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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Heldin, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Isaksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Investigating tool engagement in groundwood pulping: finite element modelling and in-situ observations at the microscale2019In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With industrial groundwood pulping processes relying on carefully designed grit surfaces being developed for commercial use, it is increasingly important to understand the mechanisms occurring in the contact between wood and tool. We present a methodology to experimentally and numerically analyse the effect of different tool geometries on the groundwood pulping defibration process. Using a combination of high-resolution experimental and numerical methods, including finite element (FE) models, digital volume correlation (DVC) of synchrotron radiation-based X-ray computed tomography (CT) of initial grinding and lab-scale grinding experiments, this paper aims to study such mechanisms. Three different asperity geometries were studied in FE simulations and in grinding of wood from Norway spruce. We found a good correlation between strains obtained from FE models and strains calculated using DVC from stacks of CT images of initial grinding. We also correlate the strains obtained from numerical models to the integrity of the separated fibres in lab-scale grinding experiments. In conclusion, we found that, by modifying the asperity geometries, it is, to some extent, possible to control the underlying mechanisms, enabling development of better tools in terms of efficiency, quality of the fibres and stability of the groundwood pulping process.

  • 2.
    Heldin, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Designing grinding tools to control and understand fibre release in groundwood pulping2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical pulping is a very energy demanding process in which only a fraction of the energy is used for the actual separation of wood fibres. The rest of the energy is lost, partly in damaging already separated fibres and partly as heat during viscoelastic deformation of the wood. Groundwood pulping is one of the major mechanical pulping processes. In this process, a piece of wood is pressed against a rotating grinding stone. The stone surface has traditionally been made of grinding particles fused to a vitrified matrix. Though the process is close to 200 years old, the detailed mechanisms of the interactions between the grinding particles and the wood surface are still not fully understood. The random nature of the grinding stones combined with the heterogeneous nature of wood creates a stochastic process that is difficult to study in detail. This work utilizes well-defined tools, that facilitate testing and analysis, to increase the understanding of the tool-wood-interaction. In-situ tomography experiments were performed with such well-defined tools, to study the deformations and strains induced in the wood as the tool asperities engage the wood surface. Numerical simulations were used to study the influence of asperity shape, and to show how the induced strains promote intercellular cracks and fibre separation. Several well-defined tool surfaces were designed and tested in a newly developed lab-scale grinding equipment, to study their performance in terms of energy consumption and the quality of the produced fibres. It was shown that the well-defined grinding surfaces, with asperities the same size as a fibre diameter, can be designed both to achieve drastically lower energy consumption compared with that of traditional stones and to produce long and undamaged fibres. This thesis shows that it is possible to design future tools that can help reducing the energy consumption in industrial pulping.

    List of papers
    1. Initiation of wood defibration in groundwood pulping, single asperity indentation and scratching
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initiation of wood defibration in groundwood pulping, single asperity indentation and scratching
    2016 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 401-406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To understand how the energy requirements of the mechanical pulping process can be reduced, the fundamental mechanisms behind fiber separation in Norway spruce were studied experimentally and analytically. Single tip scratching in heated water was used to reproduce initial defibration mechanisms found industrially. The resulting scratches were then compared with surfaces ground in a real industrial process. Moreover, the mechanical behavior of the wood microstructure was monitored with X-ray computed microtomography as a single hard tip was pressed into it. Subsequent digital image correlation was applied to estimate the strain field in the region around the indenting tip. Regions in the wood with high tensile or shear strains were identified, i.e. where cracking and fiber separation is believed to initiate.

    Keywords
    Defibration, Scratching, Strain analysis
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Wood Science
    Research subject
    Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310478 (URN)000387974800001 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2019-05-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Investigating tool engagement in groundwood pulping: finite element modelling and in-situ observations at the microscale
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating tool engagement in groundwood pulping: finite element modelling and in-situ observations at the microscale
    2019 (English)In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    With industrial groundwood pulping processes relying on carefully designed grit surfaces being developed for commercial use, it is increasingly important to understand the mechanisms occurring in the contact between wood and tool. We present a methodology to experimentally and numerically analyse the effect of different tool geometries on the groundwood pulping defibration process. Using a combination of high-resolution experimental and numerical methods, including finite element (FE) models, digital volume correlation (DVC) of synchrotron radiation-based X-ray computed tomography (CT) of initial grinding and lab-scale grinding experiments, this paper aims to study such mechanisms. Three different asperity geometries were studied in FE simulations and in grinding of wood from Norway spruce. We found a good correlation between strains obtained from FE models and strains calculated using DVC from stacks of CT images of initial grinding. We also correlate the strains obtained from numerical models to the integrity of the separated fibres in lab-scale grinding experiments. In conclusion, we found that, by modifying the asperity geometries, it is, to some extent, possible to control the underlying mechanisms, enabling development of better tools in terms of efficiency, quality of the fibres and stability of the groundwood pulping process.

    Keywords
    CT; Defibration; DVC; FE; Grinding; Wood
    National Category
    Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382716 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 37206-2
    Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-11-20
    3. Defibration mechanisms and energy consumption in the grinding zone – a lab scale equipment and method to evaluate groundwood pulping tools
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defibration mechanisms and energy consumption in the grinding zone – a lab scale equipment and method to evaluate groundwood pulping tools
    2019 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwood pulping is a process that employs large machines, making them difficult to use in research. Lab scale grinders exist, but even though they are smaller, the sizes of the grinding stones or segments make them cumbersome to exchange and tailor. This study presents a method and an apparatus for investigating the detailed mechanisms and the energy requirements behind the fibre separation process. A well-defined grinding tool was used at three different temperatures to demonstrate that the equipment can differentiate levels of energy consumption and defibration rates, confirming the well-known fact that a higher temperature facilitates defibration. It is also shown how the equipment can be used to study the influence of grinding parameters, exemplified by the effect of temperature on the way fibres are separated and the character of the produced fibres. A key feature of the equipment is the use and evaluation of small grinding surfaces, more readily designed, produced, evaluated and studied. This reduces both the cost and time necessary for testing and evaluating. At the same time, a technique to produce well defined grinding surfaces was employed, which is necessary for repeatability and robust testing, not achievable with traditional grinding stones.

    Keywords
    Computed tomography, Energy efficiency, Groundwood pulping, Lab scale equipment, Test method
    National Category
    Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382698 (URN)10.1515/npprj-2019-0063 (DOI)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 37206-2
    Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-11-12
    4. Influences of load and temperature on groundwood pulping with well-defined tools
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences of load and temperature on groundwood pulping with well-defined tools
    2019 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 438-439, article id 203051Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwood pulping is an industrial process with a high energy demand, although only a minor part of the energy is used for actually separating the fibres and the rest for working them. Traditionally, the separation process employs a grinding stone having particles embedded in a softer matrix. The position and distribution of the particles have been random, causing their interaction with the wood to also be random. This makes studies of the mechanisms during the separation process difficult. Knowledge of the mechanisms in the separation process helps when designing future tools aimed at energy efficiency or tailored fibre properties. Recently, grinding surfaces having diamond particles brazed to a steel backing at fixed positions have been developed and commercialised. In this work, individual particles are not positioned at the tool surfaces. Instead, well-defined structured diamond films, soldered to a backing, are used as grinding tools. The grinding asperities of such films can be tailored to shapes that are not possible to achieve by using particles. Using this kind of tool in a lab scale grinding equipment, confirms the well-known fact that increased load or increased temperature both lead to lower energy consumption for fibre separation and longer, less damaged fibres.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    Grinding, Pulping, Wood tomography, Energy savings, Tool design
    National Category
    Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382700 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2019.203051 (DOI)000500939900018 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 37206-2
    Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Evaluation of well-defined tool surface designs for groundwood pulping
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of well-defined tool surface designs for groundwood pulping
    2019 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 9575-9587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwood pulping is a process in which logs are pressed against a rotating grinding stone. A conventional grinding stone is generally made of grinding particles in a vitrified matrix. As the particles are practically round, their contact with the wood is limited to occasional point contacts. The interaction between the particles and the wood occurs at random positions and at random times, only intermittently contributing to the defibration process. In this work, well-defined grinding tools with asperities giving line contacts rather than point contacts were tested. The tool surface asperities were elongated in shape and positioned with different density over the surface. The tools were tested in a lab-scale equipment at elevated temperatures, and their performance was compared to that of a conventional grinding stone. The grinding mechanisms varied between the different tools, and the specific grinding energy was reduced compared to the conventional tool.

    Keywords
    Groundwood pulping, Diamond tools, Energy consumption, Tomography, Grinding mechanisms
    National Category
    Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382701 (URN)10.15376/biores.14.4.9575-9587 (DOI)000493997400141 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 37206-2
    Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-12-05Bibliographically approved
    6. Influence of alignment between extended tool ridges and the wood structure on the defibration mechanisms in groundwood pulping experiments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of alignment between extended tool ridges and the wood structure on the defibration mechanisms in groundwood pulping experiments
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382709 (URN)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 37206-2
    Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-09-10
  • 3.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Carlsson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Isaksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    On tool engagement in groundwood pulping - in-situ observations and numerical modelling at the microscale2019In: The 11th Fundamental Mechanical Pulp Research Seminar, Norrköping, Sweden, April 2-4, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Isaksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Initiation of wood defibration in groundwood pulping, single asperity indentation and scratching2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 401-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand how the energy requirements of the mechanical pulping process can be reduced, the fundamental mechanisms behind fiber separation in Norway spruce were studied experimentally and analytically. Single tip scratching in heated water was used to reproduce initial defibration mechanisms found industrially. The resulting scratches were then compared with surfaces ground in a real industrial process. Moreover, the mechanical behavior of the wood microstructure was monitored with X-ray computed microtomography as a single hard tip was pressed into it. Subsequent digital image correlation was applied to estimate the strain field in the region around the indenting tip. Regions in the wood with high tensile or shear strains were identified, i.e. where cracking and fiber separation is believed to initiate.

  • 5.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    A labscale test equipment ot study the tool surface influence in pressure groundwood pulping2015In: 20th International Conference on Wear of Materials, Toronto, Canada, April 12-16, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A test rig has been designed to allow controlled studies of the mechanisms in the industrial Pressure Ground Wood (PGW) pulping process:

    • The equipment consists of a setup similar to a lathe, with a tool sliding against a rotation wood workpiece.
    • Placed inside a pressure chamber which allows testing at steam temperatures and pressures exceesing those in industrial pulping.
    • Normal force and friction force are continuously monitored.
    • Separated fibers, collected after the test, the tool surface and the track of the machined workpiece are analysed after the test.
  • 6.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Defibration mechanisms and energy consumption in the grinding zone – a lab scale equipment and method to evaluate groundwood pulping tools2019In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwood pulping is a process that employs large machines, making them difficult to use in research. Lab scale grinders exist, but even though they are smaller, the sizes of the grinding stones or segments make them cumbersome to exchange and tailor. This study presents a method and an apparatus for investigating the detailed mechanisms and the energy requirements behind the fibre separation process. A well-defined grinding tool was used at three different temperatures to demonstrate that the equipment can differentiate levels of energy consumption and defibration rates, confirming the well-known fact that a higher temperature facilitates defibration. It is also shown how the equipment can be used to study the influence of grinding parameters, exemplified by the effect of temperature on the way fibres are separated and the character of the produced fibres. A key feature of the equipment is the use and evaluation of small grinding surfaces, more readily designed, produced, evaluated and studied. This reduces both the cost and time necessary for testing and evaluating. At the same time, a technique to produce well defined grinding surfaces was employed, which is necessary for repeatability and robust testing, not achievable with traditional grinding stones.

  • 7.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Designed tools for controlling the defibration mechanisms in the pressure groundwood process2015In: International Tribology Conference, Tokyo 2015, Tokyo, Japan, September 16-20, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry is a large global industry producing millions of tons of paper each year. To produce pulp for this paper, only a handful of processes are used. One of these is the mechanical pulping process, called Pressure Ground Wood (PGW). Although commonly used, the tribological details of the mechanisms behind the stochastic fiber separation are not well known.

    In order to study these mechanisms, and the influence of geometries at the tool surface, a test equipment allowing testing in a similar, but more controlled, environment is needed. For this purpose, a lab scale rig has been designed, capable of grinding at temperatures and pressures at industrially relevant conditions. The tools used are made of CVD-diamond thin films, structured into different well defined patterns of sharp edges. Samples of Norway spruce have been ground both using these tools and a conventional grinding stone surface. The fibers produces are compared and the possibility of controlling the fiber characteristics using the designed tools is discussed.

  • 8.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Evaluation of well-defined tool surface designs for groundwood pulping2019In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 9575-9587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwood pulping is a process in which logs are pressed against a rotating grinding stone. A conventional grinding stone is generally made of grinding particles in a vitrified matrix. As the particles are practically round, their contact with the wood is limited to occasional point contacts. The interaction between the particles and the wood occurs at random positions and at random times, only intermittently contributing to the defibration process. In this work, well-defined grinding tools with asperities giving line contacts rather than point contacts were tested. The tool surface asperities were elongated in shape and positioned with different density over the surface. The tools were tested in a lab-scale equipment at elevated temperatures, and their performance was compared to that of a conventional grinding stone. The grinding mechanisms varied between the different tools, and the specific grinding energy was reduced compared to the conventional tool.

  • 9.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influence of alignment between extended tool ridges and the wood structure on the defibration mechanisms in groundwood pulping experimentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influences of grinding surface alignment in groundwood pulping of Norway spruce2018In: 18th Nordic Symposium on Tribology - NORDTRIB 2018, Uppsala, Sweden, June 18-21, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Influences of load and temperature on groundwood pulping with well-defined tools2019In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 438-439, article id 203051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwood pulping is an industrial process with a high energy demand, although only a minor part of the energy is used for actually separating the fibres and the rest for working them. Traditionally, the separation process employs a grinding stone having particles embedded in a softer matrix. The position and distribution of the particles have been random, causing their interaction with the wood to also be random. This makes studies of the mechanisms during the separation process difficult. Knowledge of the mechanisms in the separation process helps when designing future tools aimed at energy efficiency or tailored fibre properties. Recently, grinding surfaces having diamond particles brazed to a steel backing at fixed positions have been developed and commercialised. In this work, individual particles are not positioned at the tool surfaces. Instead, well-defined structured diamond films, soldered to a backing, are used as grinding tools. The grinding asperities of such films can be tailored to shapes that are not possible to achieve by using particles. Using this kind of tool in a lab scale grinding equipment, confirms the well-known fact that increased load or increased temperature both lead to lower energy consumption for fibre separation and longer, less damaged fibres.

  • 12.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Micrometre compressions to facilitate controlled wear in groundwood pulping2016In: 17th Nordic Symposium on Tribology - Nordtrib, Hämeenlinna, Finland, 14-17 June, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Scratch testing for mimicking the early stage of wood defibration2014In: Asiatrib, Agra, India, February 17-20, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Tailored grinding surfaces for groundwood pulping - influencing wear mechanisms and energy requirements2017In: 21st International Conference on Wear of Materials, Long Beach, March 26-30, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Heldin, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Isaksson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics.
    Initiation of wood defibration, tribology at the fiber level2014In: Nordtrib, Aarhus, Denmark, June 10-13, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 15 of 15
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