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  • 1. Crossin, Glenn T.
    et al.
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Vandersteen, Wendy E.
    Devlin, Robert H.
    Early Life-History Consequences of Growth-Hormone Transgenesis in Rainbow Trout Reared in Stream Ecosystem Mesocosms2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0120173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is persistent commercial interest in the use of growth modified fishes for shortening production cycles and increasing overall food production, but there is concern over the potential impact that transgenic fishes might have if ever released into nature. To explore the ecological consequences of transgenic fish, we performed two experiments in which the early growth and survival of growth-hormone transgenic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were assessed in naturalized stream mesocosms that either contained predators or were predator-free. We paid special attention to the survival bottleneck that occurs during the early life-history of salmonids, and conducted experiments at two age classes (first-feeding fry and 60 days post-first-feeding) that lie on either side of the bottleneck. In the late summer, the first-feeding transgenic trout could not match the growth potential of their wildtype siblings when reared in a hydrodynamically complex and oligotrophic environment, irrespective of predation pressure. Furthermore, overall survival of transgenic fry was lower than in wild-type (transgenic = 30% without predators, 8% with predators; wild-type = 81% without predators, 31% with predators). In the experiment with 60-day old fry, we explored the effects of the transgene in different genetic backgrounds (wild versus domesticated). We found no difference in overwinter survival but significantly higher growth by transgenic trout, irrespective of genetic background. We conclude that the high mortality of GH-transgenic trout during first-feeding reflects an inability to sustain the basic metabolic requirements necessary for life in complex, stream environments. However, when older, GH-transgenic fish display a competitive advantage over wild-type fry, and show greater growth and equal survival as wild-type. These results demonstrate how developmental age and time of year can influence the response of genotypes to environmental conditions. We therefore urge caution when extrapolating the results of GH-transgenesis risk assessment studies across multiple life-history or developmental stages.

  • 2.
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Lagman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Sundström, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Boldness predicts social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio)2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 8, article id e23565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance.

  • 3. Devlin, Robert H.
    et al.
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Leggatt, Rosalind A.
    Assessing Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Growth-Accelerated Genetically Engineered Fishes2015In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 65, no 7, p. 685-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetically engineered fish containing growth hormone (GH) transgenes have been synthesized for more than 25 years, now with modifications made in multiple aquacultured species. Despite significant improvements in production characteristics being realized, these fish have not yet entered commercial production. The very strong enhancement of growth rates that can arise from GH transgenesis in fish has generated public and scientific concern regarding ecological and food safety. Little ecological risk is anticipated from engineered strains kept in fully contained facilities, so the concern is largely directed toward the reliability of containment measures and determining whether robust ecological data, pertinent to nature, can be generated within research facilities to minimize uncertainty and allow reliable risk-assessment predictions. This article summarizes the growth, life history, and behavioral changes observed in GH-transgenic fish and discusses the environmental and evolutionary factors affecting the adaptation, plasticity, and fitness of transgenic fish and their potential consequences on natural ecosystems.

  • 4. Duan, M.
    et al.
    Zhang, T.
    Hu, W.
    Xie, S.
    Sundström, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Li, Z.
    Zhu, Z.
    Risk-taking behaviour may explain high predation mortality of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio2013In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 83, no 5, p. 1183-1196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although they were not overrepresented at a higher-quantity food source. Moreover, the analysis showed that transgenic C. carpio maintained a faster growth rate, and were more willing to risk exposure to a predator when foraging, thereby supporting the hypothesis that predation selects against maximal growth rates by removing individuals that display increased foraging effort. Without compensatory behaviours that could mitigate the effects of predation risk, the escaped or released transgenic C. carpio with high-gain and high-risk performance would grow well but probably suffer high predation mortality in nature.

  • 5. Duan, Ming
    et al.
    Zhang, Tanglin
    Hu, Wei
    Li, Zhongjie
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Zhu, Tingbing
    Zhong, Chengrong
    Zhu, Zuoyan
    Behavioral alterations in GH transgenic common carp may explain enhanced competitive feeding ability2011In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 317, no 1-4, p. 175-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of GH transgenesis and its production in social interactions in juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpi. With food pellets provided sequentially, the serum GH levels and behavioral effects were measured in 14 pairs of size-matched 'all-fish' GH-transgenic and non-transgenic common carp. In six consecutive observations during 3 days, transgenic fish had a higher movement level as well as a higher social status, being 2.69 times as aggressive, two minutes before and after the 10-min feeding session compared to non-transgenic fish. Transgenic fish also were more than 1.74 times as likely to consume each pellet. During the 8-day experiment, transgenic fish had 4.09 times higher specific growth rate in body weight as well as 6.36 times higher serum GH level than the non-transgenic fish. These results show that GH transgenesis promotes over-expression of GH and alters behaviors in juvenile common carp, thereby increasing their ability to compete and gain food resources, presumably to meet a higher intrinsic growth rate, which gives direct evidence for the GH-induced elevation in feeding competitive ability of GH-transgenic common carp. Understanding these relationships would not only help evaluating potential ecological effects of the escaped/released transgenic fishes, but also help using potential aquaculture of this growth-enhanced strain.

  • 6. Forabosco, Flavio
    et al.
    Sundström, Fredrik L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rydhmer, Lotta
    An algorithm for the identification of genetically modified animals2013In: Trends in Biotechnology, ISSN 0167-7799, E-ISSN 1879-3096, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 8-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of genetically modified (GM) animals has generated a demand for accurate and unique identification to assure compliance with relevant national and international legislation. Individual identification of GM animals is essential to improve safety and traceability, as well as to fulfill the present and future expectations of producers, consumers, and authorities.

  • 7.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Brelin, D.
    Devlin, R. H.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Inside the heads of David and Goliath: environmental effects on brain morphology among wild and growth-enhanced coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch2012In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 987-1002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transgenic and wild-type individual coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were reared in hatchery and near-natural stream conditions and their brain and structure sizes were determined. Animals reared in the hatchery grew larger and developed larger brains, both absolutely and when controlling for body size. In both environments, transgenics developed relatively smaller brains than wild types. Further, the volume of the optic tectum of both genotypes was larger in the hatchery animals and the cerebellum of transgenics was smaller when reared in near-natural streams. Finally, wild types developed a markedly smaller telencephalon under hatchery conditions. It is concluded that, apart from the environment, genetic factors that modulate somatic growth rate also have a strong influence on brain size and structure.

  • 8.
    Leggatt, Rosalind A.
    et al.
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre. Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
    Vandersteen, Wendy E.
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada.;Miracle Springs Inc, 12443 Stave Lake Rd, Mission, BC V2V 0A6, Canada..
    Devlin, Robert H.
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
    Alternate Directed Anthropogenic Shifts in Genotype Result in Different Ecological Outcomes in Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Fry2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0148687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated and growth hormone (GH) transgenic salmon provide an interesting model to compare effects of selected versus engineered phenotypic change on relative fitness in an ecological context. Phenotype in domestication is altered via polygenic selection of traits over multiple generations, whereas in transgenesis is altered by a single locus in one generation. These established and emerging technologies both result in elevated growth rates in culture, and are associated with similar secondary effects such as increased foraging, decreased predator avoidance, and similar endocrine and gene expression profiles. As such, there is concern regarding ecological consequences should fish that have been genetically altered escape to natural ecosystems. To determine if the type of genetic change influences fitness components associated with ecological success outside of the culture environments they were produced for, we examined growth and survival of domesticated, transgenic, and wild-type coho salmon fry under different environmental conditions. In simple conditions (i. e. culture) with unlimited food, transgenic fish had the greatest growth, while in naturalized stream tanks (limited natural food, with or without predators) domesticated fish had greatest growth and survival of the three fish groups. As such, the largest growth in culture conditions may not translate to the greatest ecological effects in natural conditions, and shifts in phenotype over multiple rather than one loci may result in greater success in a wider range of conditions. These differences may arise from very different historical opportunities of transgenic and domesticated strains to select for multiple growth pathways or counter-select against negative secondary changes arising from elevated capacity for growth, with domesticated fish potentially obtaining or retaining adaptive responses to multiple environmental conditions not yet acquired in recently generated transgenic strains.

  • 9.
    Leggatt, Rosalind A.
    et al.
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, Ctr Aquat Biotechnol Regulatory Res, W Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre. Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, Ctr Aquat Biotechnol Regulatory Res, W Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Woodward, Krista
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, Ctr Aquat Biotechnol Regulatory Res, W Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Devlin, Robert H.
    Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, Ctr Aquat Biotechnol Regulatory Res, W Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Growth-Enhanced Transgenic Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Strains Have Varied Success in Simulated Streams: Implications for Risk Assessment2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e0169991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic fish have accelerated growth and could improve production efficiency in aquaculture. However, concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish should they escape rearing facilities. While environmental effects have been examined in some GH transgenic models, there is a lack of information on whether effects differ among different constructs or strains of transgenic fish. We compared growth and survival of wild-type coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry, a fast-growing GH transgenic strain containing a metallothionein promoter (T-MT), and three lines/strains containing a reportedly weaker histone-3 promoter (T-H3) in hatchery conditions and semi-natural stream tanks with varying levels of natural food and predators. Rank order of genotype size and survival differed with varying environmental conditions, both within and among experiments. Despite accelerated growth in hatchery conditions, T-MT fry gained little or no growth enhancement in stream conditions, had enhanced survival when food was limiting, and inconsistent survival under other conditions. Rank growth was inconsistent in T-H3 strains, with one strain having highest, and two strains having the lowest growth in stream conditions, although all T-H3 strains had consistently poor survival. These studies demonstrate the importance of determining risk estimates for each unique transgenic model independent of other models.

  • 10.
    Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sundstrom, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Schmid, Marian
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rapid Evolution of Parasite Resistance in a Warmer Environment: Insights from a Large Scale Field Experiment2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0128860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change is expected to have major effects on host-parasite dynamics, with potentially enormous consequences for entire ecosystems. To develop an accurate prognostic framework, theoretical models must be supported by empirical research. We investigated potential changes in host-parasite dynamics between a fish parasite, the eyefluke Diplostomum baeri, and an intermediate host, the European perch Perca fluviatilis, in a large-scale semi-enclosed area in the Baltic Sea, the Biotest Lake, which since 1980 receives heated water from a nuclear power plant. Two sample screenings, in two consecutive years, showed that fish from the warmer Biotest Lake were now less parasitized than fish from the Baltic Sea. These results are contrasting previous screenings performed six years after the temperature change, which showed the inverse situation. An experimental infection, by which perch from both populations were exposed to D. baeri from the Baltic Sea, revealed that perch from the Baltic Sea were successfully infected, while Biotest fish were not. These findings suggest that the elevated temperature may have resulted, among other outcomes, in an extremely rapid evolutionary change through which fish from the experimental Biotest Lake have gained resistance to the parasite. Our results confirm the need to account for both rapid evolutionary adaptation and biotic interactions in predictive models, and highlight the importance of empirical research in order to validate future projections.

  • 11.
    Naslund, Joacim
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 463, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Johnsson, Jorgen I.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 463, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Autumn food restriction reduces smoltification rate, but not over-winter survival, in juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta2017In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 205-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The winter is often considered as a survival bottleneck for stream-living fish. Juvenile salmonids generally become less active during this period, and while food intake continues to some extent, growth rates are typically low. Here we present the results of an over-winter field experiment where energy levels were manipulated in late autumn. Three groups of juvenile (age 1+) brown trout, from an anadromous population, were monitored with respect to over-winter growth rate and survival (as indicated by recapture rates). Two groups were fed either high (HR), or low (LR) food rations in the laboratory for a month (October); the third group remained in the stream (STR). Over-winter growth rates were relatively low in all groups, and no growth compensation could be detected. Compared to HR and LR, STR fish had higher recapture rates after winter, indicating that laboratory housing may have affected the subsequent stream survival negatively. Comparing the two laboratory-housed groups, the LR group reached similar condition as the HR group in early spring, without indications of differences in survival. However, the initiation rate of body silvering (indicating initiation of smoltification) was lower in the LR group. Thus, it appears that food restriction during late autumn affect the onset of smoltification in juvenile brown trout. The results support previous laboratory studies indicating that salmonids modify their over-winter foraging behaviour to avoid too low energy levels at the end of winter. This modification appears to delay smoltification, but may not necessarily be costly in terms of over-winter mortality.

  • 12.
    Pekar, Heidi
    et al.
    Natl Food Agcy, Dept Sci, Div Chem, POB 622, S-75126 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Westerberg, Erik
    Natl Food Agcy, Dept Sci, Div Chem, POB 622, S-75126 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bruno, Oscar
    Natl Food Agcy, Dept Sci, Div Chem, POB 622, S-75126 Uppsala, Sweden.;OnTarget Chem, Virdings Alle 32 B, S-75450 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Laane, Ants
    AS Tallinna Vesi, Jarvevana Tee 3, EE-10132 Tallinn, Estonia..
    Persson, Kenneth M.
    Sydvatten, Hyllie Stn Torg 21, S-21532 Malmo, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Water Resource Engn, Box 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Thim, Anna-Maria
    Natl Food Agcy, Dept Sci, Div Chem, POB 622, S-75126 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fast, rugged and sensitive ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of cyanotoxins in raw water and drinking water-First findings of anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins and microcystin variants in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds2016In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1429, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater blooms of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in source waters are generally composed of several different strains with the capability to produce a variety of toxins. The major exposure routes for humans are direct contact with recreational waters and ingestion of drinking water not efficiently treated. The ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based analytical method presented here allows simultaneous analysis of 22 cyanotoxins from different toxin groups, including anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularin and microcystins in raw water and drinking water. The use of reference standards enables correct identification of toxins as well as precision of the quantification and due to matrix effects, recovery correction is required. The multi-toxin group method presented here, does not compromise sensitivity, despite the large number of analytes. The limit of quantification was set to 0.1 mu g/L for 75% of the cyanotoxins in drinking water and 0.5 mu g/L for all cyanotoxins in raw water, which is compliant with the WHO guidance value for microcystin-LR. The matrix effects experienced during analysis were reasonable for most analytes, considering the large volume injected into the mass spectrometer. The time of analysis, including lysing of cell bound toxins, is less than three hours. Furthermore, the method was tested in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds resulting in evidence of presence of anatoxin, homo-anatoxin, cylindrospermopsin and several variants of microcystins for the first time in Sweden, proving its usefulness.

  • 13.
    Sandblom, Erik
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Clark, Timothy D.
    Univ Tasmania, Hobart, Tas 7000, Australia.;CSIRO Agr Flagship, Hobart, Tas 7000, Australia..
    Grans, Albin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Box 234, S-53223 Skara, Sweden..
    Ekstrom, Andreas
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Brijs, Jeroen
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 463, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Odelstrom, Anne
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Inst Coastal Res, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, S-74242 Oregrund, Sweden..
    Adill, Anders
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Inst Coastal Res, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, S-74242 Oregrund, Sweden..
    Aho, Teija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Inst Coastal Res, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, S-74242 Oregrund, Sweden..
    Jutfelt, Fredrik
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings2016In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 7, article id 11447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the resilience of aquatic ectothermic animals to climate warming has been hindered by the absence of experimental systems experiencing warming across relevant timescales (for example, decades). Here, we examine European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) from the Biotest enclosure, a unique coastal ecosystem that maintains natural thermal fluctuations but has been warmed by 5-10 degrees C by a nuclear power plant for over three decades. We show that Biotest perch grow faster and display thermally compensated resting cardiorespiratory functions compared with reference perch living at natural temperatures in adjacent waters. However, maximum cardiorespiratory capacities and heat tolerance limits exhibit limited or no thermal compensation when compared with acutely heated reference perch. We propose that while basal energy requirements and resting cardiorespiratory functions (floors) are thermally plastic, maximum capacities and upper critical heat limits (ceilings) are much less flexible and thus will limit the adaptive capacity of fishes in a warming climate.

  • 14.
    Sundström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Devlin, Robert H
    Ecological implications of genetically modified fishes in freshwater fisheries, with a focus on salmonids2015In: Freshwater Fisheries Ecology, Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, 2015, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Sundström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lõhmus, Mare
    Karolinska Institute Stockholm, Sweden.
    Devlin, Robert
    DFO Centre for Aquaculture and Environmental Research, West Vancouver, Canada.
    Accuracy of nonmolecular identification of growth-hormone-transgenic coho salmon after simulated escape2015In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1618-1629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns with transgenic animals include the potential ecological risks associated with release or escape to the natural environment, and a critical requirement for assessment of ecological effects is the ability to distinguish transgenic animals from wild type. Here, we explore geometric morphometrics (GeoM) and human expertise to distinguish growth-hormone-transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) specimens from wild type. First, we simulated an escape of 3-month-old hatchery-reared wild-type and transgenic fish to an artificial stream, and recaptured them at the time of seaward migration at an age of 13 months. Second, we reared fish in the stream from first-feeding fry until an age of 13 months, thereby simulating fish arising from a successful spawn in the wild of an escaped hatchery-reared transgenic fish. All fish were then assessed from photographs by visual identification (VID) by local staff and by GeoM based on 13 morphological landmarks. A leave-one-out discriminant analysis of GeoM data had on average 86% (72–100% for individual groups) accuracy in assigning the correct genotypes, whereas the human experts were correct, on average, in only 49% of cases (range of 18–100% for individual fish groups). However, serious errors (i.e., classifying transgenic specimens as wild type) occurred for 7% (GeoM) and 67% (VID) of transgenic fish, and all of these incorrect assignments arose with fish reared in the stream from the first-feeding stage. The results show that we presently lack the skills of visually distinguishing transgenic coho salmon from wild type with a high level of accuracy, but that further development of GeoM methods could be useful in identifying second-generation fish from nature as a nonmolecular approach.Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/14-1905.1

  • 16.
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. DFO Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
    Lohmus, M.
    DFO Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Nobels Vag 13, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Devlin, R. H.
    DFO Ctr Aquaculture & Environm Res, 4160 Marine Dr, W Vancouver, BC V7V 1N6, Canada..
    Gene-environment interactions influence feeding and anti-predator behavior in wild and transgenic coho salmon2016In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental conditions are known to affect phenotypic development in many organisms, making the characteristics of an animal reared under one set of conditions not always representative of animals reared under a different set of conditions. Previous results show that such plasticity can also affect the phenotypes and ecological interactions of different genotypes, including animals anthropogenically generated by genetic modification. To understand how plastic development can affect behavior in animals of different genotypes, we examined the feeding and risk-taking behavior in growth-enhanced transgenic coho salmon (with two-to threefold enhanced daily growth rates compared to wild type) under a range of conditions. When compared to wild-type siblings, we found clear effects of the rearing environment on feeding and risk-taking in transgenic animals and noted that in some cases, this environmental effect was stronger than the effects of the genetic modification. Generally, transgenic fish, regardless of rearing conditions, behaved similar to wild-type fish reared under natural-like conditions. Instead, the more unusual phenotype was associated with wild-type fish reared under hatchery conditions, which possessed an extreme risk averse phenotype compared to the same strain reared in naturalized conditions. Thus, the relative performance of genotypes from one environment (e.g., laboratory) may not always accurately reflect ecological interactions as would occur in a different environment (e.g., nature). Further, when assessing risks of genetically modified organisms, it is important to understand how the environment affects phenotypic development, which in turn may variably influence consequences to ecosystem components across different conditions found in the complexity of nature.

  • 17.
    Sundström, L. Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Vandersteen, Wendy E.
    Lohmus, Mare
    Devlin, Robert H.
    Growth-enhanced coho salmon invading other salmon species populations: effects on early survival and growth2014In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 82-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first genetically modified (GM) fish intended for human consumption has recently stimulated significant scientific discussion and regulatory scrutiny regarding food safety and environmental risks. Currently, no experiments with transgenic fish have been performed in nature, yet such data are needed to facilitate predictions of ecological consequences should engineered fish escape to the natural environment. To address this limitation, we conducted experiments under natural conditions but within a contained environment to assess the impact of invasion of growth-enhanced GM coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum) on survival and growth of three naturally cohabitating fishes: Chinook salmon O.tshawytscha (Walbaum), steelhead trout O.mykiss (Walbaum) and conspecific wild-type coho salmon. We found that the impact of stream-reared GM coho salmon on invaded specimens was similar to the impact of non-GM coho salmon. However, GM fish significantly reduced survival and growth of the invaded populations if they were first allowed to grow larger under hatchery conditions before being released.Synthesis and applications. Our results show that the ecological impact of fish genetically modified (GM) for rapid growth on closely related fish species may not be high in stream environments, unless these fish are first reared under culture conditions where they are able to realize their genetic growth potential. As such, first generation escapes of GM fish into the natural environment should be a main concern in the short term, whereas later generations, which are more similar to naturally occurring genotypes, are expected to have significantly weaker effects but which could persist for longer periods. Our results show that the ecological impact of fish genetically modified (GM) for rapid growth on closely related fish species may not be high in stream environments, unless these fish are first reared under culture conditions where they are able to realize their genetic growth potential. As such, first generation escapes of GM fish into the natural environment should be a main concern in the short term, whereas later generations, which are more similar to naturally occurring genotypes, are expected to have significantly weaker effects but which could persist for longer periods.

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