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  • 1.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    On the Disciplinary Affordances of Semiotic Resources2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

  • 2.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    The Concept of Disciplinary Affordance2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its introduction by Gibson (1979) the concept of affordance has been discussed at length by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al (2001) claim that different modes have different specialized affordances.

     

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical educational tool. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the perception of an individual, it focuses on the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by the functions that it is expected to fulfil for the discipline. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or perceived becomes moot. Rather, the issue is what a semiotic resource affords to an individual and whether this matches the disciplinary affordance. The power of the term is that learning can now be framed as coming to perceive the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

     

    In this paper we will discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

     

    References

    Airey, J. (2009). Science, Language and Literacy. Case Studies of Learning in Swedish University Physics. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 81. Uppsala  Retrieved 2009-04-27, from http://publications.uu.se/theses/abstract.xsql?dbid=9547

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. European Journal of Physics, 33, 657-666.

    Gibson, J. J. (1979). The theory of affordances The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (pp. 127-143). Boston: Houghton Miffin.

    Kress, G., Jewitt, C., Ogborn, J., & Tsatsarelis, C. (2001). Multimodal teaching and learning: The rhetorics of the science classroom. London: Continuum.

    Linder, C. (2013). Disciplinary discourse, representation, and appresentation in the teaching and learning of science. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1(2), 43-49.

    Norman, D. A. (1988). The psychology of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.

     

     

  • 3.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Urban, Eriksson
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    A Semiotic Analysis of the Disciplinary Affordances of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram in Astronomy.2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the central characteristics of disciplines is that they create their own particular ways of knowing the world through their discourse (Airey & Linder 2009). This process is facilitated by the specialization and refinement of disciplinary-specific semiotic resources over time. Nowhere is this truer than in the sciences, where it is the norm that disciplinary-specific representations have been introduced and then refined by a number of different actors (Airey 2009). As a consequence, many of the semiotic resources used in the sciences today still retain some traces of their historical roots. This makes the aquisition of disciplinary literacy (Airey, 2013) particularly problematic (see Eriksson et al. 2014 for an example from astronomy).

     In this paper we analyse one such disciplinary-specific semiotic resource from the field of Astronomy—the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We audit the potential of this semiotic resource to provide access to disciplinary knowledge—what Fredlund et al (2012) have termed its disciplinary affordances. Our analysis includes consideration of the use of scales, labels, symbols, sizes and colour. We show how, for historical reasons, the use of these aspects in the resource may differ from what might be expected by a newcomer to the discipline.

    We suggest that some of the issues we highlight in our analysis may, in fact, be contributors to alternative conceptions and therefore propose that lecturers pay particular attention to the disambiguation of these features for their students.

     

    References

    Airey, J. (2013). Disciplinary Literacy. In E. Lundqvist, L. Östman & R. Säljö (Eds.), Scientific literacy – teori och praktik (pp. 41-58): Gleerups.

    Airey, J. (2009). Science, Language and Literacy. Case Studies of Learning in Swedish University Physics. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 81. Uppsala  Retrieved 2009-04-27, from http://publications.uu.se/theses/abstract.xsql?dbid=9547

    Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2009). A disciplinary discourse perspective on university science learning: Achieving fluency in a critical constellation of modes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(1), 27-49.

    Eriksson, U., Linder, C., Airey, J., & Redfors, A. (2014). Who needs 3D when the Universe is flat? Science Education, 98(3), 412-442.

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. European Journal of Physics, 33, 657-666.

     

  • 4.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Urban, Eriksson
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    What do you see here?: Using an analysis of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in astronomy to create a survey of disciplinary discernment.2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming part of a discipline involves learning to interpret and use a range of disciplinary-specific semiotic resources (Airey, 2009). These resources have been developed and assigned particular specialist meanings over time. Nowhere is this truer than in the sciences, where it is the norm that disciplinary-specific representations have been introduced and then refined by a number of different actors in order to reconcile them with subsequent empirical and theoretical advances. As a consequence, many of the semiotic resources used in the sciences today still retain some (potentially confusing) traces of their historical roots. However, it has been repeatedly shown that university lecturers underestimate the challenges such disciplinary specific semiotic resources may present to undergraduates (Northedge, 2002; Tobias, 1986).

    In this paper we analyse one such disciplinary-specific semiotic resource from the field of Astronomy—the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. First, we audit the potential of this semiotic resource to provide access to disciplinary knowledge—what Fredlund et al (2012) have termed its disciplinary affordances. Our analysis includes consideration of the use of scales, labels, symbols, sizes and colour. We show how, for historical reasons, the use of these aspects in the resource may differ from what might be expected by a newcomer to the discipline. Using the results of our analysis we then created an online questionnaire to probe what is discerned (Eriksson, Linder, Airey, & Redfors, in press) with respect to each of these aspects by astronomers and physicists ranging from first year undergraduates to university professors.

    Our findings suggest that some of the issues we highlight in our analysis may, in fact, be contributors to the alternative conceptions of undergraduate students and we therefore propose that lecturers pay particular attention to the disambiguation of these features for their students.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Moa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Fysiska institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Students' understanding of algebraic signs: An underestimated learning challenge?2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When starting to learn about vector quantities in introductory physics, it is important that students accurately understand the intended meaning of plus and minus algebraic signs in order to appropriately solve physics problems. We present a case study of 82 introductory-level physics students from Sweden and South Africa and show that the lack of understanding of algebraic signs can result in learning challenges even in the introductory topic of one dimensional kinematics. Results of this study will be described and implications for teaching will be discussed.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Reading the Sky: From Starspots to Spotting Stars2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis encompasses two research fields in astronomy: astrometry and astronomy education and they are discussed in two parts. These parts represent two sides of a coin; astrometry, which is about constructing 3D representations of the Universe, and AER, where for this thesis, the goal is to investigate university students’ and lecturers’ disciplinary discernment vis-à-vis the structure of the Universe and extrapolating three-dimensionality.

    Part I presents an investigation of stellar surface structures influence on ultra-high-precision astrometry. The expected effects in different regions of the HR-diagram were quantified. I also investigated the astrometric effect of exoplanets, since astrometric detection will become possible with projects such as Gaia. Stellar surface structures produce small brightness variations, influencing integrated properties such as the total flux, radial velocity and photocenter position. These properties were modelled and statistical relations between the variations of the different properties were derived. From the models it is clear that for most stellar types the astrometric jitter due to stellar surface structures is expected to be of order 10 μAU or greater. This is more than the astrometric displacement typically caused by an Earth-sized exoplanet in the habitable zone, which is about 1–4 μAU, making astrometric detection difficult.

    Part II presents an investigation of disciplinary discernment at the university level. Astronomy education is a particularly challenging experience for students because discernment of the ‘real’ Universe is problematic, making interpretation of the many disciplinary-specific representations used an important educational issue. The ability to ‘fluently’ discern the disciplinary affordances of these representations becomes crucial for the effective learning of astronomy. To understand the Universe I conclude that specific experiences are called. Simulations could offer these experiences, where parallax motion is a crucial component. In a qualitative study, I have analysed students’ and lecturers’ discernment while watching a simulation video, and found hierarchies that characterize the discernment in terms of three-dimensionality extrapolation and an Anatomy of Disciplinary Discernment. I combined these to define a new construct: Reading the Sky. I conclude that this is a vital competency needed for learning astronomy and suggest strategies for how to implement this in astronomy education.

    Delarbeten
    1. Limits of ultra-high-precision optical astrometry: stellar surface structures
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Limits of ultra-high-precision optical astrometry: stellar surface structures
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 476, nr 3, s. 1389-1400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. To investigate the astrometric effects of stellar surface structures as a practical limitation to ultra-high-precision astrometry (e.g. in the context of exoplanet searches) and to quantify the expected effects in different regions of the HR-diagram. Methods. Stellar surface structures (spots, plages, granulation, non-radial oscillations) are likely to produce fluctuations in the integrated flux and radial velocity of the star, as well as a variation of the observed photocentre, i.e. astrometric jitter. We use theoretical considerations supported by Monte Carlo simulations (using a starspot model) to derive statistical relations between the corresponding astrometric, photometric, and radial velocity effects. Based on these relations, the more easily observed photometric and radial velocity variations can be used to predict the expected size of the astrometric jitter. Also the third moment of the brightness distribution, interferometrically observable as closure phase, contains information about the astrometric jitter. Results. For most stellar types the astrometric jitter due to stellar surface structures is expected to be of the order of 10 micro-AU or greater. This is more than the astrometric displacement typically caused by an Earth-size exoplanet in the habitable zone, which is about 1-4 micro-AU for long-lived main-sequence stars. Only for stars with extremely low photometric variability (< 0.5 mmag) and low magnetic activity, comparable to that of the Sun, will the astrometric jitter be of the order of 1 micro-AU, sufficient to allow the astrometric detection of an Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone. While stellar surface structure may thus seriously impair the astrometric detection of small exoplanets, it has in general a negligible impact on the detection of large (Jupiter-size) planets and on the determination of stellar parallax and proper motion. From the starspot model we also conclude that the commonly used spot filling factor is not the most relevant parameter for quantifying the spottiness in terms of the resulting astrometric, photometric and radial velocity variations.

    Nyckelord
    Stars : general, starspots, planetary systems, techniques : interferometric, methods : statistical
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234619 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-10-21 Skapad: 2014-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05
    2. Who needs 3D when the Universe is flat?
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Who needs 3D when the Universe is flat?
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 98, nr 3, s. 412-442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An overlooked feature in astronomy education is the need for students to learn to extrapolate three-dimensionality and the challenges that this may involve. Discerning critical features in the night sky that are embedded in dimensionality is a long-term learning process. Several articles have addressed the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in astronomy education, but they have neither addressed what students discern nor the nature of that discernment. A Web-based questionnaire was designed using links to video clips drawn from a simulation video of travel through our galaxy and beyond. The questionnaire was completed by 137 participants from nine countries across a broad span of astronomy education. The descriptions provided by the participants were analyzed using hermeneutics in combination with a constant comparative approach to formulate six categories of discernment in relation to multidimensionality. These results are used to make the case that the ability to extrapolate three-dimensionality calls for the creation of meaningful motion parallax experiences.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi Didaktik
    Forskningsämne
    Fysik med inriktning mot fysikens didaktik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-224219 (URN)10.1002/sce.21109 (DOI)000337696000007 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-05-06 Skapad: 2014-05-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05
    3. Introducing the anatomy of disciplinary discernment: an example from astronomy
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Introducing the anatomy of disciplinary discernment: an example from astronomy
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 2301-251X, E-ISSN 2301-251X, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 167-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Education is increasingly being framed by a competence mindset; the value of knowledge lies much more in competence performativity and innovation than in simply knowing. Reaching such competency in areas such as astronomy and physics has long been known to be challenging. The movement from everyday conceptions of the world around us to a disciplinary interpretation is fraught with pitfalls and problems. Thus, what underpins the characteristics of the disciplinary trajectory to competence becomes an important educational consideration. In this article we report on a study involving what students and lecturers discern from the same disciplinary semiotic resource. We use this to propose an Anatomy of Disciplinary Discernment (ADD), a hierarchy of what is focused on and how it is interpreted in an appropriate, disciplinary manner, as an overarching fundamental aspect of disciplinary learning. Students and lecturers in astronomy and physics were asked to describe what they could discern from a video simulation of travel through our Galaxy and beyond. In all, 137 people from nine countries participated. The descriptions were analysed using a hermeneutic interpretive study approach. The analysis resulted in the formulation of five qualitatively different categories of discernment; the ADD, reflecting a view of participants’ competence levels. The ADD reveals four increasing levels of disciplinary discernment: Identification, Explanation, Appreciation, and Evaluation. This facilitates the identification of a clear relationship between educational level and the level of disciplinary discernment. The analytical outcomes of the study suggest how teachers of science, after using the ADD to assess the students disciplinary knowledge, may attain new insights into how to create more effective learning environments by explicitly crafting their teaching to support the crossing of boundaries in the ADD model.  

    Nyckelord
    Disciplinary affordance, Learning astronomy, Anatomy of Disciplinary Discernment, Teaching insights
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Didaktik
    Forskningsämne
    Fysik med inriktning mot fysikens didaktik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234620 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-10-21 Skapad: 2014-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Kristianstad University.
    Stellar Surface Structures and the Astrometric Serach for Exoplnaets2007Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring stellar parallax, position and proper motion is the task of astrometry. With the development of new and much more accurate equipment, different noise sources are likely to affect the very precise measurements made with future instruments. Some of these sources are: stellar surface structures, circumstellar discs, multiplicity and weak microlensing. Also exoplanets may act as a source of perturbation.

    In this thesis I present an investigation of stellar surface structures as a practical limitation to ultra-high-precision astrometry. The expected effects in different regions of the HR-diagram are quantified. I also investigate the astrometric effect of exoplanets, since their astrometric detection will be possible with future projects such as Gaia and SIM PlanetQuest.

    Stellar surface structures like spots, plages and granulation produce small surface areas of different temperatures, i.e. of different brightness, which will influence integrated properties such as the total flux (zeroth moment of the brightness distribution), radial velocity and photocenter position (first moments of the brightness distribution). Also the third central moment of the brightness distribution, interferometrically observable as closure phase, will vary due to irregularities in the brightness distribution. All these properties have been modelled, using both numerical simulations and analytical methods, and statistical relations between the variations of the different properties have been derived.

    Bright and/or dark surface areas, randomly spread over the stellar surface, will lead to a binomial distribution of the number of visible spots and the dispersion of such a model will be proportional topN, where N is the number of spots or surface structures. The dispersion will also be proportional to the size of each spot, A. The dispersions of the integrated properties are therefore expected to be/ ApN. It is noted that the commonly used spot filling factor, f / AN, is notthe most relevant characteristic of spottiness for these effects.

    Both the simulations and the analytic model lead to a set of statistical relations for the dispersions or variations of the integrated properties. With ,e.g. knowledge of the photometric variation, m, it is possible to statistically estimate the dispersions for the other integrated properties. Especially interesting is the variation of the observed photocenter, i.e. the astrometric jitter. A literature review was therefore made of the observed photometric and radial-velocity variations for various types of stars. This allowed to map the expected levels of astrometric jitter across the HR diagram.

    From the models it is clear that for most stellar types the astrometric jitter due to stellar surface structures is expected to be of order 10 μAU or greater. This is more than the astrometric displacement typically caused by an Earth-sized exoplanet in the habitable zone of a long-lived main-sequence star, which is about 1–4 μAU. Only for stars with extremely low photometric variability (< 0.5 mmag) and low magnetic activity, comparable to that of the Sun, will the astrometric jitter be of order 1 μAU, sufficient to allow astrometric detection of an Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone. While stellar surface structure may thus seriously impair the astrometric detection of small exoplanets, it has in general negligible impact on the detection of large (Jupiter-size) planets.

    Delarbeten
    1. Limits of ultra-high-precision optical astrometry: stellar surface structures
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Limits of ultra-high-precision optical astrometry: stellar surface structures
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 476, nr 3, s. 1389-1400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. To investigate the astrometric effects of stellar surface structures as a practical limitation to ultra-high-precision astrometry (e.g. in the context of exoplanet searches) and to quantify the expected effects in different regions of the HR-diagram. Methods. Stellar surface structures (spots, plages, granulation, non-radial oscillations) are likely to produce fluctuations in the integrated flux and radial velocity of the star, as well as a variation of the observed photocentre, i.e. astrometric jitter. We use theoretical considerations supported by Monte Carlo simulations (using a starspot model) to derive statistical relations between the corresponding astrometric, photometric, and radial velocity effects. Based on these relations, the more easily observed photometric and radial velocity variations can be used to predict the expected size of the astrometric jitter. Also the third moment of the brightness distribution, interferometrically observable as closure phase, contains information about the astrometric jitter. Results. For most stellar types the astrometric jitter due to stellar surface structures is expected to be of the order of 10 micro-AU or greater. This is more than the astrometric displacement typically caused by an Earth-size exoplanet in the habitable zone, which is about 1-4 micro-AU for long-lived main-sequence stars. Only for stars with extremely low photometric variability (< 0.5 mmag) and low magnetic activity, comparable to that of the Sun, will the astrometric jitter be of the order of 1 micro-AU, sufficient to allow the astrometric detection of an Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone. While stellar surface structure may thus seriously impair the astrometric detection of small exoplanets, it has in general a negligible impact on the detection of large (Jupiter-size) planets and on the determination of stellar parallax and proper motion. From the starspot model we also conclude that the commonly used spot filling factor is not the most relevant parameter for quantifying the spottiness in terms of the resulting astrometric, photometric and radial velocity variations.

    Nyckelord
    Stars : general, starspots, planetary systems, techniques : interferometric, methods : statistical
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-234619 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-10-21 Skapad: 2014-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Cedric, Linder
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University.
    Who needs 3D when the Universe is flat?2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning astronomy can be difficult for students at all levels due to the highly diverse, conceptual and

    theoretical thinking used in the discipline. A variety of disciplinary-specific representations are normally

    employed to help students learn about the Universe. Some of the most common representations are twodimensional

    (2D) such as diagrams, plots, or images. In astronomy education there is an implicit assumption

    that students will be able to con- ceptually extrapolate three-dimensional (3D) representations from these 2D

    images (e.g., of nebulae); however, this is often not the case (Hansen et al. 2004a,b; Molina et al. 2004;

    Williamson and Abraham 1995; N.R.C. 2006, p. 56).

    The way in which students interact with different disciplinary represen- tations determines how much and

    what they will learn; yet, our literature review indicates that not much is known about this interaction. We

    have therefore chosen to investigate students’ reflective awareness evoked by 3D representations. Reflective

    awareness relates to the learning affordances that engagement with a collection of representations

    facilitates. The notion of reflection is drawn from the work of Schön (cf. 1983) in that it is related to our

    learning experience and involves the noticing of ‘new things’ and the noticing of ‘things’ in new ways as part

    of dealing with puzzling phenomena. Much of the research into Astronomy Education Research (AER) has

    been carried out at pre-university levels (Bailey and Slater 2003; Bailey 2011; Bre- tones and Neto 2011;

    Lelliott and Rollnick 2010), and furthermore very little has been grounded in a disciplinary discourse

    perspective (Airey and Linder 2009). Our study sets out to address both of these shortcomings.

    Our research question is: What is the nature of university students’ re- flective awareness when engaging

    with the representations used to illustrate the structural components and characteristics of the Milky Way

    Galaxy in a simulation video?

    Although not common, when 3D is introduced, then this is often done using video simulations. For our study

    we chose to use a highly regarded video simulation that illustrates some of the fundamental structural

    components of our Universe in a virtual reality journey through, and out of, our galaxy. In the study, the first

    1.5-minutes of the video was set to automatically pause in seven places (these places where optimally

    determined in a small pre-study), and a web questionnaire was created to elicit the participants’ reflective

    awareness about the structural components and characteristics of the Milky Way in each clip. A total of 137

    participants from physics and astronomy in Europe, North America, South Africa and Australia took part in

    the study. The written reflective descriptions from the survey were coded and sorted into constructed

    categories, using a constant comparison approach (cf. Gibbs 2002; Strauss 1998).

    Many of the participants expressed poor prior awareness of the 3D struc- ture of the universe, as evidenced

    by their ‘surprise’ in observing 3D features such as the large separation of the stars in Orion or the two

    nebulae in Orion. Many were also surprised by the extent of the grand scale of the (local) Uni- verse as they

    realised that the journey covers great distances in only a few seconds. In contrast, those participants who

    rated themselves as astronomy experts had already developed a 3D awareness of the universe. They used

    much more complex descriptions and to some extent commented on struc- tures and phenomena omitted

    from the simulation, such as HI-regions and infrared radiation from HII-regions, although these are invisible

    to the naked eye.

    In this talk we report on 3D-related issues, which we will discuss in re- lation to implications for using such a

    simulation as a resource intended to enhance the possibility of learning. There are two main findings of our

    study concerning 3D: firstly, one of the clearest differences in reflective awareness to emerge was that there

    was a gradual increase of awareness of structures and phenomena in relation to the educational level of the

    astronomy partic- ipants. Interestingly, this is not the case for the physics participants and we will argue that

    this is due to differences in the disciplinary discourses of physics and astronomy. The second finding is that

    the use of the simulation video successfully stimulated participants’ awareness of the 3D structure of the

    Universe as seen in their expressed surprise. We therefore argue that simula- tions can be a powerful and

    necessary tool in helping develop an awareness of the three-dimensional Universe and that simulations

    therefore are one of the critical forms of representation that open up the space for learning in astronomy.

    References

    Airey, J. and Linder, C. (2009). A disciplinary discourse perspective on university science learning: Achieving

    fluency in a critical constellation of modes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(1):27–49.

    Bailey, J. M. (2011). Astronomy education research: Developmental history of the field and summary of the

    literature. National Research Council Board on Science Education’s.

    Bailey, J. M. and Slater, T. F. (2003). A review of astronomy education research. Astronomy Education

    Review (AER), 2(2):20–45.

    Bretones, P. S. and Neto, J. M. (2011). An analysis of papers on astronomy education in proceedings of iau

    meetings from 1988 to 2006. Astronomy Education Review, 10(1):010102.

    Gibbs, G. R. (2002). Qualitative Data Analysis: Explorations with NVivo. Open University Press.

    171

    Hansen, J. A., Barnett, M., MaKinster, J. G., and Keating, T. (2004a). The impact of three-dimensional

    computational modeling on student under- standing of astronomical concepts: a quantitative analysis.

    International Journal of Science Education, 26(11):1365–1378.

    Hansen, J. A., Barnett, M., MaKinster, J. G., and Keating, T. (2004b). The impact of three-dimensional

    computational modeling on student un- derstanding of astronomy concepts: a qualitative analysis.

    International Journal of Science Education, 26(13):1555–1575.

    Lelliott, A. and Rollnick, M. (2010). Big ideas: A review of astronomy education research 1974–2008.

    International Journal of Science Education, 32(13):1771–1799.

    Molina, A., Redondo, M., Bravo, C., and Ortega, M. (2004). Using simula- tion, collaboration, and 3d

    visualization for design learning: A case study in domotics. In Luo, Y., editor, Cooperative Design,

    Visualization, and Engineering, volume 3190 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 164–171. Springer

    Berlin/Heidelberg

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Lindegren, Lennart
    Lund University.
    Limits of ultra-high-precision optical astrometry: stellar surface structures2007Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 476, nr 3, s. 1389-1400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. To investigate the astrometric effects of stellar surface structures as a practical limitation to ultra-high-precision astrometry (e.g. in the context of exoplanet searches) and to quantify the expected effects in different regions of the HR-diagram. Methods. Stellar surface structures (spots, plages, granulation, non-radial oscillations) are likely to produce fluctuations in the integrated flux and radial velocity of the star, as well as a variation of the observed photocentre, i.e. astrometric jitter. We use theoretical considerations supported by Monte Carlo simulations (using a starspot model) to derive statistical relations between the corresponding astrometric, photometric, and radial velocity effects. Based on these relations, the more easily observed photometric and radial velocity variations can be used to predict the expected size of the astrometric jitter. Also the third moment of the brightness distribution, interferometrically observable as closure phase, contains information about the astrometric jitter. Results. For most stellar types the astrometric jitter due to stellar surface structures is expected to be of the order of 10 micro-AU or greater. This is more than the astrometric displacement typically caused by an Earth-size exoplanet in the habitable zone, which is about 1-4 micro-AU for long-lived main-sequence stars. Only for stars with extremely low photometric variability (< 0.5 mmag) and low magnetic activity, comparable to that of the Sun, will the astrometric jitter be of the order of 1 micro-AU, sufficient to allow the astrometric detection of an Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone. While stellar surface structure may thus seriously impair the astrometric detection of small exoplanets, it has in general a negligible impact on the detection of large (Jupiter-size) planets and on the determination of stellar parallax and proper motion. From the starspot model we also conclude that the commonly used spot filling factor is not the most relevant parameter for quantifying the spottiness in terms of the resulting astrometric, photometric and radial velocity variations.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University.
    Awareness of the three dimensional structure of the Universe2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning astronomy can be difficult for students at all levels due to the highly diverse, conceptual and theoretical thinking used in the discipline. A variety of disciplinary-specific representations are normally employed to help students learn about the Universe. Some of the most common representations are two-dimensional (2D) such as diagrams, plots, or images. In astronomy education there is an implicit assumption that students will be able to conceptually extrapolate three-dimensional (3D) representations from these 2D images (e.g., of nebulae); however, this is often not the case (Hansen, Barnett, MaKinster, & Keating, 2004a, 2004b; Molina, Redondo, Bravo, & Ortega, 2004; N.R.C, 2006; Williamson & Abraham, 1995).

    Simulation videos are often called on to dynamically introduce students to the structure and complexity of the Universe. We therefore chose to investigate, drawing on a range of educational experience, the nature of the reflective awareness evoked by being exposed to an array of 3D representations taken from a well-used simulation video in astronomy education. A key concept for this work is the notion of disciplinary affordances. Fredlund, Airey, and Linder (2012, p. 658) define the disciplinary affordances of a given representation as ―the inherent potential of that representation to provide access to disciplinary knowledge‖. Recent reviews indicate that most of the work done in astronomy education has taken place at a pre-university level and that none has focussed on disciplinary affordance vis-à-vis 3D representation (Bailey, 2011; Bailey & Slater, 2003; Bretones & Neto, 2011; Lelliott & Rollnick, 2010). The work reported here addresses both these shortcomings. 

    The simulation video used in our study was originally created by Brent Tully. After a pilot study a section of the video was selected to be cut into 7 clips (about 15s each). These clips formed the framing of a web survey that asked participants to write down their reflective awareness following after viewing of each video clip, for e.g. what comes to mind, things noticed, new realizations, etc. 

    A total of 137 participants from university physics and astronomy settings in Europe (42), North America (76), South Africa (3) and Australia (16) took part in the web survey (79 men and 58 women). The reflective descriptions from the survey were coded and used to construct categories, using a hermeneutic constant comparison approach (cf. Gibbs, 2002; Strauss & Corbin, 1998). 

    A limited number of categories emerged and were grouped under the overarching theme we decided to call Parallax. This was because Parallax captured all the statements reflecting awareness of the structural and positional affordances offered by the 3D-video. The analysis showed qualitative differences between the categories, where 3D refers to the highest level of awareness and Speed, travel or motion refers to the lowest level. There are also sub-categories, for e.g., for Speed, travel or motion there are two main ways of experiencing, either the observers or the observed objects, are described in terms of moving in a relative way. 

    Many of the novice participants expressed poor prior awareness of the 3D structure of the universe and surprise by the extent of the grand scale of the (local) Universe. In contrast, those participants who rated themselves as astronomy experts had already developed a 3D awareness of the universe. They used much more complex descriptions and to some extent commented on structures and phenomena omitted from the simulation, such as HI-regions and infrared radiation from HII-regions, although these are invisible to the naked eye. 

    The results show that these kinds of vividly visual and engaging simulations have the potential to provide new disciplinary knowledge for reflective learners in the field of astronomy. Such learning can be characterized as attaining a better appreciation of the disciplinary affordances of the representations used in the simulation. As a conclusion we will discuss how such engagement could open the way for astronomy students to learn more meaningfully about the structure and complexity of the Universe. 

    References 

    Bailey, J. M. (2011). Astronomy Education Research: Developmental History of the Field and Summary of the Literature

    Bailey, J. M., & Slater, T. F. (2003). A Review of Astronomy Education Research. Astronomy Education Review (AER), 2(2), 45. 198 

    Bretones, P. S., & Neto, J. M. (2011). An Analysis of Papers on Astronomy Education in Proceedings of IAU Meetings from 1988 to 2006. Astronomy Education Review, 10(1), AAS. 

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. European Journal of Physics, 33(3). 

    Gibbs, G. R. (2002). Qualitative Data Analysis: Explorations with NVivo: Open University Press. 

    Hansen, J. A., Barnett, M., MaKinster, J. G., & Keating, T. (2004a). The impact of three-dimensional computational modeling on student understanding of astronomical concepts: a quantitative analysis. International Journal of Science Education, 26(11), 1378. 

    Hansen, J. A., Barnett, M., MaKinster, J. G., & Keating, T. (2004b). The impact of three-dimensional computational modeling on student understanding of astronomy concepts: a qualitative analysis. International Journal of Science Education, 26(13), 1575. 

    Lelliott, A., & Rollnick, M. (2010). Big Ideas: A review of astronomy education research 1974--2008. International Journal of Science Education, 32(13), 1799. 

    Molina, A., Redondo, M., Bravo, C., & Ortega, M. (2004) Using Simulation, Collaboration, and 3D Visualization for Design Learning: A Case Study in Domotics. Vol. 3190. Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering (pp. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg-171). 

    N.R.C. (2006). Learning to Think Spatially: GIS as a Support System in the K-12 Curriculum

    Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. (2nd ed. ed.). London: Sage. 

    Williamson, V. M., & Abraham, M. R. (1995). The effects of computer animation on the particulate mental models of college chemistry students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(5), Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company--534.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University.
    Introducing the anatomy of disciplinary discernment: an example from astronomy2014Ingår i: European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 2301-251X, E-ISSN 2301-251X, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 167-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Education is increasingly being framed by a competence mindset; the value of knowledge lies much more in competence performativity and innovation than in simply knowing. Reaching such competency in areas such as astronomy and physics has long been known to be challenging. The movement from everyday conceptions of the world around us to a disciplinary interpretation is fraught with pitfalls and problems. Thus, what underpins the characteristics of the disciplinary trajectory to competence becomes an important educational consideration. In this article we report on a study involving what students and lecturers discern from the same disciplinary semiotic resource. We use this to propose an Anatomy of Disciplinary Discernment (ADD), a hierarchy of what is focused on and how it is interpreted in an appropriate, disciplinary manner, as an overarching fundamental aspect of disciplinary learning. Students and lecturers in astronomy and physics were asked to describe what they could discern from a video simulation of travel through our Galaxy and beyond. In all, 137 people from nine countries participated. The descriptions were analysed using a hermeneutic interpretive study approach. The analysis resulted in the formulation of five qualitatively different categories of discernment; the ADD, reflecting a view of participants’ competence levels. The ADD reveals four increasing levels of disciplinary discernment: Identification, Explanation, Appreciation, and Evaluation. This facilitates the identification of a clear relationship between educational level and the level of disciplinary discernment. The analytical outcomes of the study suggest how teachers of science, after using the ADD to assess the students disciplinary knowledge, may attain new insights into how to create more effective learning environments by explicitly crafting their teaching to support the crossing of boundaries in the ADD model.  

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University.
    Tell me what you see: Differences in what is discerned when professors and students view the same disciplinary semiotic resource2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, astronomy and physics have been viewed as difficult subjects to master. The movement from everyday conceptions of the world around us to a disciplinary interpretation is fraught with pitfalls and problems. What characterises a disciplinary insider’s discernment of phenomena in astronomy and how does it compare to the views of newcomers to the field? In this paper we report on a study into what students and professors discern (cf. Eriksson et al, in press) from the same disciplinary semiotic resource and use this to propose an Anatomy of Disciplinary Discernment (ADD) as an overarching characterization of disciplinary learning.

    Students and professors in astronomy and physics were asked to describe what they could discern from a simulation video of travel through our Galaxy and beyond (Tully, 2012). In all, 137 people from nine countries participated. The descriptions were analysed using a hermeneutic, constant comparison approach (Seebohm, 2004; Strauss, 1987). Analysis culminated in the formulation of five hierarchically arranged, qualitatively different categories of discernment. This ADD modelling of the data consists of one non-disciplinary category and four levels of disciplinary discernment: Identification, Explanation, Appreciation, and Evaluation. Our analysis demonstrates a clear relationship between educational level and the level of disciplinary discernment.

     

    The analytic outcomes of the study suggest that teachers may create more effective learning environments by explicitly crafting their teaching to support the discernment of various aspects of disciplinary semiotic resources in order to facilitate the crossing of boundaries in the ADD model.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University.
    The Anatomy of Disciplinary Discernment: An argument for a spiral trajectory of learning in physics education2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, physics has been viewed as a difficult subject to master. The movement from everyday conceptions of the world around us to a disciplinary interpretation is fraught with problems. What characterises this disciplinary development from learner to expert? In this presentation we report on a study involving what students and professors discern from a disciplinary representation and use this to propose an Anatomy of Disciplinary Discernment (ADD) as an overarching characterization of disciplinary learning. To do this we bring together three important educational ideas – first, Bruner’s (1960) notion of the spiral curriculum. Second, Fredlund, Airey, and Linder’s (2012) notion of disciplinary affordances -- the ‘inherent potential of a representation to provide access to disciplinary knowledge’. Thirdly Eriksson, Linder, Airey, and Redfors’ (2013) notion of disciplinary discernment -- noticing something (eg. Mason, 2002), reflecting on it (Schön, 1983), and constructing (disciplinary) meaning (Marton & Booth, 1997).

     

    Students in astronomy and their teaching professors were asked to describe what they discerned from a simulation video of travel through our galaxy and beyond. In all, 137 people from nine countries participated. The descriptions were analysed using a standard interpretive study approach (Erickson, 1986; Gallagher, 1991). This resulted in the formulation of five qualitatively different categories of discernment.

     

    We found that these categories of disciplinary discernment could be arranged into an anatomy of hierarchically increasing levels of disciplinary discernment and subsequently the idea of ADD with a unit of analysis being the discernment of disciplinary affordance. The ADD modelling for the data incorporated four increasing levels disciplinary discernment: Identification, Explanation, Appreciation, and Evaluation. The visualization of the analysis demonstrates a clear relationship between educational level and the level of disciplinary discernment. Hence, the ADD can be seen to be related to Bruner’s concept of the spiral curriculum idea and through this relationship projects a learning trajectory that students experience while moving through the educational system.

     

    The analytic outcomes of the study suggest how teachers may gain insight into how to create more effective learning environments for students to successfully negotiate a required learning trajectory by explicitly crafting the teaching to support the crossing of boundaries.

     

    References

     

    Bruner, J. S. (1960). The process of education: Harvard University Press.

    Erickson, F. (1986). Qualitative methods in research on teaching. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3 ed., pp. 119-161). New York: Macmillan.

    Eriksson, U., Linder, C., Airey, J., & Redfors, A. (2013). Who needs 3D when the Universe is flat? Accepted by Science Education.

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. European Journal of Physics, 33(3), 657.

    Gallagher, J. J. (1991). Interpretive research in science education, Vol. 4. Manhattan, KS: National Association for Research in Science Teaching.

    Marton, F., & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and Awareness: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Mason, J. (2002). Researching your own practice : the discipline of noticing. London: Routledge Farmer.

    Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.

     

     

     

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University.
    Watching the Sky: New realizations, new meaning, and surprizing aspects in university level astronomy2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University.
    Watching the sky: new realizations, new meanings, and surprizing aspects in university level astronomy2011Ingår i: E-Book Proceedings of the ESERA 2011 Conference: Science learning and Citizenship. Part 3: Teaching and learning science / [ed] Catherine Bruguière, Andrée Tiberghien, Pierre Clément, Lyon, France: European Science Education Research Association , 2011, s. 57-63Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning astronomy is challenging at all levels due to the highly specialized form of communication used to share knowledge. When taking astronomy courses at different levels at university, learners are exposed to a variety of representations that are intended to help them learn about the structure and complexity of the Universe. However, not much is known about the reflective awareness that these representations evoke. Using a simulation video that provides a vivid virtual journey through our Milky Way galaxy, the nature of this awareness is captured and categorised for an array of learners (benchmark by results obtained for experts). The results illustrate how the number and nature of new things grounded in dimensionality, scale, time and perspective reflective awareness can too easily be taken for granted by both teachers and learners.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University.
    What do teachers of astronomy need to think about?2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning astronomy has exciting prospects for many students; learning about the stars in the

    sky, the planets, galaxies, etc., is often very inspiring and sets the mind on the really big

    aspects of astronomy as a science; the Universe. At the same time, learning astronomy can be

    a challenging endeavor for many students. One of the most difficult things to come to

    understand is how big the Universe is. Despite seeming trivial, size and distances, together

    with the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Universe, probably present some of the

    biggest challenges in the teaching and learning of astronomy

    (Eriksson, Linder, Airey, &

    Redfors, in preparation; Lelliott & Rollnick, 2010). This is the starting point for every

    astronomy educator. From here, an educationally critical question to ask is: how can we best

    approach the teaching of astronomy to optimize the potential for our students attaining a

    holistic understanding about the nature of the Universe?

    Resent research indicates that to develop students’ understanding about the structure of the

    Universe, computer generated 3D simulations can be used to provide the students with an

    experience that other representations cannot easily provide (Eriksson et al., in preparation;

    Joseph, 2011). These simulations offer disciplinary affordance* through the generation of

    motion parallax for the viewer. Using this background we will present the results of a recent

    investigation that we completed looking at what students’ discern (notice with meaning)

    about the multidimensionality of the Universe. Implications for astronomy education will be

    discussed and exemplified.

    *[T]he inherent potential of [a] representation to provide access to disciplinary knowledge

    (Fredlund, Airey, & Linder, 2012, p. 658)

    Eriksson, U., Linder, C., Airey, J., & Redfors, A. (in preparation). Who needs 3D when the

    Universe is flat?

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an

    illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. European

    Journal of Physics, 33(3), 657.

    Joseph, N. M. (2011). Stereoscopic Visualization as a Tool For Learning Astronomy

    Concepts. (Master of Science), Purdue University, Purdue University Press Journals.

    Lelliott, A., & Rollnick, M. (2010). Big Ideas: A review of astronomy education research

    1974--2008. International Journal of Science Education, 32(13), 1771–1799

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University.
    Who needs 3D when the Universe is flat?2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Eriksson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik. Kristianstad University College.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Redfors, Andreas
    Kristianstad University.
    Who needs 3D when the Universe is flat?2014Ingår i: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 98, nr 3, s. 412-442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An overlooked feature in astronomy education is the need for students to learn to extrapolate three-dimensionality and the challenges that this may involve. Discerning critical features in the night sky that are embedded in dimensionality is a long-term learning process. Several articles have addressed the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in astronomy education, but they have neither addressed what students discern nor the nature of that discernment. A Web-based questionnaire was designed using links to video clips drawn from a simulation video of travel through our galaxy and beyond. The questionnaire was completed by 137 participants from nine countries across a broad span of astronomy education. The descriptions provided by the participants were analyzed using hermeneutics in combination with a constant comparative approach to formulate six categories of discernment in relation to multidimensionality. These results are used to make the case that the ability to extrapolate three-dimensionality calls for the creation of meaningful motion parallax experiences.

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