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  • 1.
    Hasan, Shakib
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    de Santiago Ochoa, Juan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Reactive Power Control for LV Distribution Networks Voltage Management2018In: 2018 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT-Europe), IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high photovoltaic (PV) penetration into existing distribution networks leads to voltage profile violation. The main objective of this paper is to study the interaction of traditional static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) with the reactive power capable PV inverter in order to provide voltage support to the low voltage (LV) distribution network. In this paper, we propose an effective coordinated voltage control structure. The control structure has a hierarchical approach where reactive power compensation by PV inverters is prioritized. The STATCOMs are only used when the PV inverters are not capable enough to provide or consume enough reactive power to provide the voltage support. Also, we show that the reactive power supply at night by the PV inverters can be an important resource for effective voltage regulation by using this technique. Data from the existing LV distribution network are used for a case study. The simulation results indicate that the proposed voltage control method is able to control both the over and under voltage situations for the test distribution network without curtailing any active power from PV.

  • 2.
    Klingler, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung ISI.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Market diffusion of residential PV + battery system driven by self-consumption: A comparison of Sweden and GermanyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Improved Self-Consumption of Photovoltaic Electricity in Buildings: Storage, Curtailment and Grid Simulations2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global market for photovoltaics (PV) has increased rapidly: during 2014, 44 times more was installed than in 2004, partly due to a price reduction of 60-70% during the same time period. Economic support schemes that were needed to make PV competitive on the electricity market have gradually decreased and self-consumption of PV electricity is becoming more interesting internationally from an economic perspective.

    This licentiate thesis investigates self-consumption of residential PV electricity and how more PV power can be allowed in and injected into a distribution grid. A model was developed for PV panels in various orientations and showed a better relative load matching with east-west-oriented compared to south-oriented PV panels. However, the yearly electricity production for the east-west-system decreased, which resulted in less self-consumed electricity. Alternatives for self-consumption of PV electricity and reduced feed-in power in a community of detached houses were investigated. The self-consumption increased more with shared batteries than with individual batteries with identical total storage capacity. A 50% reduction in feed-in power leads to losses below 10% due to PV power curtailment. Methodologies for overvoltage prevention in a distribution grid with a high share of PV power production were developed. Simulations with a case with 42% of the yearly electricity demand from PV showed promising results for preventing overvoltage using centralized battery storage and PV power curtailment.

    These results show potential for increasing the self-consumption of residential PV electricity with storage and to reduce stress on a distribution grid with storage and power curtailment. Increased self-consumption with storage is however not profitable in Sweden today, and 42% of the electricity from PV is far more than the actual contribution of 0.06% to the total electricity production in Sweden in 2014.

    List of papers
    1. Photovoltaic self-consumption in buildings: A review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photovoltaic self-consumption in buildings: A review
    2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 142, p. 80-94Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in self-consumption of PV electricity from grid-connected residential systems is increasing among PV system owners and in the scientific community. Self-consumption can be defined as the share of the total PV production directly consumed by the PV system owner. With decreased subsidies for PV electricity in several countries, increased self-consumption could raise the profit of PV systems and lower the stress on the electricity distribution grid. This review paper summarizes existing research on PV self-consumption and options to improve it. Two options for increased self-consumption are included, namely energy storage and load management, also called demand side management (DSM). Most of the papers examine PV-battery systems, sometimes combined with DSM. The results show that it is possible to increase the relative self-consumption by 13-24% points with a battery storage capacity of 0.5-1. kW. h per installed kW PV power and between 2% and 15% points with DSM, both compared to the original rate of self-consumption. The total number of papers is however rather limited and further research and more comparative studies are needed to give a comprehensive view of the technologies and their potential. Behavioral responses to PV self-consumption and the impact on the distribution grid also need to be further studied.

    Keywords
    Photovoltaics; Self-consumption; Household electricity; Energy storage; Load shifting; Demand side management
    National Category
    Energy Engineering Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246975 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.028 (DOI)000350935100008 ()2-s2.0-84921375090 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Småskalig solel i byggnader - kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardagsliv
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2015-03-12 Created: 2015-03-11 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
    2. PV system layout for optimized self-consumption
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>PV system layout for optimized self-consumption
    2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With decreasing subsidies for PV systems, increased self-consumption of PV electricity could improve the profitability of grid-connected residential PV systems. Self-consumption is in this paper defined as the share of the PV production consumed in a building on an hourly basis. With higher prices for buying than selling electricity, the revenue due to self-consumption is higher than the profit of selling electricity to the grid. The focus of this paper is the potential to increase the self-consumption with alternative PV system layouts, i.e. several different azimuth and tilt angles, called 3DPV. Hourly data from an existing PV system on a detached house outside Västerås, Sweden, combined with meteorological and spot price data of electricity has been used, all from 2011. The results of one-year simulations show increased self-consumption and decreased PV production with 3DPV compared to a south-oriented PV system. The revenue decreases with 3DPV when using historical hourly spot market data. However, there are other benefits with 3DPV such as decreased rated power of the inverter due to lower PV peak production.

    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Research subject
    Engineering Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234181 (URN)
    Conference
    29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 22 - 26 September, 2014
    Available from: 2014-10-14 Created: 2014-10-14 Last updated: 2017-10-31
    3. Self-consumption enhancement and peak shaving of residential photovoltaics using storage and curtailment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-consumption enhancement and peak shaving of residential photovoltaics using storage and curtailment
    2016 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 112, p. 221-231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power is an important aspect to integrate more PV power in the power system. The profit for the PV system owner can increase and the stress on the power grid can be reduced. Previous research in the field has focused on either self-consumption of PV power in individual buildings or PV power curtailment for voltage control. In this paper self-consumption of residential PV power in a community of several single-family houses was investigated using high-resolution irradiance and power consumption data. Cases with individual or shared battery energy storages for the houses were examined. PV power curtailment was investigated as a method to reduce feed-in power to the grid, i.e. peak shaving. Results indicated that the self-consumption ratio increased when using shared instead of individual storage. Reducing the feed-in power from the community by almost 50% only led to maximum 7% yearly production losses due to curtailment and storage losses. The economics for shared storage are slightly better than for individual ones. These results suggest that residential PV-battery systems should use (i) shared energy storage options if local regulations allow it and (ii) PV power curtailment if there are incentives to lower the feed-in power.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Self-consumption, Energy storage, Battery, Curtailment
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-283612 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.06.039 (DOI)000385318700021 ()
    Projects
    Småskalig solel i byggnader – kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardaglivet
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1
    Available from: 2016-04-13 Created: 2016-04-13 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
    4. Preventing overvoltage in a distribution grid with large penetration of photovoltaic power
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preventing overvoltage in a distribution grid with large penetration of photovoltaic power
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems / [ed] Uta Betancourt / Thomas Ackermann, Darmstadt, Germany: Energynautics GmbH, 2016, p. 113-118Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an important component in the future energy system. High penetration of PV power in a distribution power grid might however lead to overvoltage, i.e. +10% of rated voltage, for end-users. This study compares PV power curtailment and decentralized energy storage for overvoltage prevention in a 400V/10 kV distribution grid with large penetration of PV. LiDAR analysis is used to identify rooftops suitable for PV in a Swedish distribution grid with more than 5000 end-users. Results show that power curtailment allows 22% PV electricity (19 GWh) relative to total consumption on a yearly basis without overvoltage. PV production is reduced with 0.35 GWh due to curtailment. Decentralized energy storage of in total 86 MWh capacity achieves the same result.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Darmstadt, Germany: Energynautics GmbH, 2016
    Keywords
    Photovoltaics, distributed generation, energy storage, distribution grid, power curtailment, Solel, distribuerad generation, energilagring, elnät
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308821 (URN)9783981654936 (ISBN)
    Conference
    6th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, Vienna, Austria, 14-15 November 2016
    Projects
    Småskalig solel i byggnader - kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardagslivetUtvärdering av tekniska lösningar för att hantera omfattande anslutning av solcellssystem i eldistributionsnät
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1Swedish Energy Agency, P40864-1
    Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2018-02-20
  • 4.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Self-Consumption of Photovoltaic Electricity in Residential Buildings2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide installations of photovoltaics (PV) have increased rapidly due to national subsidies and decreasing prices. One important market segment is building-applied PV systems, for which the generated electricity can be self-consumed. Self-consumption is likely to become important both for the profitability and to facilitate integration of high shares of PV in the power system. The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to examine opportunities and challenges with distributed PV in the power system on four system levels: detached houses, communities, distribution systems and national level. This was done through literature studies and computer simulations. Previous research has shown a larger potential to increase the PV self-consumption in detached houses by using battery storage rather than shifting the household appliance loads. This thesis shows that, on the community level, the self-consumption increased more when sharing one large storage instead of individual storages in each house. On the distribution system level, PV power curtailment was identified as an effective solution to reduce the risk of overvoltage due to high PV penetration levels. However, the curtailment losses were high: up to 28% of the electricity production had to be curtailed in the studied distribution grid with a PV penetration of 100% of the yearly electricity consumption. However, the penetration of distributed PV on a national level is not likely to reach these levels. Around 12% of the Swedish households were estimated to have PV systems in 2040, although the uncertainties in the results were high, mainly related to the development of the electricity prices. The low profits from both PV but especially battery systems reduce future market shares. If residential batteries could also be used for primary frequency control, the profitability and thus the market shares for PV and battery systems could increase. The overall conclusions are that improved self-consumption can increase the profitability of PV systems and lower the negative impacts on grids with high PV penetration. Energy storage has a large potential to increase the self-consumption, but the profitability is still low for a storage that is only used to increase the self-consumption.     

    List of papers
    1. Photovoltaic self-consumption in buildings: A review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photovoltaic self-consumption in buildings: A review
    2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 142, p. 80-94Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in self-consumption of PV electricity from grid-connected residential systems is increasing among PV system owners and in the scientific community. Self-consumption can be defined as the share of the total PV production directly consumed by the PV system owner. With decreased subsidies for PV electricity in several countries, increased self-consumption could raise the profit of PV systems and lower the stress on the electricity distribution grid. This review paper summarizes existing research on PV self-consumption and options to improve it. Two options for increased self-consumption are included, namely energy storage and load management, also called demand side management (DSM). Most of the papers examine PV-battery systems, sometimes combined with DSM. The results show that it is possible to increase the relative self-consumption by 13-24% points with a battery storage capacity of 0.5-1. kW. h per installed kW PV power and between 2% and 15% points with DSM, both compared to the original rate of self-consumption. The total number of papers is however rather limited and further research and more comparative studies are needed to give a comprehensive view of the technologies and their potential. Behavioral responses to PV self-consumption and the impact on the distribution grid also need to be further studied.

    Keywords
    Photovoltaics; Self-consumption; Household electricity; Energy storage; Load shifting; Demand side management
    National Category
    Energy Engineering Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246975 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.028 (DOI)000350935100008 ()2-s2.0-84921375090 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Småskalig solel i byggnader - kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardagsliv
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2015-03-12 Created: 2015-03-11 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
    2. Graphical analysis of photovoltaic generation and load matching in buildings: A novel way of studying self-consumption and self-sufficiency
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Graphical analysis of photovoltaic generation and load matching in buildings: A novel way of studying self-consumption and self-sufficiency
    2019 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 250, p. 748-759Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Matching energy supply and demand, On-site PV, Self-consumption, Self-sufficiency, nearly zero energy buildings, nZEB
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362755 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.05.058 (DOI)000482244000060 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P42904-1
    Note

    Title in thesis list of papers: A meta-analysis for the matching between energy demand and on-site PV electricity supply in buildings

    Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Self-consumption enhancement and peak shaving of residential photovoltaics using storage and curtailment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-consumption enhancement and peak shaving of residential photovoltaics using storage and curtailment
    2016 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 112, p. 221-231Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power is an important aspect to integrate more PV power in the power system. The profit for the PV system owner can increase and the stress on the power grid can be reduced. Previous research in the field has focused on either self-consumption of PV power in individual buildings or PV power curtailment for voltage control. In this paper self-consumption of residential PV power in a community of several single-family houses was investigated using high-resolution irradiance and power consumption data. Cases with individual or shared battery energy storages for the houses were examined. PV power curtailment was investigated as a method to reduce feed-in power to the grid, i.e. peak shaving. Results indicated that the self-consumption ratio increased when using shared instead of individual storage. Reducing the feed-in power from the community by almost 50% only led to maximum 7% yearly production losses due to curtailment and storage losses. The economics for shared storage are slightly better than for individual ones. These results suggest that residential PV-battery systems should use (i) shared energy storage options if local regulations allow it and (ii) PV power curtailment if there are incentives to lower the feed-in power.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Self-consumption, Energy storage, Battery, Curtailment
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-283612 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.06.039 (DOI)000385318700021 ()
    Projects
    Småskalig solel i byggnader – kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardaglivet
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1
    Available from: 2016-04-13 Created: 2016-04-13 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
    4. Demand Side Management Using PV, Heat Pumps and Batteries: Effects on Community and Building Level
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demand Side Management Using PV, Heat Pumps and Batteries: Effects on Community and Building Level
    2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the energy management optimization on household level affects the maximum power flow in a community of houses and the contribution to load smoothening in the community. A detailed model of a single-family house with exhaust air heat pump and photovoltaic system is used in combination with high-resolution weather, electricity use and hot water use data. All five houses in the community are identical but the occupancy of the residents and their use of electric appliances and hot water differ. Results show no reduction of the maximum power delivered to the grid if the houses are operated to optimize the individual self-consumption and self-sufficiency. The highest aggregated power from the grid for the whole community occurred when the heat pumps were controlled by the PV electricity production but without any battery storage. This case also resulted in least smoothing of the aggregated household loads in the community. The conclusion of the study is that energy optimization for individual households in a community do not have to result in a reduction of the aggregated load and power production.

    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332679 (URN)
    Conference
    33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 25 - 29 September, 2017
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1
    Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-31 Last updated: 2018-10-10
    5. Large-scale integration of photovoltaic power in a distribution grid using power curtailment and energy storage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-scale integration of photovoltaic power in a distribution grid using power curtailment and energy storage
    2017 (English)In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 155, p. 1319-1325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    Photovoltaics, Power distribution system, Energy storage, Power and voltage control, Overvoltage
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Research subject
    Engineering Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328066 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2017.07.083 (DOI)000414819900057 ()
    Projects
    Småskalig solel i byggnader – kraft för förändring i energisystem och vardaglivetUtvärdering av tekniska lösningar för att hantera omfattande anslutning av solcellssystem i eldistributionsnät
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1
    Note

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an important component for the future energy system. High penetrationof PV power in a power distribution system might however lead to problems with overvoltage and overload. In this study, a method for PV power curtailment and placement of decentralized energy storage is developed to control voltage, feeder currents and distribution substation overloading. The method determines an individual feed-in power limit for each PV system owner based on a voltage-power relationship. Measured data from a 10 kV/400 V three-phase distribution grid in the Swedish municipality of Herrljunga with more than 5000 end-users and simulated PV electricity production data are used for a case study to verify the model. The method is evaluated for yearly PV electricity productionof up to 100% of the yearly electricity consumption. The results show that the method is able to prevent overvoltage for all penetration levels in the studied distribution grid, reduce the number of feeders affected by overcurrent and lower the maximum load on the two substations.

    Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
    6. Photovoltaics and opportunistic electric vehicle charging in the power system: a case study on a Swedish distribution grid
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Photovoltaics and opportunistic electric vehicle charging in the power system: a case study on a Swedish distribution grid
    2019 (English)In: IET Renewable Power Generation, ISSN 1752-1416, E-ISSN 1752-1424, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 710-716Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable distributed generation and electric vehicles (EVs) are two important components in the transition to a more sustainable society. However, both pose new challenges to the power system due to the intermittent generation and EV charging load. In this case study, a power system consisting of a low- and medium-voltage rural and urban distribution grid with 5174 customers, high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) electricity and a fully electrified car fleet were assumed, and their impact on the grid was assessed. The two extreme cases of two summer weeks and two winter weeks with and without EV charging and a PV penetration varying between 0 and 100% of the annual electricity consumption were examined. Active power curtailment of the PV systems was used to avoid overvoltage. The results show an increased electricity consumption of 9.3% in the winter weeks and 17.1% in the summer weeks, a lowering of the minimum voltage by 1% at the most, and a marginal contribution by the EV charging to lower the need of PV power curtailment. This shows the minor impact of EV charging on the distribution grid, both in terms of allowing more PV power generation and in terms of lower voltage levels.

    Keywords
    battery powered vehicles, power grids, power consumption, photovoltaic power systems, power distribution economics, distributed power generation, power generation economics, demand side management, opportunistic electric vehicle, power system, Swedish distribution grid, renewable distributed generation, electric vehicles, intermittent generation, EV charging load, photovoltaic electricity, fully electrified car fleet, summer weeks, winter weeks, PV penetration, annual electricity consumption, active power curtailment, PV systems, PV power curtailment, PV power generation, EV, medium-voltage rural distribution grid, medium-voltage urban distribution grid, low-voltage rural distribution grid, low-voltage urban distribution grid
    National Category
    Infrastructure Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-359430 (URN)10.1049/iet-rpg.2018.5082 (DOI)000462942900008 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P41015-1
    Available from: 2018-09-02 Created: 2018-09-02 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
    7. Market diffusion of residential PV + battery system driven by self-consumption: A comparison of Sweden and Germany
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Market diffusion of residential PV + battery system driven by self-consumption: A comparison of Sweden and Germany
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Keywords
    Photovoltaics, PV, Battery storage, Market diffusion, Self-consumption
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362756 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2018-10-10
    8. The potential of using residential PV-battery systems to provide primary frequency control on a national level
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The potential of using residential PV-battery systems to provide primary frequency control on a national level
    2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, Energynautics GmbH, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To keep the frequency stable in a synchronous electric grid, power sources providing primary frequency control (PFC) are needed. Today, hydro power dominates the PFC  market in the Nordic countries. However, if PFC can be offered as an ancillary service from PV-battery systems, the hydro power could be used more efficiently for low-cost electricity production. This can also improve the profitability of PV-battery systems. In this study of 2231 detached houses in Sweden, the potential to use residential PV-battery systems for PFC is examined. The results show that prices of up to 500 EUR/kWh excluding VAT for a 2.5 kW/5 kWh battery storage system can make enough PV-battery systems profitable to replace existing PFC sources in Sweden. The results are based on hourly electricity and PFC prices from 2015-2017 and a discount rate of 0%. If the prices for PFC are reduced by 50% and the discount rate is 5%, a system price of roughly 100 EUR/kWh excluding VAT would be enough to reach the same goal. The battery storage needs to be replaced during the lifespan of the PV system, meaning that the battery system prices are the average of the expected prices during the coming 25 years.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Energynautics GmbH, 2018
    Keywords
    Photovoltaics, PV, battery storage, primary frequency control
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362754 (URN)
    Conference
    8th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, 16-17 October 2018, Stockholm, Sweden
    Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Forsberg, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    The potential of using residential PV-battery systems to provide primary frequency control on a national level2018In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, Energynautics GmbH, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To keep the frequency stable in a synchronous electric grid, power sources providing primary frequency control (PFC) are needed. Today, hydro power dominates the PFC  market in the Nordic countries. However, if PFC can be offered as an ancillary service from PV-battery systems, the hydro power could be used more efficiently for low-cost electricity production. This can also improve the profitability of PV-battery systems. In this study of 2231 detached houses in Sweden, the potential to use residential PV-battery systems for PFC is examined. The results show that prices of up to 500 EUR/kWh excluding VAT for a 2.5 kW/5 kWh battery storage system can make enough PV-battery systems profitable to replace existing PFC sources in Sweden. The results are based on hourly electricity and PFC prices from 2015-2017 and a discount rate of 0%. If the prices for PFC are reduced by 50% and the discount rate is 5%, a system price of roughly 100 EUR/kWh excluding VAT would be enough to reach the same goal. The battery storage needs to be replaced during the lifespan of the PV system, meaning that the battery system prices are the average of the expected prices during the coming 25 years.

  • 6.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lingfors, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Munkhammar, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Self-consumption enhancement of residential photovoltaics with battery storage and electric vehicles in communities2015In: Proceedings of the eceee 2015 Summer Study on energy efficiency, 1–6 June 2015, Presqu’île de Giens, Toulon/Hyères, France, 2015, p. 991-1002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems have been dependent on supporting schemes to be competitive with conventional electricity generation. Selling prices of PV power production are now lower than buying prices in several countries, making it profitable to match generation with household consumption. Self-consumption, calculated as in situ instantaneous consumption of PV power production relative to total power production, can be used to improve the profitability with higher buying than selling prices of electricity. Another measure, self-sufficiency, similar to self-consumption but calculated relative to the yearly consumption, can also be used. Battery storage and electric vehicle (EV) home-charging are interesting alternatives to increase the self-consumption, since the PV power production can be stored for later use. This study uses high-resolution consumption data for 21 single-family houses in Sweden and irradiance data for the year 2008 to examine the potential for battery storage and EV home-charging for communities of single-family houses with PV systems. The aim is to compare how self-consumption and self-sufficiency are affected by individual power grid connections for all households versus one shared grid connection for the whole community. These scenarios are combined with battery storage and EV charging (individual versus centralized). It is found that total consumption profiles level out when several houses are connected together, the self-consumption increases from 52 to 71 % and the self-sufficiency from 12 to 17 %. The size of a centralized storage can be reduced compared to the aggregated size of storages in every house to reach the same level of self-consumption. The potential for EV charging is limited due to mismatch between irradiance and charging patterns. The extra revenue from increased self-consumption with battery storage is too low for all the cases to justify an investment in batteries since the prices are still too high. With dedicated support schemes, higher buying prices of electricity and cheaper battery, PV-battery systems can still be an interesting solution in countries with high solar irradiance throughout the year.

  • 7.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lingfors, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Large-scale integration of photovoltaic power in a distribution grid using power curtailment and energy storage2017In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 155, p. 1319-1325Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lingfors, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Munkhammar, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Preventing overvoltage in a distribution grid with large penetration of photovoltaic power2016In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems / [ed] Uta Betancourt / Thomas Ackermann, Darmstadt, Germany: Energynautics GmbH, 2016, p. 113-118Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an important component in the future energy system. High penetration of PV power in a distribution power grid might however lead to overvoltage, i.e. +10% of rated voltage, for end-users. This study compares PV power curtailment and decentralized energy storage for overvoltage prevention in a 400V/10 kV distribution grid with large penetration of PV. LiDAR analysis is used to identify rooftops suitable for PV in a Swedish distribution grid with more than 5000 end-users. Results show that power curtailment allows 22% PV electricity (19 GWh) relative to total consumption on a yearly basis without overvoltage. PV production is reduced with 0.35 GWh due to curtailment. Decentralized energy storage of in total 86 MWh capacity achieves the same result.

  • 9.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Nilsson, Annica M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Graphical analysis of photovoltaic generation and load matching in buildings: A novel way of studying self-consumption and self-sufficiency2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 250, p. 748-759Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Demand Side Management Using PV, Heat Pumps and Batteries: Effects on Community and Building Level2017In: Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the energy management optimization on household level affects the maximum power flow in a community of houses and the contribution to load smoothening in the community. A detailed model of a single-family house with exhaust air heat pump and photovoltaic system is used in combination with high-resolution weather, electricity use and hot water use data. All five houses in the community are identical but the occupancy of the residents and their use of electric appliances and hot water differ. Results show no reduction of the maximum power delivered to the grid if the houses are operated to optimize the individual self-consumption and self-sufficiency. The highest aggregated power from the grid for the whole community occurred when the heat pumps were controlled by the PV electricity production but without any battery storage. This case also resulted in least smoothing of the aggregated household loads in the community. The conclusion of the study is that energy optimization for individual households in a community do not have to result in a reduction of the aggregated load and power production.

  • 11.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Shepero, Mahmoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Munkhammar, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Photovoltaics and opportunistic electric vehicle charging in a Swedish distribution grid2017In: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, Darmstadt, Germany: Energynautics GmbH, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable distributed generation and electric vehicles (EVs) are two important components in the transitions to a more sustainable society. However, both distributed generation and EV charging pose new challenges to the power system due to intermittent generation and high-power EV charging. In this case study, a power system consisting of a low- and medium-voltage distribution grid with more than 5000 customers, high penetration of roof-top mounted photovoltaic (PV) power systems and a fully electrified car fleet is used to assess the impact of the intermittent PV generation and high-power EV charging loads. Two summer weeks and two winter weeks with and without EV charging and a PV penetration varying between 0% and 100% of the annual electricity consumption are examined using measured and simulated data. Results show that the electricity consumption increases with 9% and 18% during the studied periods, and that EV charging only marginally can contribute to lowering the risk of overvoltage for customers resulting from PV overproduction. The most significant result is the increase in undervoltage in the winter when EV charging is introduced. The share of customers affected by undervoltage increases from 0% to close to 1.5% for all PV penetration levels.

  • 12.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Shepero, Mahmoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Munkhammar, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Photovoltaics and opportunistic electric vehicle charging in the power system: a case study on a Swedish distribution grid2019In: IET Renewable Power Generation, ISSN 1752-1416, E-ISSN 1752-1424, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 710-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable distributed generation and electric vehicles (EVs) are two important components in the transition to a more sustainable society. However, both pose new challenges to the power system due to the intermittent generation and EV charging load. In this case study, a power system consisting of a low- and medium-voltage rural and urban distribution grid with 5174 customers, high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) electricity and a fully electrified car fleet were assumed, and their impact on the grid was assessed. The two extreme cases of two summer weeks and two winter weeks with and without EV charging and a PV penetration varying between 0 and 100% of the annual electricity consumption were examined. Active power curtailment of the PV systems was used to avoid overvoltage. The results show an increased electricity consumption of 9.3% in the winter weeks and 17.1% in the summer weeks, a lowering of the minimum voltage by 1% at the most, and a marginal contribution by the EV charging to lower the need of PV power curtailment. This shows the minor impact of EV charging on the distribution grid, both in terms of allowing more PV power generation and in terms of lower voltage levels.

  • 13.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    PV system layout for optimized self-consumption2014In: Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With decreasing subsidies for PV systems, increased self-consumption of PV electricity could improve the profitability of grid-connected residential PV systems. Self-consumption is in this paper defined as the share of the PV production consumed in a building on an hourly basis. With higher prices for buying than selling electricity, the revenue due to self-consumption is higher than the profit of selling electricity to the grid. The focus of this paper is the potential to increase the self-consumption with alternative PV system layouts, i.e. several different azimuth and tilt angles, called 3DPV. Hourly data from an existing PV system on a detached house outside Västerås, Sweden, combined with meteorological and spot price data of electricity has been used, all from 2011. The results of one-year simulations show increased self-consumption and decreased PV production with 3DPV compared to a south-oriented PV system. The revenue decreases with 3DPV when using historical hourly spot market data. However, there are other benefits with 3DPV such as decreased rated power of the inverter due to lower PV peak production.

  • 14.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Munkhammar, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lingfors, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Self-consumption enhancement and peak shaving of residential photovoltaics using storage and curtailment2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 112, p. 221-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power is an important aspect to integrate more PV power in the power system. The profit for the PV system owner can increase and the stress on the power grid can be reduced. Previous research in the field has focused on either self-consumption of PV power in individual buildings or PV power curtailment for voltage control. In this paper self-consumption of residential PV power in a community of several single-family houses was investigated using high-resolution irradiance and power consumption data. Cases with individual or shared battery energy storages for the houses were examined. PV power curtailment was investigated as a method to reduce feed-in power to the grid, i.e. peak shaving. Results indicated that the self-consumption ratio increased when using shared instead of individual storage. Reducing the feed-in power from the community by almost 50% only led to maximum 7% yearly production losses due to curtailment and storage losses. The economics for shared storage are slightly better than for individual ones. These results suggest that residential PV-battery systems should use (i) shared energy storage options if local regulations allow it and (ii) PV power curtailment if there are incentives to lower the feed-in power.

  • 15.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet.
    Photovoltaic self-consumption in buildings: A review2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 142, p. 80-94Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in self-consumption of PV electricity from grid-connected residential systems is increasing among PV system owners and in the scientific community. Self-consumption can be defined as the share of the total PV production directly consumed by the PV system owner. With decreased subsidies for PV electricity in several countries, increased self-consumption could raise the profit of PV systems and lower the stress on the electricity distribution grid. This review paper summarizes existing research on PV self-consumption and options to improve it. Two options for increased self-consumption are included, namely energy storage and load management, also called demand side management (DSM). Most of the papers examine PV-battery systems, sometimes combined with DSM. The results show that it is possible to increase the relative self-consumption by 13-24% points with a battery storage capacity of 0.5-1. kW. h per installed kW PV power and between 2% and 15% points with DSM, both compared to the original rate of self-consumption. The total number of papers is however rather limited and further research and more comparative studies are needed to give a comprehensive view of the technologies and their potential. Behavioral responses to PV self-consumption and the impact on the distribution grid also need to be further studied.

  • 16.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköpings universitet.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Sufficiency, change, and flexibility: Critically examining the energy consumption profiles of solar PV prosumers in Sweden2018In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 39, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of consumers producing electricity at home, i.e., “prosumers”, is rapidly increasing in many European countries. This article analyses the electricity consumption and energy-saving behaviours of households that own photovoltaic (PV) systems in Sweden. Earlier studies of how home production of electricity affects consumption patterns are few and their results are mixed. We interviewed prosumers in Sweden and collected electricity-consumption data one year before and after they installed PVs. The differences between households were large and no general behavioural change could be detected. The interviews indicated that awareness of the energy system increased among all prosumers, but led to no substantial changes in how or when activities were performed. Most prosumers thought that the benefits of shifting their electricity load to other times were too small. The changes prosumers did make mostly concerned smaller adjustments. Households that increased their consumption justified this by their access to “free” electricity. Automation, i.e., using a timer, was relatively unknown or not used when known.

  • 17.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Bee, Elena
    University of Trento.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Smart Control Strategy for PV and Heat Pump System Utilizing Thermal and Electrical Storage and Forecast Services2017In: Proceedings of the ISES Solar World Congress 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a detailed model of a single-family house with exhaust air heat pump, PV system and energy hub developed in the simulation software TRNSYS 17 is used to evaluate energy management algorithms that utilize weather and electricity price forecasts. A system with independent PV and heat pump is used as a base case. The proposed control strategy is applied to the base case to optimize the available PV electricity production using short-term weather and electricity price forecasts. The three smart and predictive control algorithms were developed with the scope to minimize final energy by the use of the thermal storage of the building, the hot water tank and electrical storage. Results show reduction of the final energy by 26.4%, increase of the self-consumption of 49.5% and decrease of the annual cost of 15% when using the forecast services in combination with thermal and electrical storage, in comparison to the base case.

  • 18.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Leppin, Lorenz
    Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Bales, Chris
    Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Control algorithms for PV and Heat Pump system using thermal and electrical storage2017In: Proceedings of the 11th ISES EuroSun 2016 International Conference on Solar Energy for Buildings and Industry, International Solar Energy Society, 2017, p. 1283-1293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a detailed model of a single-family house with an exhaust air heat pump and photovoltaic system is developed in the simulation software TRNSYS. The model is used to evaluate three control algorithms using thermal and electrical storage in terms of final energy, solar fraction, self-consumption and seasonal performance factor. The algorithms are tested and compared with respect to energetic improvement for 1) use of the heat pump plus storage tank for domestic hot water and space heating, 2) use of the electrical storage in batteries and 3) use of both electrical and thermal storage. Results show the highest increase of self-consumption to 50.5%, solar fraction to 40.6% and final energy decrease to 6923 kWh by implementing the third algorithm in a system with 9.36 kW PV capacity and battery storage of 10.8 kWh. The use of electrical energy storage has higher positive impact compared to the thermal storage with the settings and component sizes used. The combined use of thermal storage and batteries leads to final energy savings that are nearly the same as the combined savings of thermal storage and batteries separately, showing that they are mostly independent of one another for the settings of this study.

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