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  • 1.
    Adam, Maurits
    et al.
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Reitenbach, Ivanina
    Euro FH Univ Appl Sci, Dept Psychol, Hamburg, Germany..
    Papenmeier, Frank
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Psychol, Tubingen, Germany..
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elsner, Claudia
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Max Planck Res Grp Naturalist Social Cognit, Berlin, Germany..
    Elsner, Birgit
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Goal saliency boosts infants' action prediction for human manual actions, but not for mechanical claws2016In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 44, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that infants' prediction of the goals of observed actions is influenced by own experience with the type of agent performing the action (i.e., human hand vs. non-human agent) as well as by action-relevant features of goal objects (e.g., object size). The present study investigated the combined effects of these factors on 12-month-olds' action prediction. Infants' (N=49) goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed 14 trials in which either a human hand or a mechanical claw reached for a small goal area (low-saliency goal) or a large goal area (high-saliency goal). Only infants who had observed the human hand reaching for a high-saliency goal fixated the goal object ahead of time, and they rapidly learned to predict the action goal across trials. By contrast, infants in all other conditions did not track the observed action in a predictive manner, and their gaze shifts to the action goal did not change systematically across trials. Thus, high-saliency goals seem to boost infants' predictive gaze shifts during the observation of human manual actions, but not of actions performed by a mechanical device. This supports the assumption that infants' action predictions are based on interactive effects of action-relevant object features (e.g., size) and own action experience.

  • 2. Augusti, Else-Marie
    et al.
    Melinder, Annika
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Look who's talking: Pre-verbal infants' perception of face-to-face and back-to-back social interactions2010In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, no 1, article id 161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four-, 6-, and 11-month old infants were presented with movies in which two adult actors conversed about everyday events, either by facing each other or looking in opposite directions. Infants from 6 months of age made more gaze shifts between the actors, in accordance with the flow of conversation, when the actors were facing each other. A second experiment demonstrated that gaze following alone did not cause this difference. Instead the results are consistent with a social cognitive interpretation, suggesting that infants perceive the difference between face-to-face and back-to-back conversations and that they prefer to attend to a typical pattern of social interaction from 6 months of age.

  • 3.
    Bakker, Marta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Daum, Moritz M.
    Handl, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neural correlates of action perception at the onset of functional grasping2015In: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 769-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Event-related potentials were recorded while infants observe congruent or incongruent grasping actions at the age when organized grasping first emerges (4-6 months of age). We demonstrate that the event-related potential component P400 encodes the congruency of power grasps at the age of 6 months (Experiment 1) and in 5-month-old infants that have developed the ability to use power grasps (Experiment 2). This effect does not extend to precision grasps, which infants cannot perform (Experiment 3). Our findings suggest that infants' encoding of the relationship between an object and a grasping hand (the action-perception link) is highly specialized to actions and manual configurations of actions that infants are able to perform.

  • 4.
    Bakker, Marta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaduk, Katharina
    Elsner, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juvrud, Joshua
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The neural basis of non-verbal communication - enhanced processing of perceived give-me gestures in 9-month-old girls2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, p. 59-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the neural basis of non-verbal communication. Event-related potentials were recorded while 29 nine-month-old infants were presented with a give me gesture (experimental condition) and the same hand shape but rotated 90 degrees, resulting in a non-communicative hand configuration (control condition). We found different responses in amplitude between the two conditions, captured in the P400 ERR component. Moreover, the size of this effect was modulated by participants' sex, with girls generally demonstrating a larger relative difference between the two conditions than boys.

  • 5.
    Bakker, Marta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sommerville, Jessica A.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enhanced neural processing of goal-directed actions during active training in 4-month-old infants2016In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 472-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores the neural correlates of action perception and its relation to infants' active experience performing goal-directed actions. Study 1 provided active training with sticky mittens that enables grasping and object manipulation in prereaching 4-month-olds. After training, EEG was recorded while infants observed images of hands grasping toward (congruent) or away from (incongruent) objects. We demonstrate that brief active training facilitates social perception as indexed by larger amplitude of the P400 ERP component to congruent compared with incongruent trials. Study 2 presented 4-month-old infants with passive training in which they observed an experimenter perform goal-directed reaching actions, followed by an identical ERP session to that used in Study 1. The second study did not demonstrate any differentiation between congruent and incongruent trials. These results suggest that (1) active experience alters the brains' response to goal-directed actions performed by others and (2) visual exposure alone is not sufficient in developing the neural networks subserving goal processing during action observation in infancy.

  • 6. Bertenthal, B.
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boyer, T. W.
    Differential Contributions of Development and Learning to Infants’ Knowledge of Object Continuity and Discontinuity2013In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 413-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty infants divided evenly between 5 and 7months of age were tested for their knowledge of object continuity versus discontinuity with a predictive tracking task. The stimulus event consisted of a moving ball that was briefly occluded for 20 trials. Both age groups predictively tracked the ball when it disappeared and reappeared via occlusion, but not when it disappeared and reappeared via implosion. Infants displayed high levels of predictive tracking from the first trial in the occlusion condition, and showed significant improvement across trials in the implosion condition. These results suggest that infants possess embodied knowledge to support differential tracking of continuously and discontinuously moving objects, but this tracking can be modified by visual experience.

  • 7. Bertenthal, B.
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boyer, T.W.
    Infants´ knowledge of object continuity and discontinuity2013In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 413-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty infants divided evenly between 5 and 7 months of age were tested for their knowledge of object continuity versus discontinuity with a predictive tracking task. The stimulus event consisted of a moving ball that was briefly occluded for 20 trials. Both age groups predictively tracked the ball when it disappeared and reappeared via occlusion, but not when it disappeared and reappeared via implosion. Infants displayed high levels of predictive tracking from the first trial in the occlusion condition, and showed significant improvement across trials in the implosion condition. These results suggest that infants possess embodied knowledge to support differential tracking of continuously and discontinuously moving objects, but this tracking can be modified by visual experience.

  • 8. Cannon, Erin N.
    et al.
    Woodward, Amanda L.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Turek, Colleen
    Action production influences 12-month-old infants' attention to others' actions2012In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work implicates a link between action control systems and action understanding. In this study, we investigated the role of the motor system in the development of visual anticipation of others actions. Twelve-month-olds engaged in behavioral and observation tasks. Containment activity, infants spontaneous engagement in producing containment actions; and gaze latency, how quickly they shifted gaze to the goal object of anothers containment actions, were measured. Findings revealed a positive relationship: infants who received the behavior task first evidenced a strong correlation between their own actions and their subsequent gaze latency of anothers actions. Learning over the course of trials was not evident. These findings demonstrate a direct influence of the motor system on online visual attention to others actions early in development.

  • 9. Daum, M.
    et al.
    Attig, M.
    Gunawan, R.
    Prinz, W.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Actions seen through the babies' eyes: A dissociation between looking and predictive gaze2012In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3, article id 370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explored the relation of two different measures used to investigate infants' expectations about goal-directed actions. In previous studies, expectations about action outcomes have been either measured after the action has been terminated, that is posthoc (e.g., via looking time) or during the action is being performed, that is online (e.g., via predictive gaze). Here, we directly compared both types of measures. Experiment 1 demonstrated a dissociation between looking time and predictive gaze for 9-month-olds. Looking time reflected identity-related expectations whereas predictive gaze did not. If at all, predictive gaze reflected location-related expectations. Experiment 2, including a wider age range, showed that the two measures remain dissociated over the first 3 years of life. It is only after the third birthday that the dissociation turns into an association, with both measures then reflecting identity-related expectations. We discuss these findings in terms of an early dissociation between two mechanisms for action expectation. We speculate that while post-hoc measures primarily tap ventral mechanisms for processing identity-related information (at least at a younger age), online measures primarily tap dorsal mechanisms for processing location-related information.

  • 10. Daum, M.
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Spatial cuing by referential human gestures, arrows, and mechanical devices2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Daum, M.
    et al.
    Ulber, J.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The development of pointing perception in infancy: Effects of communicative verbal signals on covert shifts of attention2013In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 1898-1908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to investigate the interplay of verbal and nonverbal communication with respect to infants' perception of pointing gestures. Infants were presented with still images of pointing hands (cue) in combination with an acoustic stimulus. Thecommunicative content of this acoustic stimulus was varied from being human and communicative to artificial. Saccadic reaction times (SRTs) from the cue to a peripheral target were measured as an indicator of the modulation of covert attention. A significant cueing effect (facilitated SRTs for congruent compared with incongruent trials) was only present in a condition with additional communicative and referential speech. In addition, the size of the cueing effect increased themore human and communicative the acoustic stimulus was. This indicates a beneficial effect ofverbal communication on the perception of nonverbal communicative pointing gestures, emphasizing the important role of verbal communication in facilitating social understanding across domains. These findings additionally suggest that human and communicative (ostensive) signals are not qualitatively different from other less social signals but just quantitatively the most attention grabbing among a number of other signals.

  • 12. Daum, Moritz M
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Development of Grasping Comprehension in Infancy: Covert Shifts of Attention Caused by Referential Actions2011In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 208, no 2, p. 297-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An eye tracking paradigm was used to investigate how infants' attention is modulated by observed goal-directed manual grasping actions. In Experiment 1, we presented 3-, 5-, and 7-month-old infants with a static picture of a grasping hand, followed by a target appearing at a location either congruent or incongruent with the grasping direction of the hand. The latency of infants gaze shift from the hand to the target was recorded and compared between congruent and incongruent trials. Results demonstrate a congruency effect from 5 months of age. A second experiment illustrated that the congruency effect of Experiment 1 does not extend to a visually similar mechanical claw (instead of the grasping hand). Together these two experiments describe the onset of covert attention shifts in response to manual actions and relate these findings to the onset of manual grasping.

  • 13.
    Ekberg, Therese L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska institutet.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    EASE Team, The
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska institutet.
    Reduced Prospective Motor Control in 10-month-olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder2016In: Clinical Psychological Science, ISSN 2167-7026, E-ISSN 2167-7034, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor impairments are not a part of the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but are overrepresented in the ASD population. Deficits in prospective motor control have been demonstrated in adults and older children with ASD but have never before been examined in infants at familial risk for the disorder. We assessed the ability to prospectively control reach-to-grasp actions in 10-month-old siblings of children with ASD (high-risk group, n = 29, 13 female) as well as in a low-risk control group (n = 16, 8 female). The task was to catch a ball rolling on a curvilinear path off an inclined surface. The low-risk group performed predictive reaches when catching the ball, whereas the high-risk group started their movements reactively. The high-risk group started their reaches significantly later than the low-risk group (p = .03). These results indicate impaired prospective motor control in infants susceptible for ASD.

  • 14.
    Elsner, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bakker, Marta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rohlfing, Katharina
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants' online perception of give-and-take interactions2014In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 126, p. 280-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigated infants’ online perception of give-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a give-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants’ gaze shifts from the passing hand to the receiving hand were significantly faster when the receiving hand formed a give-me gesture relative to when it was presented as an inverted hand shape. Experiment 2 revealed that infants’ goal-directed gaze shifts were not based on different affordances of the two receiving hands. Two additional control experiments further demonstrated that differences in infants’ online gaze behavior were not mediated by an attentional preference for the give-me gesture. Together, our findings provide evidence that properties of social action goals influence infants’ online gaze during action observation. The current studies demonstrate that infants have expectations about well-formed object transfer actions between social agents. We suggest that 12-month-olds are sensitive to social goals within the context of give-and-take interactions while observing from a third-party perspective.

  • 15.
    Elsner, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    D'Ausilio, A.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fadiga, L.
    The motor cortex is causally related to predictive eye movements during action observation2013In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 488-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the hypothesis that predictive gaze during observation of other people's actions depends on the activation of corresponding action plans in the observer. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation and eye-tracking technology we found that stimulation of the motor hand area, but not of the leg area, slowed gaze predictive behavior (compared to no TMS). This result shows that predictive eye movements to others' action goals depend on a somatotopical recruitment of the observer's motor system. The study provides direct support for the view that a direct matching process implemented in the mirror-neuron system plays a functional role for real-time goal prediction.

  • 16.
    Elsner, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Humans anticipate the goal of other people’s point-light actions2012In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This eye tracking study investigated the degree to which biological motion information from manual point-light displays provides sufficient information to elicit anticipatory eye movements. We compared gaze performance of adults observing a biological motion point-light display of a hand reaching fora goal object or a non-biological version of the same event. Participants anticipated the goal of the point-light action in the biological motion condition but not in a non-biological control condition. The present study demonstrates that kinematic information from biological motion can be used to anticipate the goal of other people's point-light actions and that the presence of biological motion is sufficient for anticipation to occur.

  • 17.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, Sven
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye tracking in early autism research2013In: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, ISSN 1866-1955, Vol. 5, p. 28-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking has the potential to characterize autism at a unique intermediate level, with links 'down' to underlying neurocognitive networks, as well as 'up' to everyday function and dysfunction. Because it is non-invasive and does not require advanced motor responses or language, eye tracking is particularly important for the study of young children and infants. In this article, we review eye tracking studies of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children at risk for ASD. Reduced looking time at people and faces, as well as problems with disengagement of attention, appear to be among the earliest signs of ASD, emerging during the first year of life. In toddlers with ASD, altered looking patterns across facial parts such as the eyes and mouth have been found, together with limited orienting to biological motion. We provide a detailed discussion of these and other key findings and highlight methodological opportunities and challenges for eye tracking research of young children with ASD. We conclude that eye tracking can reveal important features of the complex picture of autism.

  • 18.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Novel Methods in Developmental Research2012Other (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants predict other people's action goals.2006In: Nat Neurosci, ISSN 1097-6256, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 878-9Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 20.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Arslan, Melda
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden; Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roeyers, Herbert
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Author Correction: Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 4157Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action and Social Understanding in Early Development2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action and Social Understanding in the First Years of Life2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants use social context to bind actions into a collaborative sequence2013In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 841-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking was used to show that 18-month-old infants are sensitive to social context as a sign that others' actions are bound together as a collaborative sequence based on a joint goal. Infants observed five identical demonstrations in which Actor 1 moved a block to one location and Actor 2 moved the same block to a new location, creating a sequence of actions that could be considered either individual actions or collaboration. In the test phase, Actor 1 was alone and sitting so that she could reach both locations. The question was whether she would place a new block in the location she had previously (individual goal) or in the location that could be considered the goal of collaboration (joint goal). Importantly, in the Social condition, the actors were socially engaged with each other before and during the demonstration, while in the Non-Social condition, they were not. Results revealed that infants in the Social condition spontaneously anticipated Actor 1 placing her block in the joint goal location more often than those in the Non-Social condition. Thus, the social context seems to allow infants to bind actions into a collaborative sequence and anticipate joint rather than individual goals, giving insight into how actions are perceived using top-down processing early in life.

  • 24.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wesevich, Veronica
    Washington Univ, Sch Med St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130 USA.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pupillary Contagion in Infancy: Evidence for spontaneous transfer of arousal2016In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 997-1003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pupillary contagionresponding to pupil size observed in other people with changes in one's own pupilhas been found in adults and suggests that arousal and other internal states could be transferred across individuals using a subtle physiological cue. Examining this phenomenon developmentally gives insight into its origins and underlying mechanisms, such as whether it is an automatic adaptation already present in infancy. In the current study, 6- and 9-month-olds viewed schematic depictions of eyes with smaller and larger pupilspairs of concentric circles with smaller and larger black centerswhile their own pupil sizes were recorded. Control stimuli were comparable squares. For both age groups, infants' pupil size was greater when they viewed large-center circles than when they viewed small-center circles, and no differences were found for large-center compared with small-center squares. The findings suggest that infants are sensitive and responsive to subtle cues to other people's internal states, a mechanism that would be beneficial for early social development.

  • 25.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wesevich, Victoria
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, St Louis, MO USA.
    Truedsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wåhlstedt, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Callous-unemotional traits affect adolescents' perception of collaboration2016In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 57, no 12, p. 1400-1406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: How is the perception of collaboration influenced by individual characteristics, in particular high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits? CU traits are associated with low empathy and endorsement of negative social goals such as dominance and forced respect. Thus, it is possible that they could relate to difficulties in interpreting that others are collaborating based on a shared goal.

    METHODS: In the current study, a community sample of 15- to 16-year olds participated in an eye tracking task measuring whether they expect that others engaged in an action sequence are collaborating, depending on the emotion they display toward each other. Positive emotion would indicate that they share a goal, while negative emotion would indicate that they hold individual goals.

    RESULTS: When the actors showed positive emotion toward each other, expectations of collaboration varied with CU traits. The higher adolescents were on CU traits, the less likely they were to expect collaboration. When the actors showed negative emotion toward each other, CU traits did not influence expectations of collaboration.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that CU traits are associated with difficulty in perceiving positive social interactions, which could further contribute to the behavioral and emotional problems common to those with high CU traits.

  • 26.
    Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kenward, Ben
    Oxford Brookes Univ, Dept Psychol, Oxford, England.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Diminished ability to identify facial emotional expressions in children with disorganized attachment representations2016In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 20, no 6, article id e12465Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Galazka, Martyna A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ganea, Patricia A.
    Univ Toronto, Inst Child Study, 45 Walmer Rd, Toronto, ON M5R 2X2, Canada.
    Mapping language to the mind: Toddlers’ online processing of language as a reflection of speaker’s knowledge and ignorance2016In: Cognitive development, ISSN 0885-2014, E-ISSN 1879-226X, Vol. 40, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The current research examined whether young children react to inconsistencies between a speakers’ language and her knowledge or lack of knowledge about reality. Gaze behavior at the speaker was examined during two key frames: prior and post location name. Present findings demonstrate that even before the location name is spoken, the 24-month-olds (N = 122) differentiate between the scenarios in which the speaker is knowledgeable or ignorant about where the object is. Following the location name, infant gaze was largely influenced by the inconsistency of the language. That is, infants looked more at the speaker when she mentioned a location name that was inconsistent with her knowledge or lack of knowledge of the object’s transfer. The current results demonstrate that by two years children have begun to take into account other speakers’ knowledge or ignorance of an event as they process statements about reality.

  • 28.
    Galazka, Martyna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bakker, Marta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How social is the chaser?: Neural correlates of chasing perception in 9-month-old infants2016In: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 19, p. 270-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the neural correlates of chasing perception in infancy to determine whether animated interactions are processed as social events. By using EEG and an ERP design with animations of simple geometric shapes, we examined whether the positive posterior (P400) component, previously found in response to social stimuli, as well as the attention related negative fronto-central component (Nc), differs when infants observed a chaser versus a non-chaser. In Study 1, the chaser was compared to an inanimate object. In Study 2, the chaser was compared to an animate but not chasing agent (randomly moving agent). Results demonstrate no difference in the Nc component, but statistically higher P400 amplitude when the chasing agent was compared to either an inanimate object or a random object. We also find a difference in the N290 component in both studies and in the P200 component in Study 2, when the chasing agent is compared to the randomly moving agent. The present studies demonstrate for the first time that infants' process correlated motion such as chasing as a social interaction. The perception of the chasing agent elicits stronger time-locked responses, denoting a link between motion perception and social cognition.

  • 29.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ Prospective Control during Object Manipulation in an Uncertain Environment2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ Prospective Control during Object Manipulation2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Gottwald, Janna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Achermann, Sheila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development: Prospective Motor Control in Infancy Is Related to Inhibition and Working Memory2016In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 1600-1610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasksinvolving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibitionand a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants' performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks. The current study provides evidence that motor control and executive functioning are intertwined early in life, which suggests an embodied perspective on executive-functioning development. We argue that executive functions and prospective motor control develop from a common source and a single motive: to control action. This is the first demonstration that low-level movement planning is related to higher-order executive control early in life.

  • 32.
    Gottwald, Janna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    de Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora
    Univ Padua, Dept Dev Psychol & Socializat, Padua, Italy.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekberg, Therese L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple step actions be explained by Fitts' law?2017In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 4-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place task, with difficulty of the placing action varied by goal size and goal distance. To target prospective motor control, we determined the kinematics of the prior reaching movements using a motion-tracking system. Peak velocity of the first movement unit of the reach served as indicator for prospective motor control. Both difficulty aspects (goal size and goal distance) affected prior reaching, suggesting that both these aspects of the subsequent action have an impact on the prior action. The smaller the goal size and the longer the distance to the goal, the slower infants were in the beginning of their reach toward the object. Additionally, we modeled movement times of both reaching and placing actions using a formulation of Fitts' law (as in heading). The model was significant for placement and reaching movement times. These findings suggest that 14-month-olds can plan their future actions and prospectively control their related movements with respect to future task difficulties.

  • 33.
    Gottwald, Janna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants' prospective control during object manipulation in an uncertain environment2015In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 233, no 8, p. 2383-2390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how infants use visual and sensorimotor information to prospectively control their actions. We gave 14-month-olds two objects of different weight and observed how high they were lifted, using a Qualisys Motion Capture System. In one condition, the two objects were visually distinct (different color condition) in another they were visually identical (same color condition). Lifting amplitudes of the first movement unit were analyzed in order to assess prospective control. Results demonstrate that infants lifted a light object higher than a heavy object, especially when vision could be used to assess weight (different color condition). When being confronted with two visually identical objects of different weight (same color condition), infants showed a different lifting pattern than what could be observed in the different color condition, expressed by a significant interaction effect between object weight and color condition on lifting amplitude. These results indicate that (a) visual information about object weight can be used to prospectively control lifting actions and that (b) infants are able to prospectively control their lifting actions even without visual information about object weight. We argue that infants, in the absence of reliable visual information about object weight, heighten their dependence on non-visual information (tactile, sensorimotor memory) in order to estimate weight and pre-adjust their lifting actions in a prospective manner.

  • 34.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekberg, Therese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What’s next? Infants Prospectively Control their Reaching Movements Depending on the Difficulty of their Subsequent Action2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ adaptation to object weight2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ adaptation to object weight2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Gredeback, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaduk, Katharina
    Bakker, Marta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gottwald, Janna
    Ekberg, Therese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elsner, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reid, Vincent
    Kenward, Ben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The neuropsychology of infants' pro-social preferences2015In: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 12, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study is the first to investigate neural correlates of infants' detection of pro-and antisocial agents. Differences in ERP component P400 over posterior temporal areas were found during 6-month-olds' observation of helping and hindering agents (Experiment 1), but not during observation of identically moving agents that did not help or hinder (Experiment 2). The results demonstrate that the P400 component indexes activation of infants' memories of previously perceived interactions between social agents. This leads to suggest that similar processes might be involved in infants' processing of pro-and antisocial agents and other social perception processes (encoding gaze direction, goal directed grasping and pointing).

  • 38.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants' understanding of everyday social interactions: A dual process account2010In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, no 114, p. 197-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Object processing during a joint gaze following task2007In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 65-79Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Processing of biological motion and audiovisual synchrony in children with typical development and in children with Autism2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Spatial cuing by referential human gestures, arrows, and mechanical devices2011In: International Journal of Mind, Brain and Cognition, no 2, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The development and neural basis of pointing comprehension2010In: Social Neuroscience, ISSN 1747-0919, E-ISSN 1747-0927, no 5, p. 441-450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The development of joint visual attention: A longitudinal study of gaze following during interactions with mothers and strangers2010In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, no 13, p. 839-848Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Daum, Moritz M.
    The Microstructure of Action Perception in Infancy: Decomposing the Temporal Structure of Social Information Processing2015In: Child Development Perspectives, ISSN 1750-8592, E-ISSN 1750-8606, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 79-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we review recent evidence of infants' early competence in perceiving and interpreting the actions of others. We present a theoretical model that decomposes the timeline of action perception into a series of distinct processes that occur in a particular order. Once an agent is detected, covert attention can be allocated to the future state of the agent (priming), which may lead to overt gaze shifts that predict goals (prediction). Once these goals are achieved, the consequence of the agents' actions and the manner in which the actions were performed can be evaluated (evaluation). We propose that all of these processes have unique requirements, both in terms of timing and cognitive resources. To understand more fully the rich social world of infants, we need to pay more attention to the temporal structure of social perception and ask what information is available to infants and how this changes over time.

  • 45.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Schmitow, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Laeng, Bruno
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual Differences in Face Processing: Infants' Scanning Patterns and Pupil Dilations are Influenced by the Distribution of Parental Leave2012In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 79-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen-month-old infants were presented with static images of happy, neutral, and fearful emotional facial expressions in an eye-tracking paradigm. The emotions were expressed by the infants own parents as well as a male and female stranger (parents of another participating infant). Rather than measuring the duration of gaze in particular areas of interest, we measured number of fixations, distribution of fixations, and pupil diameter to evaluate global scanning patterns and reactions to emotional content. The three measures were differentially sensitive to differences in parental leave, emotional expression, and face familiarity. Infants scanned and processed differently happy, neutral, and fearful faces. In addition, infants cared for by both father and mother (divided parental leave) distributed their gaze more across faces than did infants primarily cared for by one parent (in this study, the mother). Pupil diameter complemented these findings, revealing that infants had larger pupil diameter during observation of neutral emotions expressed by the parent who is not currently the primary caregiver. This study demonstrates how conclusions differ as a function of the particular eye-tracking measure used and shows that the three measures used here converge on the conclusion that 14-month-old infants processing of emotional expressions is influenced by infants exposure to fathers and mothers.

  • 46.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye Movements During Action Observation2015In: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 591-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important element in social interactions is predicting the goals of others, including the goals of others' manual actions. Over a decade ago, Flanagan and Johansson demonstrated that, when observing other people reaching for objects, the observer's gaze arrives at the goal before the action is completed. Moreover, those authors proposed that this behavior was mediated by an embodied process, which takes advantage of the observer's motor knowledge. Here, we scrutinize work that has followed that seminal article. We include studies on adults that have used combined eye tracking and transcranial magnetic stimulation technologies to test causal hypotheses about underlying brain circuits. We also include developmental studies on human infants. We conclude that, although several aspects of the embodied process of predictive eye movements remain to be clarified, current evidence strongly suggests that the motor system plays a causal role in guiding predictive gaze shifts that focus on another person's future goal. The early emergence of the predictive gaze in infant development underlines its importance for social cognition and interaction.

  • 47.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kenward, Benjamin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The microstructure of  infants' gaze as they view adult shifts in overt attention2008In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 533-543Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Goal anticipation during action observation is influenced by synonymous action capabilities, a puzzling developmental study2010In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, no 202, p. 493-497Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juvrud, Joshua C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Green, Dorota
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action Prediction Allows Hypothesis Testing via Internal Forward Models at 6 Months of Age2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose that action prediction provides a cornerstone in a learning process known as internal forward models. According to this suggestion infants' predictions (looking to the mouth of someone moving a spoon upward) will moments later be validated or proven false (spoon was in fact directed toward a bowl), information that is directly perceived as the distance between the predicted and actual goal. Using an individual difference approach we demonstrate that action prediction correlates with the tendency to react with surprise when social interactions are not acted out as expected (action evaluation). This association is demonstrated across tasks and in a large sample (n = 118) at 6 months of age. These results provide the first indication that infants might rely on internal forward models to structure their social world. Additional analysis, consistent with prior work and assumptions from embodied cognition, demonstrates that the latency of infants' action predictions correlate with the infant's own manual proficiency.

  • 50.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melinder, Annika
    Teleological Reasoning in 4-Month-Old Infants: Pupil Dilations and Contextual Constraints2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 10, p. e26487-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four-month-old infants were presented with feeding actions performed in a rational or irrational manner. Infants reacted to the irrational feeding actions by dilating their pupils, but only in the presence of rich contextual constraints. The study demonstrates that teleological processes are online at 4 months of age and illustrates the usefulness of pupil dilations as a measure of social cognitive processes early in infancy.

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