from organic PEP (eta = 0.04%). The comparison of the properties of the as-obtained PEDOT polymers from aqueous and organic PEP by UV-VIS-NIR measurements shows the formation of PEDOT at a highly doped state from aqueous PEP. The thermodynamic and kinetic requirements for efficiency of PEP process in each medium are investigated and discussed on the basis of the light absorption abilities and electrochemical redox potentials measured for the two organic sensitizers.

  • 21.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Pazoki, Meysam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Simiyu, Justus
    Univ Nairobi, Dept Phys, POB 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Johansson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Cheung, Ocean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Häggman, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    SB ISIC LSPM, Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, Chemin Alamb,Stn 6,CH G1 523, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. SB ISIC LSPM, Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Photomol Sci, Chemin Alamb,Stn 6,CH G1 523, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    The effect of mesoporous TiO2 pore size on the performance of solid-state dye sensitized solar cells based on photoelectrochemically polymerized Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hole conductor2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 210, p. 23-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoelectrochemical polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene) (PEDOT) has recently been introduced and widely investigated for fabrication of the hole transporting material (HTM) in highly efficient solid state dye sensitized solar cells (sDSCs). In this work, the effects of the surface area and pore size of TiO2 film were for the first time investigated in the sDSCs employing the in-situ polymerizated PEDOT HTM. Three different varieties of mesoporous TiO2 particles with controllable surface area and pore size were synthesized through the basic route in order to study the corresponding sDSC photovoltaic performances. It was found that the pore size plays an important role in the kinetics of the photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) process and the formation of the PEDOT capping layer. Larger pore sizes provided a more favourable pathway for the precursor diffusion through the mesoporous pores during the PEP process, which contributed towards a more efficient PEP. However, the interfacial contact area between the formed polymer and the dyes on the surface of TiO2 particle would be lower in the case of larger pore sizes, which consequently caused a less efficient dye regeneration process. Electronic diffusion on the other hand was improved for larger particle sizes. Employing an organic dye LEG4 and the self-made TiO2 with an optimal pore size of 25 nm and particle size of 24 nm, the sDSCs showed a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.2%, higher than 4.5% for the commercial TiO2 Dyesol DSL-30. By measuring the dye regeneration yield and the kinetics through photoinduced absorption, it was observed that the homemade TiO2 based device had more efficient dye regeneration compared to the Dyesol based device, which could result from the better interfacial contact between the PEDOT and the dye. This work provides important information on the effect of meso-pore size on sDSCs and points to the necessity of further photoanode optimization toward the enhancement of the PCE of polymeric hole conductor-based DSCs.

  • 22.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, Stn 6, Chemin Alambics, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Holcombe, Thomas W
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, Swiss Fed Inst Technol,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Grätzel, Michael
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photon & Interfaces, Swiss Fed Inst Technol,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, Stn 6, Chemin Alambics, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Efficient Blue-Colored Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Enhanced Charge Collection by Using an in Situ Photoelectrochemically Generated Conducting Polymer Hole Conductor.2016In: ChemPhysChem, ISSN 1439-4235, E-ISSN 1439-7641, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1441-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.5 % was achieved by efficiently incorporating a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based dye with a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenediothiophene) (PEDOT) hole-transporting material (HTM) that was formed in situ, compared with a PCE of 2.9 % for small molecular spiro-OMeTAD-based solid-state dye solar cells (sDSCs). The high PCE for PEDOT-based sDSCs is mainly attributed to the significantly enhanced charge-collection efficiency, as a result of the three-order-of-magnitude higher hole conductivity (0.53 S cm(-1) ) compared with that of the widely used low molecular weight HTM spiro-OMeTAD (3.5×10(-4)  S cm(-1) ).

  • 23.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, EPFL FSB ISIC LSPM, Chemin Alamb,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Jouini, Mohamed
    Inst Univ Paris Diderot Paris 7, Sorbonne Paris Cite, ITODYS UMR CNRS 7086, 15 Rue Jean Antoine de Baif, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Johansson, Malin B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Xiaoliang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Grp Mol Engn Funct Mat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem, Phys Chem,Ctr Mol Devices, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, EPFL FSB ISIC LSPM, Chemin Alamb,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;King Abdulaziz Univ, Ctr Excellence Adv Mat Res, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia..
    Efficient solid-state dye sensitized solar cells: The influence of dye molecular structures for the in-situ photoelectrochemically polymerized PEDOT as hole transporting material2016In: NANO ENERGY, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 19, p. 455-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state dye sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) with organic small molecule hole transporting materials (HTMs) have limited efficiencies due to the incomplete pore filling of the HTMs in the thick mesoporous electrodes and the low hole conductivity of HTMs. Hereby, highly efficient sDSCs with power conversion efficiency of 7.11% and record photocurrent of 13.4 mA cm-2 are reported, prepared by effectively incorporating in-situ photoelectrochemically polymerized PEDOT as HTM in combination with a multifunctional organic, metal-free dye. In order to fundamentally understand how the dye molecules affect the photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP), the properties of the generated PEDOT and the photovoltaic performance, sDSCs based on a series of dyes are systematically investigated. Detailed comparative studies reveal that the difference between the dye redox potential and monomer onset oxidation potential plays a crucial role in the PEP kinetics and the doping density of PEDOT HTM. The structure of the dyes, functioning as an electron blocking layer, affects the charge recombination at the TiO2/dye/PEDOT interface. The analysis shows that a donor-n-acceptor dye with well-tuned energy levels and bulky structure results in an in-situ electrochemically doped PEDOT HTM with a high hole conductivity (2.0 S cm(-1)) in sDSCs, leading to efficient dye regeneration and photocharge collection. It is hoped that this work will further encourage research on the future design of new dye molecules for an efficient PEP in order to further enhance the photovoltaic performance of solid-state dye sensitized solar cells.

  • 24.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Organ Chem, Ctr Mol Devices, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Malin B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hadadian, Mahboubeh
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, EPFL FSB ISIC LSPM, Lab Photomol Sci, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Chemin Alambics Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Dept Chem, Mashhad 91779, Iran..
    Baena, Juan Pablo Correa
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, EPFL FSB ISIC LSPM, Lab Photomol Sci, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Chemin Alambics Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Liu, Peng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Appl Phys Chem, Teknikringen 30, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hua, Yong
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Organ Chem, Ctr Mol Devices, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, EPFL FSB ISIC LSPM, Lab Photomol Sci, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Chemin Alambics Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Organ Chem, Ctr Mol Devices, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, EPFL FSB ISIC LSPM, Lab Photomol Sci, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Chemin Alambics Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Constructive Effects of Alkyl Chains: A Strategy to Design Simple and Non-Spiro Hole Transporting Materials for High-Efficiency Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells2016In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 6, no 13, article id 1502536Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Xu, Bo
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Ctr Mol Devices, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Malin B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, EPFL FSB ISIC LSPM, Chemin Alambics,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Ctr Mol Devices, Dept Chem Chem Sci & Engn, Organ Chem, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Chem Sci & Engn, Lab Photomol Sci, EPFL FSB ISIC LSPM, Chemin Alambics,Stn 6, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Strategy to Boost the Efficiency of Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells: Changing Geometry of the Hole Transporting Material.2016In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 6816-6825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hole transporting material (HTM) is an essential component in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for efficient extraction and collection of the photoinduced charges. Triphenylamine- and carbazole-based derivatives have extensively been explored as alternative and economical HTMs for PSCs. However, the improvement of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), as well as further investigation of the relationship between the chemical structure of the HTMs and the photovoltaic performance, is imperatively needed. In this respect, a simple carbazole-based HTM X25 was designed on the basis of a reference HTM, triphenylamine-based X2, by simply linking two neighboring phenyl groups in a triphenylamine unit through a carbon-carbon single bond. It was found that a lowered highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level was obtained for X25 compared to that of X2. Besides, the carbazole moiety in X25 improved the molecular planarity as well as conductivity property in comparison with the triphenylamine unit in X2. Utilizing the HTM X25 in a solar cell with mixed-ion perovskite [HC(NH2)2]0.85(CH3NH3)0.15Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3, a highest reported PCE of 17.4% at 1 sun (18.9% under 0.46 sun) for carbazole-based HTM in PSCs was achieved, in comparison of a PCE of 14.7% for triphenylamine-based HTM X2. From the steady-state photoluminescence and transient photocurrent/photovoltage measurements, we conclude that (1) the lowered HOMO level for X25 compared to X2 favored a higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) in PSCs; (2) a more uniform formation of X25 capping layer than X2 on the surface of perovskite resulted in more efficient hole transport and charge extraction in the devices. In addition, the long-term stability of PSCs with X25 is significantly enhanced compared to X2 due to its good uniformity of HTM layer and thus complete coverage on the perovskite. The results provide important information to further develop simple and efficient small molecular HTMs applied in solar cells.

  • 26.
    Zhang, Jinbao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Yang, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Shen, Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Park, Byung-Wook
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hao, Yan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Johansson, Erik M. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Boschloo, Gerrit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Kloo, Lars
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Sun, Licheng
    Jarboui, Adel
    Perruchot, Christian
    Jouini, Mohamed
    Vlachopoulos, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Hole-Transporting Material Generated by Photoelectrochemical Polymerization in Aqueous and Organic Medium for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2014In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 118, no 30, p. 16591-16601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We applied organic donor-pi-acceptor (D-pi-A) sensitizers for photoelectrochemical polymerization (PEP) because of their appropriate energy levels and high light absorption. The polymerized conducting polymer PEDOT was used as hole conductor in all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). By combination of the D-pi-A sensitizers and the generated PEDOT from PEP of bis-EDOT in acetonitrile, the resulting device showed an average power conversion efficiency of 5.6%. Furthermore, the PEP in aqueous micellar electrolytic medium was also employed because of the ability to decrease oxidation potential of the precursor, thereby making the polymerization process easier. The latter method is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach. Using as hole conductor the so-obtained PEDOT from PEP of bis-EDOT in aqueous electrolyte, the devices exhibited impressive power conversion efficiency of 5.2%. To compare the properties of the generated polymer from bis-EDOT in these two PEP methods, electron lifetime, photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectra, and UV-vis-NIR spectra were measured. The results showed that PEDOT from organic PEP exhibits a delocalized conformation with high conductivity and a smooth and compact morphology; a rough morphology with high porosity and polymer structure of relatively shorter chains was assumed to be obtained from aqueous PEP. Therefore, better dye regeneration but faster charge recombination was observed in the device based on PEDOT from aqueous PEP of bis-EDOT. Subsequently, to extend the aqueous PEP approach in consideration of the ability to decrease the oxidation potential of the precursor, the easily available precursor EDOT was for the first time used for PEP in aqueous medium in a variant of the aforementioned procedure, and the device based on the so-obtained PEDOT shows a more than 70-fold increase in efficiency, 3.0%, over that based on the polymer generated from EDOT by PEP in organic media. It was demonstrated that aqueous micellar PEP with EDOT as monomer is an efficient strategy for generation of conducting polymer hole-transporting materials.

  • 27.
    Zhang, Xiaoli
    et al.
    South Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China.;Wuhan Univ, Sch Power & Mech Engn, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China.;Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Elect & Elect Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    Xu, Bing
    South Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China.;Wuhan Univ, Sch Power & Mech Engn, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Gao, Yuan
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Elect & Elect Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    Zheng, Yuanjin
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Elect & Elect Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    Wang, Kai
    South Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Xiao Wei
    South Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China.;Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Elect & Elect Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals for High-Efficiency Light Emitting Diodes: Dual-Phase CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 Composites2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 25, p. 4595-4600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual-phase all-inorganic composite CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 is developed and applied as the emitting layer in LEDs, which exhibited a maximum luminance of 3853 cd m(-2), with current density (CE) of approximate to 8.98 cd A(-1) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of approximate to 2.21%, respectively. The parasite of secondary phase CsPb2Br5 nanoparticles on the cubic CsPbBr3 nanocrystals could enhance the current efficiency by reducing diffusion length of excitons on one side, and decrease the trap density in the band gap on the other side. In addition, the introduction of CsPb2Br5 nanoparticles could increase the ionic conductivity by reducing the barrier against the electronic and ionic transport, and improve emission lifetime by decreasing nonradiative energy transfer to the trap states via controlling the trap density. The dual-phase all-inorganic CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 composite nanocrystals present a new route of perovskite material for advanced light emission applications.

  • 28.
    Zhang, Xiaoli
    et al.
    South Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China.;SUSTC, Shenzhen Key Lab Generat Semicond Devices 3, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Ctr Mol Devices, Phys Chem,Angstrom Lab, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wang, Kai
    South Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China.;SUSTC, Shenzhen Key Lab Generat Semicond Devices 3, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China..
    Codoping-Induced, Rhombus-Shaped Co3O4 Nanosheets as an Active Electrode Material for Oxygen Evolution2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 39, p. 21745-21750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured Co3O4 doped with Zn2+, Ni2+, and both were directly grown on an ITO substrate by an easily available hydrothermal method. The doped Co3O4 showed a unique structural morphology evolution upon controlling the doping elements and the doping ratio of the cations. For the codoped samples, the novel rhombus-shaped Co3O4 nanosheets doped with Zn2+ and Ni2+ (concentration ratio of 1:2) exhibited the optimal electrocatalytic performance. The sample showed a current density of 165 mA cm(-2) at 1.75 V, approximately 1.6 and 4 times higher than that of samples doped with Zn2+ and Ni2+ at a concentration ratio of 1:1 and 1:3. The unique architecture and its corresponding modified physical properties, such as high active-site density created by codoping, large structural porosity, and high roughness, are together responsible to its superior performance. For codoped Co3O4 nanostructures, Zn2+ facilitates the creation of Co cations in their high oxidation state as active centers, while Ni2+ contributed to the new active sites with lower activation energy. The synergistic effect of Zn2+ and Ni2+ doping can explain the improved physicochemical properties of codoped Co3O4 nanostructures.

  • 29.
    Zhang, Xiaoli
    et al.
    South Univ Sci & Technol China, Coll Engn, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China.;Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Elect & Elect Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    Zhang, Jinbao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Xu, Bing
    South Univ Sci & Technol China, Coll Engn, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Kai
    South Univ Sci & Technol China, Coll Engn, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Xiao Wei
    South Univ Sci & Technol China, Coll Engn, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China.;Nanyang Technol Univ, Sch Elect & Elect Engn, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore..
    Synergistic effects in biphasic nanostructured electrocatalyst: Crystalline core versus amorphous shell2017In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 41, p. 788-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent study on active amorphous catalytic materials provokes rethinking of the previous research on atomic and electronic structures in the crystalline catalyst. Is there any active catalyst with biphasic structure, in particular the integration of crystalline and amorphous components? Inspired by this question, a crystalline-amorphous biphasic quaternary oxide catalyst is novelly fabricated via one-step solvothermal method in this work. The as-prepared catalyst displays a well-designed coreshell architecture composed of crystalline Co(ZnxNi2-x)O-4 nanorod (core) and amorphous NiO nanosheet (shell). This heterogeneous coreshell catalyst exhibits high activity in the oxygen evolution reaction by demonstrating a low over-potential of 1.57 V vs RHE, a high half-wave potential (0.89 V vs RHE), and long-term electrochemical stability for 25 h. It is found that the synergistic effects from the amorphization of the shell on the one hand, and the atomic/electronic structure of the crystalline core on the other hand, could significantly facilitate the catalytic activity both at the surface and in the bulk volume of the solid oxides. Therefore, this new developed crystalline-amorphous biphasic catalyst could provide instructive roles in the future design of new catalysts for O-2 evolution and other catalytic reactions.

1 - 29 of 29
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