uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Cortes, Andres J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Waeber, S.
    Lexer, C.
    Sedlacek, J.
    Wheeler, J. A.
    van Kleunen, M.
    Bossdorf, O.
    Hoch, G.
    Rixen, C.
    Wipf, S.
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Small-scale patterns in snowmelt timing affect gene flow and the distribution of genetic diversity in the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea2014In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 113, no 3, p. 233-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current threats to biodiversity, such as climate change, are thought to alter the within-species genetic diversity among microhabitats in highly heterogeneous alpine environments. Assessing the spatial organization and dynamics of genetic diversity within species can help to predict the responses of organisms to environmental change. In this study, we evaluated whether small-scale heterogeneity in snowmelt timing restricts gene flow between microhabitats in the common long-lived dwarf shrub Salix herbacea L. We surveyed 273 genets across 12 early-and late-snowmelt sites (that is, ridges and snowbeds) in the Swiss Alps for phenological variation over 2 years and for genetic variation using seven SSR markers. Phenological differentiation triggered by differences in snowmelt timing did not correlate with genetic differentiation between microhabitats. On the contrary, extensive gene flow appeared to occur between microhabitats and slightly less extensively among adjacent mountains. However, ridges exhibited significantly lower levels of genetic diversity than snowbeds, and patterns of effective population size (Ne) and migration (Nem) between microhabitats were strongly asymmetric, with ridges acting as sources and snowbeds as sinks. As no recent genetic bottlenecks were detected in the studied sites, this asymmetry is likely to reflect current metapopulation dynamics of the species dominated by gene flow via seeds rather than ancient re-colonization after the last glacial period. Overall, our results suggest that seed dispersal prevents snowmelt-driven genetic isolation, and snowbeds act as sinks of genetic diversity. We discuss the consequences of such small-scale variation in gene flow and diversity levels for population responses to climate change.

  • 2.
    Favre, Adrien
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Plant Ecol Genet, Inst Integrat Biol, Univ Str 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Leipzig, Inst Biol, Dept Mol Evolut & Plant Systemat & Herbarium LZ, Johannisallee 21-23, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Widmer, Alex
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Plant Ecol Genet, Inst Integrat Biol, Univ Str 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Plant Ecol Genet, Inst Integrat Biol, Univ Str 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Differential adaptation drives ecological speciation in campions (Silene): evidence from a multi-site transplant experiment2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 213, no 3, p. 1487-1499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the role of differential adaptation for the evolution of reproductive barriers, we conducted a multi-site transplant experiment with the dioecious sister species Silenedioica and S.latifolia and their hybrids. Crosses within species as well as reciprocal first-generation (F-1) and second-generation (F-2) interspecific hybrids were transplanted into six sites, three within each species' habitat. Survival and flowering were recorded over 4yr. At all transplant sites, the local species outperformed the foreign species, reciprocal F-1 hybrids performed intermediately and F-2 hybrids underperformed in comparison to F-1 hybrids (hybrid breakdown). Females generally had slightly higher cumulative fitness than males in both within- and between-species crosses and we thus found little evidence for Haldane's rule acting on field performance. The strength of selection against F-1 and F-2 hybrids as well as hybrid breakdown increased with increasing strength of habitat adaptation (i.e. the relative fitness difference between the local and the foreign species) across sites. Our results suggest that differential habitat adaptation led to ecologically dependent post-zygotic reproductive barriers and drives divergence and speciation in this Silene system.

  • 3.
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Liu, Xiaodong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Hallander, Emelie
    Favre, Adrien
    Herforth-Rahmé, Joelle
    Widmer, Alex
    Ecological divergence plays an important role in strong but complex reproductive isolation in campions (Silene).Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Kokko, Hanna
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Chaturvedi, Anurag
    Univ Leuven, Lab Aquat Ecol Evolut & Conservat, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium..
    Croll, Daniel
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Integrat Biol, Plant Pathol, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Fischer, Martin C.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Integrat Biol, Plant Ecol Genet, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Guillaume, Frederic
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Kerr, Ben
    Univ Washington, Dept Biol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Rolshausen, Gregor
    Senckenberg Biodivers & Climate Res Ctr BIK F, D-60325 Frankfurt, Germany..
    Stapley, Jessica
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Ctr Adaptat Changing Environm, CH-8095 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Can Evolution Supply What Ecology Demands?2017In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 187-197Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simplistic view of the adaptive process pictures a hillside along which a population can climb: when ecological 'demands' change, evolution 'supplies' the variation needed for the population to climb to a new peak. Evolutionary ecologists point out that this simplistic view can be incomplete because the fitness landscape changes dynamically as the population evolves. Geneticists meanwhile have identified complexities relating to the nature of genetic varia-tion and its architecture, and the importance of epigenetic variation is under debate. In this review, we highlight how complexity in both ecological 'demands' and the evolutionary 'supply' influences organisms' ability to climb fitness landscapes that themselves change dynamically as evolution proceeds, and encourage new synthetic effort across research disciplines towards eco-logically realistic studies of adaptation.

  • 5.
    Liu, Xiaodong
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Glemin, Sylvain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Genomic divergence and reproductive isolation in SileneManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Liu, Xiaodong
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Zou, Shangjun
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Pseudo-autosomal region on the sex chromosomes of Silene controls sexually dimorphic traitsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7. Luo, Y.
    et al.
    Widmer, A.
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    The roles of genetic drift and natural selection in quantitative trait divergence along an altitudinal gradient in Arabidopsis thaliana2015In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 220-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how natural selection and genetic drift shape biological variation is a central topic in biology, yet our understanding of the agents of natural selection and their target traits is limited. We investigated to what extent selection along an altitudinal gradient or genetic drift contributed to variation in ecologically relevant traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. We collected seeds from 8 to 14 individuals from each of 14 A. thaliana populations originating from sites between 800 and 2700 m above sea level in the Swiss Alps. Seed families were grown with and without vernalization, corresponding to winter-annual and summer-annual life histories, respectively. We analyzed putatively neutral genetic divergence between these populations using 24 simple sequence repeat markers. We measured seven traits related to growth, phenology and leaf morphology that are rarely reported in A. thaliana and performed analyses of altitudinal clines, as well as overall Q(ST)-F-ST comparisons and correlation analyses among pair-wise Q(ST), F-ST and altitude of origin differences. Multivariate analyses suggested adaptive differentiation along altitude in the entire suite of traits, particularly when expressed in the summer-annual life history. Of the individual traits, a decrease in rosette leaf number in the vegetative state and an increase in leaf succulence with increasing altitude could be attributed to adaptive divergence. Interestingly, these patterns relate well to common within- and between-species trends of smaller plant size and thicker leaves at high altitude. Our results thus offer exciting possibilities to unravel the underlying mechanisms for these conspicuous trends using the model species A. thaliana.

  • 8. Luo, Yonghai
    et al.
    Dong, Xinwei
    Yu, Tianying
    Shi, Xuan
    Li, Zongyun
    Yang, Weicai
    Widmer, Alex
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    A Single Nucleotide Deletion in Gibberellin20-oxidase1 Causes Alpine Dwarfism in Arabidopsis2015In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 168, no 3, p. 930-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine dwarfism is widely observed in alpine plant populations and often considered a high-altitude adaptation, yet its molecular basis and ecological relevance remain unclear. In this study, we used map-based cloning and field transplant experiments to investigate dwarfism in natural Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions collected from the Swiss Alps. A loss-of-function mutation due to a single nucleotide deletion in gibberellin20-oxidase1 (GA5) was identified as the cause of dwarfism in an alpine accession. The mutated allele, ga5-184, was found in two natural Arabidopsis populations collected from one geographic region at high altitude, but was different from all other reported ga5 null alleles, suggesting that this allele has evolved locally. In field transplant experiments, the dwarf accession with ga5-184 exhibited a fitness pattern consistent with adaptation to high altitude. Across a wider array of accessions from the Swiss Alps, plant height decreased with altitude of origin, but fitness patterns in the transplant experiments were variable and general altitudinal adaptation was not evident. In general, our study provides new insights into molecular basis and possible ecological roles of alpine dwarfism, and demonstrates the importance of the GA-signaling pathway for the generation of ecologically relevant variation in higher plants.

  • 9. Page, Paul
    et al.
    Favre, Adrien
    Schiestl, Florian P.
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Do Flower Color and Floral Scent of Silene Species affect Host Preference of Hadena bicruris, a Seed-Eating Pollinator, under Field Conditions?2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. e98755-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specialization in plant-insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F-2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of a-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds alpha-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization.

  • 10. Rahme, Joelle
    et al.
    Suter, Leonie
    Widmer, Alex
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Inheritance and Reproductive Consequences of Floral Anthocyanin Deficiency in Silene Dioica (Caryophyllaceae)2014In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 101, no 8, p. 1388-1392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise of the study: Flower color is one of the most important traits for pollinator attraction. However, natural plant populations often harbor rare flower color variants resulting from mutations in biochemical pathways for floral pigment production. It is unclear how such mutations can persist because they can affect not only pollinator visitation but also plant fertility and performance. Methods: We collected rare white-flowered (anthocyanin-deficient) and common pink-flowered morphs of Silene dioica from natural populations in Switzerland. First-and second-generation hybrids between pink and white morphs, as well as back-crosses toward white morphs were produced, and the proportion of white-flowered offspring was determined. We compared seed siring ability and seed production between morphs using hand pollination experiments. Moreover, we scored the transfer of pollen analogues (fluorescent dyes) in a 50: 50 array of the two morphs. Key results: The proportions of white-flowered plants in the offspring of our crosses were consistent with more than one recessive mutation as the cause of floral anthocyanin deficiency and further suggested a role of maternal effects for flower color. Seed siring ability and seed set did not differ significantly between pink and white morphs. Pollen transfer occurred preferentially within morphs. Conclusions: Overall, our results imply that the white morph of S. dioica likely is caused by recessive mutations that do not impair reproduction. However, as this flower color polymorphism led to assortative mating in our experiment, it may represent standing genetic variation with the potential to contribute to evolutionary divergence.

  • 11.
    Sedlacek, Janosch
    et al.
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Biol, Ecol, Univ Str 10, D-78457 Constance, Germany.
    Cortés, Andrés
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Swedish Agr Univ, Dept Plant Biol, Undervisningsplan 7E, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wheeler, Julia
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, Fluelastr 11, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Inst Bot, Schonbeinstr 6, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland;Univ Massachusetts, Dept Environm Conservat, Amherst, MA 01003 USA.
    Bossdorf, Oliver
    Univ Tubingen, Plant Evolutionary Ecol, Inst Evolut & Ecol, Morgenstelle 5, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.
    Hoch, Guenter
    Univ Basel, Inst Bot, Schonbeinstr 6, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.
    Klapste, Jaroslav
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Forest & Conservat Sci, Fac Forestry, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada;Czech Univ Life Sci Prague, Dept Genet & Physiol Forest Trees, Fac Forestry & Wood Sci, Kamycka 129, Prague 16521 6, Czech Republic;Univ Massachusetts, Dept Environm Conservat, Amherst, MA 01003 USA.
    Lexer, Christian
    Univ Vienna, Dept Bot & Biodivers Res, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Rixen, Christian
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, Fluelastr 11, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland.
    Wipf, Sonja
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, Fluelastr 11, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland.
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    van Kleunen, Mark
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Biol, Ecol, Univ Str 10, D-78457 Constance, Germany.
    Evolutionary potential in the Alpine: trait heritabilities and performance variation of the dwarf willow Salix herbacea from different elevations and microhabitats2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 3940-3952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine ecosystems are seriously threatened by climate change. One of the key mechanisms by which plants can adapt to changing environmental conditions is through evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the evolutionary potential in wild populations of long-lived alpine plants. Here, we investigated heritabilities of phenological traits, leaf size, and performance traits in natural populations of the long-lived alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea using relatedness estimates inferred from SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. Salix herbacea occurs in early-and late-snowmelt microhabitats (ridges and snowbeds), and we assessed how performance consequences of phenological traits and leaf size differ between these microhabitats in order to infer potential for evolutionary responses. Salix herbacea showed low, but significant, heritabilities of leaf size, clonal and sexual reproduction, and moderate heritabilities of phenological traits. In both microhabitats, we found that larger leaves, longer intervals between snowmelt and leaf expansion, and longer GDD (growing-degree days) until leaf expansion resulted in a stronger increase in the number of stems (clonal reproduction). In snowbeds, clonal reproduction increased with a shorter GDD until flowering, while the opposite was found on ridges. Furthermore, the proportion of flowering stems increased with GDD until flowering in both microhabitats. Our results suggest that the presence of significant heritable variation in morphology and phenology might help S. herbacea to adapt to changing environmental conditions. However, it remains to be seen if the rate of such an evolutionary response can keep pace with the rapid rate of climate change.

  • 12. Sedlacek, Janosch
    et al.
    Wheeler, Julia A.
    Cortes, Andres J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Bossdorf, Oliver
    Hoch, Guenter
    Lexer, Christian
    Wipf, Sonja
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    van Kleunen, Mark
    Rixen, Christian
    The Response of the Alpine Dwarf Shrub Salix herbacea to Altered Snowmelt Timing: Lessons from a Multi-Site Transplant Experiment2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e0122395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is altering spring snowmelt patterns in alpine and arctic ecosystems, and these changes may alter plant phenology, growth and reproduction. To predict how alpine plants respond to shifts in snowmelt timing, we need to understand trait plasticity, its effects on growth and reproduction, and the degree to which plants experience a home-site advantage. We tested how the common, long-lived dwarf shrub Salix herbacea responded to changing spring snowmelt time by reciprocally transplanting turfs of S. herbacea between early-exposure ridge and late-exposure snowbed microhabitats. After the transplant, we monitored phenological, morphological and fitness traits, as well as leaf damage, during two growing seasons. Salix herbacea leafed out earlier, but had a longer development time and produced smaller leaves on ridges relative to snowbeds. Longer phenological development times and smaller leaves were associated with reduced sexual reproduction on ridges. On snowbeds, larger leaves and intermediate development times were associated with increased clonal reproduction. Clonal and sexual reproduction showed no response to altered snowmelt time. We found no home-site advantage in terms of sexual and clonal reproduction. Leaf damage probability depended on snowmelt and thus exposure period, but had no short-term effect on fitness traits. We conclude that the studied populations of S. herbacea can respond to shifts in snowmelt by plastic changes in phenology and leaf size, while maintaining levels of clonal and sexual reproduction. The lack of a home-site advantage suggests that S. herbacea may not be adapted to different microhabitats. The studied populations are thus unlikely to react to climate change by rapid adaptation, but their responses will also not be constrained by small-scale local adaptation. In the short term, snowbed plants may persist due to high stem densities. However, in the long term, reduction in leaf size and flowering, a longer phenological development time and increased exposure to damage may decrease overall performance of S. herbacea under earlier snowmelt.

  • 13.
    Wheeler, Julia A.
    et al.
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland.;Univ Basel, Inst Bot, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland..
    Cortes, Andres J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sedlacek, Janosch
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Biol, D-78457 Constance, Germany..
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    van Kleunen, Mark
    Univ Konstanz, Dept Biol, D-78457 Constance, Germany..
    Wipf, Sonja
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland..
    Hoch, Guenter
    Univ Basel, Inst Bot, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland..
    Bossdorf, Oliver
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Evolut Ecol, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Rixen, Christian
    WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland..
    The snow and the willows: earlier spring snowmelt reduces performance in the low-lying alpine shrub Salix herbacea2016In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 104, no 4, p. 1041-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current changes in shrub abundance in alpine and arctic tundra ecosystems are primarily driven by climate change. However, while taller shrub communities are expanding, dwarf shrub communities show reductions under climate warming, and the mechanisms driving the latter (such as warming temperatures or accelerated spring snowmelt) may be complex. To determine and disentangle the response of a widespread arctic-alpine prostrate dwarf shrub to both climate warming and changes in snowmelt time, we investigated phenology, clonal and sexual reproduction, leaf size, wood tissue carbon balance and leaf damage in 480 patches of Salix herbacea, along its elevational and snowmelt microhabitat range over 3years in a space-for-time substitution. Earlier snowmelt was associated with longer phenological development periods, an increased likelihood of herbivory and fungal damage, lower stem density, smaller leaves and lower end-of-season wood reserve carbohydrates. Furthermore, while early snowmelt was associated with an increased proportion of flowering stems, the proportion of fruiting stems was not, as fruit set decreased significantly with earlier snowmelt. Warmer temperatures at lower elevations were associated with lower stem numbers and larger leaves.Synthesis. Our study indicates that phenology, fitness proxies and fungal/insect damage of the dwarf shrub S.herbacea are strongly influenced by snowmelt timing, and that earlier spring snowmelt reduced performance in S.herbacea. The likely mechanisms for many of the observed patterns are related to adverse temperature conditions in the early growing season. Reductions in clonal (stem number) and sexual reproduction (reduced fruit set) under earlier snowmelt, in addition to increasing damage probability, will likely lead to lower fitness and poorer performance, particularly in shrubs growing in early-exposure microhabitats. Further, we saw few concurrent benefits of higher temperatures for S.herbacea, particularly as warming was associated with lower clonal growth. As growing seasons become warmer and longer in arctic and alpine tundra ecosystems, early snowmelt is a critical mechanism reducing fitness and performance in a widespread dwarf shrub and may ultimately reduce dwarf shrub communities in tundra biomes.

1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf