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  • 1.
    Hreinsdottir, Jonina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Brodd, Katarina Strand
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ornkloo, H.
    Department of Psychology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Ophthalmological outcome and visuospatial ability in very preterm children measured at 2.5 years corrected age2013In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 102, no 12, p. 1144-1149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimTo investigate the ophthalmological outcome of very preterm children at 2.5years corrected age (CA) and perform a test of visuospatial and cognitive abilities. MethodsA population-based, prospective study (LOVIS study) in Uppsala County, Sweden, comprised 111 very preterm children (<32 w gestational age [GA]) born between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2007. Ophthalmic evaluations were undertaken in 98/109 children (89.9%) alive at 2.5 years. Spatial cognition was investigated with a test of five alternative blocks in 48 preterm and 25 term-born children. ResultsVisual impairment, strabismus or refractive errors, were found in 12% of the children. None of the children were blind in both eyes. Logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between strabismus and periventricular leucomalacia/intraventricular haemorrhage (OR 9.6, p=0.025) and between refractive errors and severe retinopathy of prematurity (OR 9.8, p=0.011) and GA (OR 0.763, p=0.034). Oval and rectangular blocks were significantly more difficult to insert into a box for preterm than full-term children (p=0.048 and 0.013, respectively). There was a significant correlation between total scores for the five blocks and GA at birth (p=0.035). ConclusionEye and visual problems were found in 12% of the preterm children at 30months CA. Preterm children had difficulties with blocks of complex shapes.

  • 2.
    Hreinsdottir, Jonina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Kaul, Ylva Fredriksson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Impaired cognitive ability at 2.5 years predicts later visual and ophthalmological problems in children born very preterm2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 822-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To identify possible predictive factors for visual problems at 6.5 years in children born very preterm.

    Methods: During 2004–2007, all very preterm infants (gestational age [GA] <32 weeks) in Uppsala County, Sweden were screened for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) neonatally; at four months, visual tracking was tested; at 2.5 years, visuospatial and cognitive tests were carried out. At 6.5 years, 84 preterm children and a reference group of 64 full‐term children underwent ophthalmological testing.

    Results: Mean visual acuity (VA) did not differ between the groups, but subnormal VA (≤0.8) was more common in the preterm group (31% vs 14%; p < 0.05). More often than full‐term children, preterm children had impaired contrast sensitivity (<0.5) (36% vs 19%; p < 0.05) and strabismus (8% vs 0%; p < 0.05). Low GA, ROP, intraventricular haemorrhage 3‐4/periventricular leukomalacia and cognitive disability at 2.5 years predicted ophthalmological and visual problems at 6.5 years. Visual tracking ability at four months was not predictive of ophthalmological outcome.

    Conclusion: Children born preterm had more ophthalmological problems at 6.5 years of age, including subtle dysfunctions. ROP, early brain injury and impaired cognitive function around 2.5 years predicted later ophthalmological dysfunctions.

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