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  • 1.
    Martin, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    ‘European culture’ is an invented tradition2017In: Aeon (online)Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    An essay on the twentieth-century birth of the idea of "European culture" in Aeon, the online magazine of ideas.

    European intellectuals' "attachment to European distinctiveness led to an embrace and celebration of something else, something almost ineffable, that neither the US nor the USSR could ever claim: that was ‘European culture’."

  • 2.
    Martin, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    International legal cooperation in the Nazi-fascist New Order2018In: International Politics, ISSN 1384-5748, E-ISSN 1740-3898, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 870-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the interwar history of the discipline of international law, the Nazi period was apparently nothing more than what Martti Koskenniemi calls a ‘dark gap.’ But the same cannot be said about international organizing in the law under Hitler. After reaching out to like-minded foreign jurists throughout the 1930s, Nazi jurists launched an international legal institution in 1939. Officially founded in1941, the International Law Chamber (Internationale Rechtskammer) created an international professional association that gathered jurists from across Europe in a transnational network, but one that rejected the liberal and universalist premises of international law. Instead, the organization used the ‘soft power’ of international intellectual exchange to promote a regional-European, anti-liberal, and fascist-corporatist vision of international legal order. During World War II, Nazi jurists used this network to pursue legal integration among the allied and conquered states included in Hitler’s eme rging European empire, thereby helping to build the Nazi ‘New Order’ in Europe.

  • 3.
    Martin, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Zarah Leander and the Dream of a (Nazi) European Cinema2017In: International Association for Media and History, blogArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This blog post examines the role of Swedish cinema star Zarah Leander in Nazi Germany's effort to create and control a pan-European cinema in the 1930s and during World War II

  • 4.
    Martin, Benjamin G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Review of Alessio Ponzio. Shaping the New Man: Youth Training Regimes in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany2017In: American Historical Review, ISSN 0002-8762, E-ISSN 1937-5239, Vol. 122, no 5, p. 1700-1701Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Alessio Ponzio. Shaping the New Man: Youth Training Regimes in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany2017In: American Historical Review, ISSN 0002-8762, E-ISSN 1937-5239, Vol. 122, no 5, p. 1700-1701Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6. Martin, Benjamin George
    Cabarets Berlin2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7. Martin, Benjamin George
    Celebrating the Nation’s Poets: Petrarch, Leopardi, and the Appropriation of Cultural Symbols in Fascist Italy2005In: Donatello Among the Blackshirts: History and Modernity in the Visual Culture of Fascist Italy / [ed] Roger Crum and Claudia Lazzaro, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005, p. 187-202Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Charting the ’Culture’ of Cultural Treaties: Digital Humanities approaches to the history of international ideas2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural treaties are the bi-lateral or sometimes multilateral agreements among states that promote and regulate cooperation and exchange in the fields of life we call cultural or intellectual. Pioneered by France just after World War I, this type of treaty represents a distinctive technology of modern international relations, a tool in the toolkit of public diplomacy, a vector of “soft power.” One goal of a comparative examination of these treaties is to locate them in the history of public diplomacy and in the broader history of culture and power in the international arena. But these treaties can also serve as sources for the study of what the historian David Armitage has called “the intellectual history of the international.” In this project, I use digital humanities methods to approach cultural treaties as a historical source with which to explore the emergence of a global concept of culture in the twentieth century. Specifically, the project will investigate the hypothesis that the culture concept, in contrast to earlier ideas of civilization, played a key role in the consolidation of the post-World War II international order.

    I approach the topic by charting how concepts of culture were given form in the system of international treaties between 1919 (when the first such treaty was signed) and 1972 (when UNESCO’s Convention on cultural heritage marked the “arrival” of a global embrace of the culture concept), studying them with the large-scale, quantitative methods of the digital humanities, as well as with the tools of textual and conceptual analysis associated with the study of intellectual history. In my paper for DH Nordic 2018, I will outline the topic, goals, and methods of the project, focusing on the ways we (that is, my colleagues at Umeå University’s HUMlab and I) seek to apply DH approaches to this study of global intellectual history.

    The project uses computer-assisted quantitative analysis to analyze and visualize how cultural treaties contributed to the spread of cultural concepts and to the development of transnational cultural networks. We explore the source material offered by these treaties by approaching it as two distinct data sets. First, to chart the emergence of an international system of cultural treaties, we use quantitative analysis of the basic information, or “metadata” (countries, date, topic) from the complete set of treaties on cultural matters between 1919 and 1972, approximately 1250 documents. Our source for this information is the World Treaty Index (www.worldtreatyindex.com). This data can also help identify historical patterns in the emergence of a global network of bilateral cultural treaties. Once mapped, these networks will allow me to pose interesting questions by comparing them to any number of other transnational systems. How, for example, does the map of cultural agreements compare to that of trade treaties, military alliances, or to the transnational flows of cultural goods, capital, or migrants?

    Second, to identify the development of concepts, we will observe the changing use of key terms through quantitative analysis of the treaty texts. By treating a large group of cultural treaties as several distinct text corpora and, perhaps, as a single text corpus, we will be able explore the treaties using textometry and topic modeling. The treaty texts (digital versions of most which can be found online) will be limited to four subsets: a) Britain, France, and Italy, 1919-1972; b) India, 1947-1972; c) the German Reich (1919-1945) and the two German successor states (1949-1972); and d) UNESCO’s multilateral conventions (1945-1972). This selection is designed to approach a global perspective while taking into account practical factors, such as language and accessibility. Our use of text analysis seeks (a) to offer insight into the changing usage and meanings of concepts like “culture” and “civilization”; (b) to identify which key areas of cultural activity were regulated by the treaties over time and by world region; and (c) to clarify whether “culture” was used in a broad, anthropological sense, or in a narrower sense to refer to the realm of arts, music, and literature. This aspect of the project raises interesting challenges, for example regarding how best to manipulate a multi-lingual text corpus (with texts in English, French, and German, at least).

    In these ways, the project seeks to contribute to our understanding of how the concept of culture that guides today’s international society developed. It also explores how digital tools can help us ask (and eventually answer) questions in the field of global intellectual history.

  • 9.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology.
    Computer-Assisted Research on Cultural Treaties: A Methodological Inquiry for the History of International IdeasManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10. Martin, Benjamin George
    ‘European Cinema for Europe!’ The International Film Chamber, 1935-422011In: Cinema and the Swastika : The International Expansion of Third Reich Cinema / [ed] Roel Vande Winkel and David Welch, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, paperback, p. 25-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    'European Literature' in the Nazi New Order: The Cultural Politics of the European Writers' Union, 1941-32013In: Journal of contemporary history, ISSN 0022-0094, E-ISSN 1461-7250, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 486-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the European Writers' Union, founded by Nazi Germany with representatives of 15 nations in October 1941, in the context of the history of the idea of European literature. It argues that this institution was a serious effort to re-order the international literary field into a European form, designed to help legitimate Nazi Germany's New Order Europe and to establish the cultural hegemony which German elites believed they alone deserved. Aware that what Pierre Bourdieu calls the literary field' had its own rules, the Nazis sought at Weimar to legitimate their bid to reorder European literary life by highlighting Germany's literary capital and by playing on the tensions within the interwar understanding of the concept of European literature. In this way, the European Writers' Union marked a historically significant intervention into the contested and high-stakes issue of what European literature' was. Drawing on work by scholars of comparative literature and cultural sociology, this article sets the Writers' Union in the transnational history of the literary field in twentieth-century Europe in order to interpret the rhetorical, ideological and practical strategies of what could be called the soft power' of Nazi Empire.

  • 12.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Fascist Italy’s Illiberal Cultural Networks: Culture, Corporatism and International Relations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Fascist Italy’s Illiberal Cultural Networks: Culture, Corporatism and International Relations2019In: Genealogie e geografie dell’anti-democrazia nella crisi europea degli anni Trenta: Fascismi, corporativismi, laburismi / [ed] Laura Cerasi, Venice: Edizioni Ca'Foscari: Filologie medievali e moderne, 2019, p. 137-158Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Italian fascists presented corporatism, a system of sector-wide unions bringing together workers and employers under firm state control, as a new way to resolve tensions between labour and capital, and to reincorporate the working classes in national life. ‘Cultural corporatism’ – the fascist labour model applied to the realm of the arts – was likewise presented as a historic resolution of the problem of the artist’s role in modern society. Focusing on two art conferences in Venice in 1932 and 1934, this article explores how Italian leaders promoted cultural corporatism internationally, creating illiberal international networks designed to help promote fascist ideology and Italian soft power.

  • 14.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Fascist Italy’s ‘Soft Power’ in a Latin Perspective2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Interpreting the Axis through the History of International Cultural Relations: Centers and Peripheries in the Global Geopolitics of Culture2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16. Martin, Benjamin George
    Svensk film i Hitlers Europa: Nationell filmindustri och internationella nätverk2016In: De intellektuellas förräderi?: Intellektuellt utbyte mellan Sverige och Tredje riket / [ed] Maria Björkman, Patrik Lundell & Sven Widmalm, Stockholm: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2016Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    Sveriges plats i Hitlers kulturella ’Neuordnung’2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    The Culture of International Society: Charting the Emergence of a Global Concept of Culture through Europe’s Cultural Treaties2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Martin, Benjamin George
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History of Science and Ideas.
    The Culture of International Society: Charting the Emergence of a Global Concept of Culture through Europe’s Cultural Treaties2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Martin, Benjamin George
    The Nazi-Fascist New Order for European Culture2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following France’s crushing defeat in June 1940, the Nazis moved forward with plans to reorganize a European continent now largely under Hitler’s heel. While Germany’s military power would set the agenda, several among the Nazi elite argued that permanent German hegemony required something more: a pan-European cultural empire that would crown Hitler’s wartime conquests. At a time when the postwar European project is under strain, Benjamin G. Martin brings into focus a neglected aspect of Axis geopolitics, charting the rise and fall of Nazi-fascist “soft power” in the form of a nationalist and anti-Semitic new ordering of European culture.

    As early as 1934, the Nazis began taking steps to bring European culture into alignment with their ideological aims. In cooperation and competition with Italy’s fascists, they courted filmmakers, writers, and composers from across the continent. New institutions such as the International Film Chamber, the European Writers Union, and the Permanent Council of composers forged a continental bloc opposed to the “degenerate” cosmopolitan modernism that held sway in the arts. In its place they envisioned a Europe of nations, one that exalted traditionalism, anti-Semitism, and the Volk. Such a vision held powerful appeal for conservative intellectuals who saw a European civilization in decline, threatened by American commercialism and Soviet Bolshevism.

    Taking readers to film screenings, concerts, and banquets where artists from Norway to Bulgaria lent their prestige to Goebbels’s vision, Martin follows the Nazi-fascist project to its disastrous conclusion, examining the internal contradictions and sectarian rivalries that doomed it to failure.

1 - 20 of 20
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