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  • 1.
    Amin, Tamer G.
    et al.
    American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Conceptual metaphor and embodied cognition in science learning: Introduction to special issue2015In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, ISSN 0950-0693, Vol. 37, no 5-6, p. 745-758Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Same goal, but different paths: Learning, explaining and understanding entropy2015In: / [ed] Stefan Pålsson, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering students train to discuss conclusionsand results in different ways as part of their education. This is often done in connection to learning disciplinary knowledge where comparisons with and connections to previous courses play an important role. Students from different programs can have distinctly different repertoires of concepts and experiences when starting a course. This influences their learning on the course and how they communicate afterwards. We explore this issue in relation to engineering students’ explanations about entropy and how these change during a course in thermodynamics. A questionnaire study was done during the spring semester 2014 with students enrolling in a course on chemical thermodynamics. Students were asked to explain the concept of entropy and list scientific concepts they relate to entropy both before and after the course. A qualitative analysis was done for the 73 students who answered the questionnaire both before and after the course. Analysis showed that disorder was the most common aspect in student explanations, both before and after the course, but that many students used the concept ina more critical and reflective manner after the course. We also found that student explanations develop in richness by involving more aspects after the course. This development is dependent on the resources students bring with them when enrolling in the course. This is especially clear for students from the Master Programme in Chemical Engineering, who to a larger extent use microscopic elements, such as interaction between particles, in their explanations already before the course.

  • 3.
    Berggren, Mats
    et al.
    Tiundaskolan.
    Isleborn, Helena
    Tiundaskolan.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Karlstads universitet.
    Kärnkraftsdebatt ger möjlighet till kritiskt tänkande i högstadiefysiken2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I skolans styrdokument betonas vikten av att elever ges möjlighet att utveckla sitt kritiska tänkande. Detta är inte minst angeläget i dessa tider av tillgång till sociala medier och spridande av så kallade alternativa fakta. Trots sin positiva klang finns det dock ingen etablerad konsensus kring vad kritiskt tänkande egentligen är. Inom ramen för ett skolutvecklingsprojekt i samverkan mellan Uppsala universitet och Tiundaskolan, en 4-9-skola i Uppsala, utforskar vi hur kritiskt tänkande kan uttryckas i undervisningspraktiken i ämnena svenska, historia, matematik och fysik. Som exempel har vi i fysikämnet designat, genomfört och analyserat en undervisningssekvens utifrån kärnkraft som tema, där elever i årskurs 9 gavs möjlighet att anamma olika åsikter och argument i frågan genom rollspel. Eleverna genomförde en debatt, där de representerade olika parter: boende nära Forsmark, miljöorganisationen Grön Fred, och företag som utvecklar kärnkraft, respektive vindkraft. Före och efter debatten skrev eleverna individuella texter där de argumenterade för sin personliga åsikt i frågan: Ska kärnkraften bevaras som den är, läggas ner, eller utvecklas? Vi fann att de genom debatten fick goda möjligheter att utveckla och visa kunskaper motsvarande flera kunskapskrav i kursplanen i fysik som annars sällan berörs i fysikklassrummet, såsom, för betyg A: ”Eleven kan samtala om och diskutera frågor som rör energi, teknik, miljö och samhälle och skiljer då fakta från värderingar och formulerar ställningstaganden med välutvecklade motiveringar samt beskriver några tänkbara konsekvenser.” Som exempel på naturvetenskapligt förankrade argument utnyttjade eleverna genererad energi per utsläppt mängd koldioxid som ett mått vid jämförelser mellan kärnkraft och andra energikällor. I de individuella texterna höll de flesta eleverna fast vid sina åsikter från innan de arbetade med temat även efteråt, men nu med fler och mer nyanserade argument.

  • 4.
    Dolo, Gilbert
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University.
    Stimulating and supporting inquiry-based science learning with infrared cameras in South Africa2017In: / [ed] Mike K. Mholo & Carolyn Stevenson-Milln, Bloemfontein, South Africa: AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2017, p. 243-245Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Gregorcic, Bor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Department of Engineering and Physics, Karlstad University.
    Conceptual Blending as an Interpretive Lens for Student Engagement with Technology: Exploring Celestial Motion on an Interactive Whiteboard2018In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present and analyze video data of upper secondary school students’ engagement with a computer-supported collaborative learning environment that enables them to explore astronomical phenomena (Keplerian motion). The students’ activities have an immersive and exploratory character, as students engage in open-ended inquiry and interact physically with the virtual environment displayed on an interactive whiteboard. The interplay of students’ playful exploration through physical engagement with the simulation environment, their attention to physics concepts and laws, and knowledge about the real planets orbiting the Sun presents an analytical challenge for the researcher and instructor encountering such complex learning environments. We argue that the framework of conceptual blending is particularly apt for dealing with the learning environment at hand, because it allows us to take into account the many diverse mental inputs that seem to shape the student activities described in the paper. We show how conceptual blending can be brought together with theoretical ideas concerned with embodied cognition and epistemology of physics, in order to provide researchers and instructors with a powerful lens for looking critically at immersive technology-supported learning environments.

  • 6.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Good use of a ‘bad’ metaphor: Entropy as disorder2017In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 205-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entropy is often introduced to students through the use of the disorder metaphor. However, many weaknesses and limitations of this metaphor have been identified, and it has therefore been argued that it is more harmful than useful in teaching. For instance, under the influence of the disorder metaphor, students tend to focus on spatial configuration with regard to entropy but disregard the role of energy, which may lead their intuition astray in problem solving. Albeit so, a review of research of students’ ideas about entropy in relation to the disorder metaphor shows that students can use the metaphor in developing a more nuanced, complex view of the concept, by connecting entropy as disorder to other concepts such as microstates and spreading. The disorder metaphor—in combination with other explanatory approaches—can be used as a resource for learning, in giving students an early flavour of what entropy means, so long as we acknowledge its limitations; we can put this “bad” metaphor to good use in teaching.

  • 7.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    The disorder metaphor for entropy: Friend or Foe?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entropy is often introduced by use of the disorder metaphor in thermodynamics, but many weaknesses of the metaphor have been identified [1]. By influence of the disorder metaphor, students tend to focus on spatial configuration with regards to entropy but disregard the role of energy in problem solving [2]. There are also many natural phenomena where an entropy increase comes together with increasing visual disorder, such as the formation of liquid crystals. Due to such identified weaknesses, it has been argued that the disorder metaphor for entropy is more harmful than useful and should be avoided in teaching [1]. Another, alternative perspective is to regard the entropy metaphor as a useful resource for students’ development of an intuitive idea of entropy. From this perspective, the goal of teaching is not to eliminate disorder from students’ conceptualisation of entropy, but help them refine the understanding of when it can be useful and when it does not apply [3]. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the disorder metaphor can be useful in the teaching of entropy, and – if that is the case – how its weaknesses can be addressed in the teaching practice. Students’ ideas of entropy were probed through open questionnaire items before and after a university course in thermodynamics [4], and through follow-up interviews with pairs of students one year after the course [5]. The majority of students made use of the disorder metaphor in describing what entropy means, both before and after the course. In addition, they tended to develop a more nuanced, complex view of the concept, by connecting entropy as disorder to other microscopic concepts such as microstates and spreading. In the follow-up interviews, although acknowledging that disorder is not a scientific concept, students still found it useful for getting a qualitative understanding of entropy. In general, every metaphor breaks down at one point, where it is no longer useful. When we introduce metaphors in teaching, we have to bring up explicitly how to interpret the compared domains (in this case disorder and entropy) and how they relate to one another, and what limitations the metaphors have [6]. The disorder metaphor – in combination with other explanatory approaches – can be used to give students an early flavour of what entropy means, so long as we acknowledge its limitations.

    1. F. Lambert (2002) J. Chem. Ed. 78 187.
    2. C. Brosseau & J. Viard (1992) Ensen. Cienc. 10 13.
    3. B. D. Geller et al (2014) Am. J. Phys. 82 394.
    4. J. Haglund et al (2015) Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. 16 537.
    5. J. Haglund et al (2016) Chem. Educ. Res. Pract. 17 489.
    6. R. Duit (1991) Sci. Ed. 75 649.
  • 8.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Värmekameror i fysikundervisningen: Övningar från mellanstadiet och uppåt2016In: Från forskning till fysikundervisning: Bidrag från konferensen i Malmö 14-15 mars 2016 / [ed] Karin Stolpe och Gunnar Höst, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 35-39Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid konferensen ”Från forskning till fysikundervisning” i Lund, 14-15 mars 2016, fick deltagarna möjlighet att prova på övningar med värmekamerorutifrån fenomen som värmeledning i metall respektive trä, vad som sker då en isbit smälter i vatten respektive i saltlösning, eller energiomvandling då ett bouleklot slår i marken. Värmekameran är en kraftfull och lättanvänd teknik för att visualisera värmerelaterade fenomen, som annars är ganska svårtillgängliga för våra sinnen. Med fallande priser blir värmekameran nu ett alltmer realistiskt alternativ även i skolundervisningen. I vår forskning har vi studerat hur värmekamerorkan användas vid fysikundervisning för olika åldersnivåer, från förstaklassare upp till laborationer på universitetet. Vi har funnit att värmekameran inspirerar elever att genomföra egna undersökningar, men också att tekniken i sig inte är tillräcklig för att elever ska förstå fenomen som till exempel värmeledning i relation till ledande eller isolerande material. En möjlig pedagogisk väg är att introducera elever till en värmeflödesmodell där värme flödar från föremål med högre temperatur till föremål med lägre temperatur.

  • 9.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Infrared cameras in inquiry-based thermodynamics laboratory exercises in university physics2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrared (IR) cameras hold the potential to make otherwise invisible thermal phenomena visible. In this way, they may be used to give students disciplinary affordance to central concepts in thermodynamics, such as the mechanisms of heat transfer and thermal properties of different materials. In the present, design-based study, open-ended laboratory exercises are developed for university thermodynamics courses, implemented and evaluated in an iterative fashion. Physics and engineering students investigate the function of a laboratory set-up, for instance a heat pump, with the help of handheld IR cameras. Data is collected by means of observation, video and audio recording, and analysed from the perspective of students’ expression of conceptions in the thermal domain and how the technology provides disciplinary affordance to the topic. Findings include that the technology invites the students to ask questions in relation to the laboratory equipment, which typically drives their inquiry in relevant directions. In addition, in contrast to previously investigated secondary students, these university students are found to explore the functionality of the IR cameras beyond the intuitive interpretation of them as visual thermometers. For instance, the provided software is used to produce striking image work for their reports, and they investigate the influence of the emissive and reflective properties of different surfaces. Directing the IR camera to a mirror provides disciplinary affordance to the phenomenon of reflection of infrared radiation, rather than a reliable temperature reading of its surface.

  • 10.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Chemical engineering students’ ideas of entropy2015In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, E-ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 537-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermodynamics, and in particular entropy, has been found to be challenging for students, not least due to its abstract character. Comparisons with more familiar and concrete domains, by means of analogy and metaphor are commonly used in thermodynamics teaching, in particular the metaphor ‘entropy is disorder’. However, this particular metaphor has met major criticism. In the present study, students (N = 73) answered a questionnaire before and after a course on chemical thermodynamics. They were asked to: (1) explain what entropy is; (2) list other scientific concepts that they relate to entropy; (3) after the course, describe how it had influenced their understanding. The disorder metaphor dominated students’ responses, although in a more reflective manner after the course. The view of entropy as the freedom for particles to move became more frequent. Most students used particle interaction approaches to entropy, which indicates an association to the chemistry tradition. The chemistry identification was further illustrated by enthalpy and Gibbs free energy being the concepts most often mentioned as connected to entropy. The use of these two terms was particularly pronounced among students at the Chemical Engineering programme. Intriguingly, no correlation was found between the qualitative ideas of entropy and the results of the written exam, primarily focusing on quantitative problem solving. As an educational implication, we recommend that students are introduced to a range of different ways to interpret the complex concept entropy, rather than the use of a single metaphor.

  • 11.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Language aspects of engineering students’ view of entropy2016In: Chemistry Education Research and Practice, ISSN 1756-1108, E-ISSN 1756-1108, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 489-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entropy is a central concept in thermodynamics, but has been found to be challenging to students due to its abstract nature and the fact that it is not part of students’ everyday language. Interviews with three pairs of engineering students (N = 6) were conducted and video recorded regarding their interpretation and use of the entropy concept, one year after a course on chemical thermodynamics. From a syntax perspective, students were asked to assess whether sentences involving temperature, internal energy, and entropy make sense. With a focus on semantics, they were asked to rank a set of notions with regards to how closely they are related to entropy, how scientific they are, and how useful they are for explaining what entropy is. From a pragmatics point of view, students were asked to solve two qualitative problems, which involve entropy. The results show that these chemistry students regard internal energy, but not entropy, as a substance-like entity. The students’ ranking of how closely related to entropy notions are and how useful they are for explaining entropy was found to be strongly negatively correlated to how scientific the notions were seen to be. For example, disorder was seen as highly unscientific, but very useful for explaining entropy. In the problem-solving tasks, Chemical Engineering students were comfortable relating entropy to enthalpy and Gibbs free energy, the three notions being seen to form a “trinity” in thermodynamics. However, the students had challenges grasping the unchanged entropy in reversible, adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas, in which they did not consider how entropy relates to the second law of thermodynamics. In final reflections on their learning processes, the students saw weak connections between their problem-solving skills and their conceptual understanding of entropy, although acknowledging that both aspects of learning are important.

  • 12.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Chemical engineering students’ conceptions of entropy2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of the second law of thermodynamics and the closely connected entropy concept is central in thermodynamics, and thereby also in physics and chemistry education. Nonetheless, entropy has been found to be particularly challenging for students, not least due to its abstract character. One common approach to teaching and learning about entropy has been to make comparisons with more familiar and concrete domains, by means of analogy and metaphor, such as the metaphor ‘entropy is disorder’, which however has met with criticism in science education. In the present study, students (N = 73) filled out a questionnaire before and after a course on chemical thermodynamics. They were asked to: (1) describe their understanding of what entropy is; (2) list the most important other scientific concepts they relate to entropy; (3) after the course, also reflect on how their understanding of entropy had developed. Our analyses show that the disorder metaphor dominated the students’ responses, although in a more reflective manner after the course. The idea of entropy as the freedom for particles to move about gained in popularity. A majority of the students engaged particle interaction approaches to entropy, which indicates their identification within the chemistry tradition. This chemistry identification was further illustrated by enthalpy and Gibbs free energy being the concepts most often mentioned as connected to entropy. Intriguingly, no correlations were found between these qualitative ideas of entropy and the results of the written exam, primarily focusing on quantitative problem solving.

  • 13.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet.
    Introduktionen av begreppet energikvalitet i svenska läroplaner2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet energikvalitet infördes i grundskolans styrdokument i Lpo 94, i relation till mål att sträva emot i kursplanen för fysik. Vi har undersökt hur energikvalitet kom att inkluderas i kursplanen, inte minst mot bakgrund av att begreppet sällan används inom fysik som akademiskt fält. Vi fann att energikvalitet utvecklades inom teknisk termodynamik och kom att användas inom miljörörelsen i kampen mot kärnkraft under 1970-talet. Ett av argumenten var att vi inte ska värma våra hus med direktverkande el, eftersom det är slöseri med energi av hög kvalitet; som att skära smör med en motorsåg. Energikvalitet infördes först i en kurs i energi på maskingrenen på fyraårig teknisk linje 1983, men anammades på bred front i samband med de stora läroplanerevisionerna 1994. Arbetet med utvecklingen av kursplanerna i de naturvetenskapliga ämnena och teknik inför 1994 leddes till en början av den naturvetenskapsdidaktiska forskaren Björn Andersson. Ambitionen var att sätta in naturvetenskapen i ett bredare bildnings- och samhällsperspektiv, till vilket energikvalitet som begrepp kunde bidra. En av ledamöterna i den övergripande läroplanekommittén, fysikprofessor Tor Ragnar Gerholm, kom dock att utveckla alternativa kursplaneförslag för de aktuella ämnena, av en snävare karaktär närmare innehållet i de motsvarande akademiska disciplinerna. Gerholms förslag kom till stor del att ligga till grund för de slutligen beslutade styrdokumenten. Att energikvalitet kom med i kursplanen för fysik kan ses som ett undantag där samhälleliga perspektiv på naturvetenskapen beaktades, efter påtryckningar i didaktisk, utbildningspolitisk debatt. Didaktisk forskning efter införandet i kursplanerna har visat att elever och lärare har svårt att förhålla sig till energikvalitet i fysikundervisningen, vilket vi tolkar som en konsekvens av att begreppet inte riktigt passar in i den i övrigt inomvetenskapliga strukturen.

  • 14.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Tension between visions of science education: The case of energy quality in Swedish secondary science curricula2017In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 323-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to contribute to an understanding of how curricular change is accomplished in practice, including the positions and conflicts of key stakeholders and participants, and their actions in the process. As a case, we study the treatment of energy in Swedish secondary curricula in the period 1962–2011 and, in particular, how the notion of energy quality was introduced in the curricula in an energy course at upper secondary school in 1983 and in physics at lower secondary school in 1994. In the analysis, we use Roberts’ two competing visions of science education, Vision I in which school science subjects largely mirror their corresponding academic disciplines and Vision II that incorporates societal matters of science. In addition, a newly suggested Vision III represents a critical perspective on science education. Our analysis shows how Vision II and III aspects of science education have gained importance in curricula since the 1980s, but in competition with Vision I considerations. Energy quality played a central role in providing Vision II and III arguments in the curricular debate on energy teaching. Subsequent educational research has found that Swedish teachers and students struggle with how to relate to energy quality in physics teaching, which we explain as partly due to the tension between the competing visions.

  • 15.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Linköpings universitet.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet.
    Primary school children's ideas of mixing and of heat as expressed in a classroom setting2014In: Journal of Baltic Science Education, ISSN 1648-3898, E-ISSN 2538-7138, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 726-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates primary school children’s (7-8 year-old, N = 25) ideas of mixing of marbles and of heat, expressed in small-group predict-observe-explain exercises, and drawings representing the children’s own analogies in a classroom setting. The children were typically found to predict that marbles of two different colours would mix when rocked back and forth on a board. This idea of mixing is slightly more advanced than previously reported in the literature. The children’s ideas of heat included reference to warm objects, their own bodies when exercising, and the process of one warm solid object heating another object in direct contact. In addition, through scaffolding, some of the children expressed a substance view of heat. Finally, the potential and challenges in probing children’s ideas through a combination of data collection techniques in a classroom setting are reflected upon.

  • 16.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Hedberg, David
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    Students’ framing of laboratory exercises using infrared cameras2015In: Physical Review Special Topics : Physics Education Research, ISSN 1554-9178, E-ISSN 1554-9178, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 020127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal science is challenging for students due to its largely imperceptible nature. Handheld infraredcameras offer a pedagogical opportunity for students to see otherwise invisible thermal phenomena. In thepresent study, a class of upper secondary technology students (N = 30) partook in four IR-cameralaboratory activities, designed around the predict-observe-explain approach of White and Gunstone. Theactivities involved central thermal concepts that focused on heat conduction and dissipative processes suchas friction and collisions. Students’ interactions within each activity were videotaped and the analysisfocuses on how a purposefully selected group of three students engaged with the exercises. As the basis foran interpretative study, a “thick” narrative description of the students’ epistemological and conceptualframing of the exercises and how they took advantage of the disciplinary affordance of IR cameras in thethermal domain is provided. Findings include that the students largely shared their conceptual framing ofthe four activities, but differed among themselves in their epistemological framing, for instance, in how farthey found it relevant to digress from the laboratory instructions when inquiring into thermal phenomena.In conclusion, the study unveils the disciplinary affordances of infrared cameras, in the sense of their use inproviding access to knowledge about macroscopic thermal science.

  • 17.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Hedberg, David
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping.
    Schönborn, Konrad J
    Linköping University.
    Thermal cameras in school laboratory activities2015In: Physics Education, ISSN 0031-9120, E-ISSN 1361-6552, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 424-430Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal cameras offer real-time visual access to otherwise invisible thermodynamic phenomena, which are conceptually demanding for learners during traditional teaching. We present three studies of students’ interaction with laboratory activities that employ infrared (IR) cameras to teach challenging thermal concepts at grades 4, 7 and 10-12. Visualization of heat-related concepts in combination with predict-observe-explain (POE) experiments offers students and teachers a pedagogically powerful means for unveiling abstract yet fundamental physics concepts.

  • 18.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Hedberg, David
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping.
    Xie, Charles
    Concord Consortium, MA, USA.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    Värmekameror gör det osynliga synligt2014In: Venue, ISSN 2001-788XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av värmekameror framträder lejonen på Serengeti tydligt på kilometers håll i natten på BBC:s senaste filmer och läckande fjärrvärmeledningar kan numera upptäckas från helikopter. Det kan låta som science fiction, men den snabba teknikutvecklingen inom detta område gör att vi nu kan ”göra det osynliga synligt” även i det naturvetenskapliga klassrummet.

  • 19.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Melander, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Pendrill, Ann-Marie
    National Resource Centre for Physics Education, Lund University.
    Xie, Charles
    Concord Consortium.
    Schönborn, Konrad J
    Linköping University.
    Infrared cameras in science education2016In: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 75, no March, p. 150-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    IR cameras provide disciplinary affordance to thermal phenomena2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Linköping University.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    Thermal imaging supports the learning and teaching of thermodynamics2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Central concepts in the teaching of thermal science, such as heat and temperature, are abstract in the sense that we cannot directly see how they are manifested in nature. In learning about thermal phenomena, we rely largely on our sense of touch to assess the perceived hotness or coldness of objects, and tend to believe – misleadingly – that our sense of touch is a dependable thermometer. Accordingly, science education research has found thermal concepts to be challenging for students to grasp. In taking on this conceptual challenge, we have initiated a research programme, in which we explore how hand-held infrared (IR) cameras can support students’ understanding of thermal phenomena, by making the invisible visible. We have developed laboratory exercises involving IR cameras for different levels of physics education, based on a predict, observe and explain (POE) approach. In a pilot study, 7th graders were invited to experience the sensation that metal feels colder than wood at room temperature, and see heat convection through a sheet-metal knife when they held it for two minutes. In a subsequent study, as part of a storyline, two classes of 4th graders were introduced to a heat-flow model and interacted with four laboratory stations, relating to heat and thermal insulation. Furthermore, in a study that broadened the scope to mechanics at the upper secondary level, students were asked to explain the increased temperature due to friction between an eraser and a table, or as a large metal ball fell onto asphalt. In all contexts to date, IR cameras – basically interactive thermal looking glasses – have been found to be an engaging, easy-to use technology. In particular, they invite  ‘instant inquiry’ of thermal phenomena, and stimulate the adoption of a macroscopic heat-flow model. Further development of IR-camera supported laboratory exercises for university teaching is under way.

  • 22.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    Värmekameror hjälper elever se naturfenomen2015In: LMNT-nytt, ISSN 1402-0041, no 1, p. 18-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med hjälp av en handhållen värmekamera kan elever se hur värme leds genom metall, och hur andra material som trä eller plast isolerar. På samma sätt kan de se värmeutvecklingen då ett suddgummi dras mot ett bord eller ett bouleklot slår i marken. Den här typen av fenomen har vi ofta sopat under mattan i undervisningen, eller förklarat i termer av ”värmeförluster”, utan att kunna ge egentliga belägg. Med andra ord, värmekameror gör det möjligt för elever att se fenomen som annars är osynliga.

  • 23.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, S-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Social & Welf Studies, S-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, S-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Taking on the heat: A narrative account of how infrared cameras invite instant inquiry2016In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 685-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of technology, social learning, and scientific models offers pedagogical opportunities for science education. A particularly interesting area is thermal science, where pupils often struggle with abstract concepts, such as heat. In taking on this conceptual obstacle, we explore how hand-held infrared (IR) visualization technology can strengthen pupils’ understanding of thermal phenomena. Grounded in the Swedish physics curriculum and part of a broader research programme on educational uses of IR cameras, we have developed laboratory exercises around a thermal storyline, in conjunction with the teaching of a heat-flow model. We report on a narrative analysis of how a group of five fourth graders, facilitated by a researcher, predict, observe and explain (POE) how the temperatures change when they pour hot water into a ceramic coffee mug and a thin plastic cup. Four chronological episodes are described and analysed as group interaction unfolded. Results revealed that the pupils engaged cognitively and emotionally with the POE task, and in particular, held a sustained focus on making observations and offering explanations for the scenarios. A compelling finding was the group’s spontaneous generation of multiple “what-ifs” in relation to thermal phenomena, such as blowing on the water surface, or submerging a pencil into the hot water. This was followed by immediate interrogation with the IR camera; a learning event we label instant inquiry. The pupils’ expressions largely reflected adoption of the heat-flow model. In conclusion, IR cameras could serve as an access point for even very young pupils to develop complex thermal concepts.

  • 24.
    Haglund, Jesper
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Melander, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    University physics students’ ideas of thermal radiation expressed in open laboratory activities using infrared cameras2017In: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, E-ISSN 1470-1138, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 349-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    University physics students were engaged in open-ended thermodynamics laboratory activities with a focus on understanding a chosen phenomenon or the principle of laboratory apparatus, such as thermal radiation or a heat pump. Students had access to handheld infrared (IR) cameras for their investigations.

    Purpose

    The purpose of the research was to explore students’ interactions with reformed thermodynamics laboratory activities. It was guided by the research question: How do university physics students make use of IR cameras in the investigation of the interaction of thermal radiation?

    Sample

    The study was conducted with a class of first-year university physics students in Sweden. The interaction with the activities of four of the students was selected for analysis. The four students are males.

    Design and methods

    We used a qualitative, interpretive approach to the study of students’ interaction.  The primary means of data collection was video recording of students’ work with the laboratory activities and their subsequent presentations. The analysis focused on how IR cameras helped students notice phenomena relating to thermal radiation, with comparison to previous research on students’ conceptions of thermal radiation.

    Results

    When using the IR camera students attended to the reflection of thermal radiation on shiny surfaces, such as polished metals, windows or a white-board, and emissive properties of surfaces of different types. In this way, they went beyond using the technology as a temperature probe. Students were able to discuss merits and shortcomings of IR cameras in comparison with digital thermometers.

    Conclusions

    With the help of IR cameras, university physics students attend to thermal phenomena that would otherwise easily go unnoticed.

  • 25.
    Hedberg, David
    et al.
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Linköping University.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Metaforer och analogier inom termodynamik i kemiläroböcker för gymnasiet2015In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 102-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Science education research has long taken an interest in how we may make full use of analogies and metaphors in science teaching. Further, more recently, the role of implicit, conceptual metaphors in connecting abstract conceptual knowledge to concrete embodied experiences has been recognised. The textbook plays a central role in upper secondary teaching, as it is, together with the teacher, a source of knowledge for the students. We have analysed the use of analogies, and explicit and implicit metaphors in two Swedish upper secondary chemistry textbook, and interviewed two of the authors of the textbooks. Abstract states and processes were found to be construed by means of the Object-Event and Location-Event Structure metaphors. Explicit metaphors and analogies were presented, but the comparisons were not always elaborated sufficiently in order to guide the students’ interpretations and avoid possible misunderstandings.

  • 26.
    Isleborn, Helena
    et al.
    Tiundaskolan, Uppsala.
    Berggren, Mats
    Tiundaskolan, Uppsala.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Kärnkraftsdebatt ger möjlighet till kritiskt tänkande i högstadiefysiken2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Linköping University.
    Amin, Tamer G.
    American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
    Varying use of conceptual metaphors across levels of expertise in thermodynamics2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have previously focused on how people with different levels of expertise solve and take on different problem situations, for instance within physics. This study focuses on how people across three levels of expertise make use of conceptual metaphors and different levels of engagement with studied phenomena in different contexts related to thermodynamics. Conceptual metaphors were found to be used across all three levels of expertise. However, what distinguishes these three levels of expertise from each other is the level of engagement with the phenomenon in different contexts and in relation to different concepts.

  • 28.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics. Linköping University.
    Amin, Tamer G.
    American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
    Varying use of conceptual metaphors across levels of expertise in thermodynamics2015In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 37, no 5-6, p. 780-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have previously focused on how people with different levels of expertise solve physics problems. In early work, focus was on characterising differences between experts and novices and a key finding was the central role that propositionally expressed principles and laws play in expert, but not novice, problem-solving. A more recent line of research has focused on characterising continuity between experts and novices at the level of non-propositional knowledge structures and processes such as image-schemas, imagistic simulation and analogical reasoning. This study contributes to an emerging literature addressing the coordination of both propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures and processes in the development of expertise. Specifically, in this paper, we compare problem-solving across two levels of expertise — undergraduate students of chemistry and Ph.D. students in physical chemistry — identifying differences in how conceptual metaphors (CMs) are used (or not) to coordinate propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures in the context of solving problems on entropy. It is hypothesised that the acquisition of expertise involves learning to coordinate the use of CMs to interpret propositional (linguistic and mathematical) knowledge and apply it to specific problem situations. Moreover, we suggest that with increasing expertise, the use of CMs involves a greater degree of subjective engagement with physical entities and processes. Implications for research on learning and instructional practice are discussed.

  • 29.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    Linköping University.
    Personal embodied experiences in thermodynamics education2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aspects of the role of personal, embodied experiences in science education are discussed and illustrated with examples from empirical research on thermodynamics education. Due to shortcomings of early cognitive science, cognitive approaches to science education research have lost their dominant position. In particular, the surge of socio-cultural perspectives on learning contributes important aspects that have been previously neglected. However, it comes along with the risk of losing sight of the individual’s understanding of taught topics, opening it up to criticism in parallel with how it has been questioned in terms of how complex human behaviour can be understood from the perspective of behaviourism. In contrast, embodied cognition, including the conceptual metaphor framework, could be used to ground conceptual understanding in concrete personal experiences, drawn from human interaction in social and natural environments. Limitations of the reliance on direct personal experiences and enacting activity without purposeful reflection are discussed against the background of Dewey’s writings. Empirical examples are taken from first-graders’ analogical reasoning in relation to shared experiences of thermal phenomena, the use of infrared cameras in justifying energy conservation in dissipative processes, and the employment of conceptual metaphor in thermodynamics problem-solving dialogue. They illustrate this diverse range of aspects on how our understanding of abstract ideas builds on concrete, personal experiences, but also that this is not achieved in any straight-forward manner.

  • 30.
    Melander, Emil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    More than meets the eye: Infrared cameras in open-ended university thermodynamics labs2016In: Physics Teacher, ISSN 0031-921X, E-ISSN 1943-4928, Vol. 54, no 9, p. 528-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational research has found that students have challenges understanding thermal science. Undergraduate physics students have difficulties differentiating basic thermal concepts, such as heat, temperature, and internal energy. Engineering students have been found to have difficulties grasping surface emissivity as a thermal material property. One potential source of students’ challenges with thermal science is the lack of opportunity to visualize energy transfer in intuitive ways with traditional measurement equipment. Thermodynamics laboratories have typically depended on point measures of temperature by use of thermometers (detecting heat conduction) or pyrometers (detecting heat radiation). In contrast, thermal imaging by means of an infrared (IR) camera provides a real-time, holistic image. Here we provide some background on IR cameras and their uses in education, and summarize five qualitative investigations that we have used in our courses.

  • 31.
    Melander, Emil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Weiszflog, Matthias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    To see the invisible: open-ended university thermodynamics labs with infrared cameras2015In: Proceedings från 5:e Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar: Technical Report 2016-002 / [ed] Stefan Pålsson & Björn Victor, Uppsala, 2015, p. 35-37Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal imaging with an infrared (IR) camera provides a real-time, holistic image of thermal energy transport. In this workshop, we engage with open-ended laboratory exercises where IR cameras give added value to the understanding of central concepts in second year university thermodynamics courses for physics and engineering students.

  • 32.
    Netzell, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Schönborn, Konrad J
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Värmekameran: En laboration med fokus på elektriska kretsar2016In: LMNT-nytt, ISSN 1402-0041, no 1, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Netzell, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Realgymnasiet, Norrköping.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Schönborn, Konrad J
    Linköping University.
    Visualising energy transformations in electric circuits with infrared cameras2017In: School Science Review, ISSN 0036–6811, Vol. 98, no 364, p. 19-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Nygren, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Samuelsson, Robin
    af Geijerstam, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Prytz, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Critical thinking in national tests across four subjects in Swedish compulsory school2018In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical thinking is brought to the fore as a central competence in today’s society and in school curricula, but what may be emphasised as a general skill may also differ across school subjects. Using a mixed methods approach we identify general formulations regarding critical thinking in the Swedish curriculum of school year nine and seven more subject-specific categories of critical thinking in the syllabi and national tests in history, physics, mathematics and Swedish. By analysing 76 individual students’ critical thinking as expressed in national tests we find that a student that thinks critically in one subjects does not necessarily do so in other subjects. We find that students’ grades in different subjects are closely linked to their abilities to answer questions designed to test critical thinking in the subjects. We also find that the same formulations of critical thinking in two subjects may mean very different things when translated into assessments. Our findings suggest that critical thinking among students comprise different, subject-specific skills. The complexity of our findings highlights a need for future research to help clarify to students and researchers what it means to think critically in school.

  • 35.
    Samuelsson, Christopher Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Looking for solutions: University chemistry and physics students interacting with infrared cameras2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrared (IR) cameras can be used to support the learning and understanding of thermodynamics. Previous research shows that the technology enables university physics students to observe otherwise invisible thermal phenomena. In the present study, the focus is extended to the use of IR cameras in an educational chemistry laboratory setting with a comparison to the physics labs. Depending on the communicative actions made to interact with the cameras, different affordances of the IR cameras are accessed. For example, some students compare what they see with the IR camera with their sense of touch. The kinds of actions students make depend on aspects like their disciplinary experience and the discipline of study. Predict-Observe-Explain is used to probe students’ potential actions for interaction with the IR camera. Data is collected by video recording and iterative transcription to find contrasting or shared patterns of interaction across the groups. A multimodal approach to conversation analysis is used to find these patterns. The result shows that the physics and chemistry students use the technology to confirm or disconfirm predictions made, but differ in the coordination of actions to achieve that goal. The physics students move around and use the sense of touch together with IR-camera observations, while the chemistry students focus on IR-camera observations from one perspective alone.

  • 36.
    Samuelsson, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Användning av värmekameror vid öppna laborationer2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Värmerelaterade fenomen och studiet av dem i termodynamik framstår ofta som abstrakta för studenter. Undervisningen bygger typiskt på algebraisk problemlösning och studenter har svårt att se kopplingen till fenomenen. Värmekameror ger dock en möjlighet att se sådana fenomen, som vi tidigare har närmat oss med vårt trubbiga känselsinne, och lämpar sig därigenom väl för undersökande arbetssätt vid laborationer. Mot bakgrund av ett utvecklingsarbete att designa om en inledande universitetskurs i kemi i riktning mot mer studentaktivt lärande och öppnare laborationer utgår vi från följande forskningsfråga: Hur kan kemistudenter använda värmekameror vid öppna laborationer om lösningsentalpi? Studenternas laborationsuppgift var att mäta temperaturändringar då natriumnitrat, respektive natriumhydroxid löses i vatten, en exoterm och en endoterm process, och beräkna salternas lösningsentalpi. Som metod för datainsamling videofilmades studenter då de arbetade parvis med laborationen, och deras laborationsanteckningar fotograferades.  Några par valdes ut för att studera samma reaktioner med hjälp av en värmekamera, och tunnare plastkoppar, vilket gör att stora lokala temperaturändringar kan uppstå där salterna reagerar med vattnet. De utvalda studenterna observerade dessutom med värmekameror vad som sker då koksalt strös på en isbit. Prelimära resultat visar att studenterna med värmekameran kunde se en temperaturökning på uppemot 50 °C på utsidan av koppen lokalt där natriumhydroxid reagerar med vatten. De diskuterade detta i termer av en felkälla för sina kalorimetriska beräkningar. De hade hypotesen att lösning av natriumnitrat i en tunn plastkopp skulle leda till en mindre temperaturminskning än då de själva använde en tjockare frigolitkopp, med fokus på lösningens temperatur, mer än på temperaturen på utsidan av koppen. Studenterna förutspådde att isen skulle smälta då den beströddes med koksalt och att temperaturen skulle öka eller vara konstant. De var förvånade över att istället se en kraftig temperaturminskning, och varierade i djup i sina förklaringar av denna endoterma process.

  • 37.
    Schönborn, Konrad
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Physics Didactics.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Students’ interaction with IR cameras in POE laboratory exercises2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal imaging delivered through hand-held infrared (IR) cameras offers an opportunity to make otherwise invisible and abstract thermal phenomena visible. We have developed and implemented a series of predict-observe-explain (POE) based laboratory activities with IR cameras, in order for students to develop their conceptual understanding of thermal science, at different educational levels. In a pilot study, 7th graders studied the phenomenon that metal feels colder than wood at room temperature. They experienced a cognitive conflict, but did not explain the phenomenon in terms of a heat flow from their hands to the objects, in spite of interaction with an IR-camera. Next, we developed laboratory exercises for 4th graders, including the task of holding metal and wood, and pouring hot water in cups of different materials and thickness, which were implemented in two parallel classes. In response to the 7th graders’ previous difficulties, the 4th graders were exposed to a heat-flow model, which they were found to apply during the exercises. In addition, they engaged in instant inquiry, i.e. performing brief ‘what-if’-scenarios, such as using the IR camera as a visualization tool to observe blowing on the hot water surface. For grades 10-12, such heat conduction experiments were complemented with dissipative phenomena, such as seeing temperature increases due to friction or collisions. With affordability on the rise, this easy-to-use technology is becoming an increasingly viable option for science education.

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