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  • 1.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    R. Leite, Emilene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Business and Socio‑Political Interaction in International Service Projects: The Case of Brazi2019In: MIR: Management International Review, ISSN 0938-8249, E-ISSN 1861-8901, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 171-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on a business network perspective, the aim of this paper is to present a theoretical view for studying service MNEs in ICT (information communication technology) projects centred on the improvement of public services. The four inter-related concepts of cooperation, legitimacy, commitment and knowledge are applied in the analysis of two projects. Defining the projects as object-based services, the study manifests how service MNEs manage three types of actors (business, politi-cal and social) having their legitimacy in different systems. The cases illustrate cross-border activities where MNEs from Sweden, Spain and China join forces in Brazil with local business, social and political actors and cooperate to strengthen their competitive market position. The study concludes that successful cooperation is partially explained by the management’s ability to incorporate business resources into the needs of the socio-political actors. Furthermore, in object-based services, which are not similar to long-term business relationships, the three involved par-ties advance different types of relationships within a loose network structure. A key implication is that extensive public–private relationships are needed even when MNEs enjoy an established position in a foreign market.

  • 2.
    Lagerström, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Leite, Emilene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Schweizer, Roger
    The Competition: Cooperation Interplay within MNEs for Knowledge Development and Innovation2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Leite, Emilene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Competition in Business Network: A Perspective from Brazil2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Leite, Emilene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Complexity in the 'Extended' Business Network: A Study of Business, Social, and Political Relationships in Smart City Solutions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis an 'extended' business network is investigated. The ‘extended’ view refers to the inclusion of socio-political actors in the firm’s business network. Building on a business network perspective, the thesis’ purpose is to understand how interactions between business, social, and political actors influence the development of smart city solutions. Based on the findings from the four articles included in the thesis, a complexity lens for further understanding of interaction with socio-political actors is presented. It argues that reaching success in the relationship entails finding a balance between economic and social needs.

    Through the analysis of two smart city projects developed in Brazil, this study investigates the influence of socio-political actors on firms’ cooperative and competitive behavior as well as their decisions relating to resource allocation. The findings illustrate that decisions to cooperate or compete are associated with centrality. The firm’s willingness to be a central actor, i.e., a project leader, places traditional buyer-supplier partners in competition. In addition to this, resource allocation is closely linked to customization. In cities demanding a high level of customization of the smart city solution, companies will be encouraged to allocate resources to exploitation, while in cities requiring a low level of customization, exploration will be chosen instead. But knowledge about how to allocate resources is closely linked to the centrality issue, since a central actor may enjoy better access to a large pool of resources and information. Consequently, the final outcome in relational terms can lead to win-lose rather than a win-win situation if rivalry for centrality between business partners intensifies over time.

    The study of such complex interaction contributes to the industrial marketing and business network literature by providing a practical perspective and showing how socio-political actors can be a source of competitive advantages for companies. In addition, this thesis suggests that managers need to cope with the complexity inherent in such type of relationships, primarily due the fact that interaction with socio-political actors has important competitive implications for firms. Ultimately, the thesis offers a framework for investigating complexity in actors’ interactions and resource heterogeneity that complements our understanding of intraorganizational relationships, opening opportunities for a new perspective and better comprehension of the influence of socio-political actors in firms’ business networks.

    List of papers
    1. A business network view on value creation and capture in public-private cooperation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A business network view on value creation and capture in public-private cooperation
    2018 (English)In: Industrial Marketing ManagementArticle in journal (Refereed) In press
    Abstract [en]

    Intersecting the boundaries between public and private economic activity, this study contributes to the research on public-private cooperation. It comprehends how these hybrids organizational arrangements influence value creation and capturing mechanisms in infrastructural city projects. A case study based on the development of a public transportation solution in Brazil is undertaken. Using a business network approach, we propose a theoretical framework of value creation and capturing through public-private cooperation and argue that the value is constructed through the complementarity of resources and the cohesiveness of motives of the involved actors. Our findings suggest that the success of the cooperation goes beyond the benefits from simply generating revenues, thereby expanding the value capturing concept.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    public-private cooperation, business network theory, value creation, value capturing
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347349 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2018-07-23
    2. The cooperation-competition interplay in the ICT industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The cooperation-competition interplay in the ICT industry
    2018 (English)In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 495-505Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Building on a business network perspective, the paper addresses the following question: Why do firms move between cooperation and competition in the context of high-tech industry? Hence, the purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the complex cooperation–competition interplay between actors in a business network.

    Design/methodology/approach: A single case study within the information and communication technology industry is undertaken and illustrates the cooperation–competition interplay in projects of technology.

    Findings: The authors discuss the implications of interdependence on relationship dynamics. The main argument is that business relationships survive despite periods of competition if interdependence is high. Thus, firms move between a state of cooperation and a state of competition within business relationships, rather than ending the relationships when starting to compete.

    Practical implications: This study suggests that managers need to pay attention to how different degrees of interdependence lead firms to be embedded in cooperative or competitive forms of relationships.

    Originality/value: The paper contributes to the ongoing debate about cooperation, competition and coopetition within international business and industrial marketing literature. An interesting aspect in the paper is the cooperation–competition interplay, which is associated with positioning. A centrally positioned actor will choose who to bring into the partnership, with positioning concomitantly changing from project to project. The willingness of being a central actor, i.e. a project leader, places traditional buyer–supplier partners in competition. Thus, cooperation and/or competition becomes contextual.

    Keywords
    Cooperation, Competition, Business relationship, Business network, ICT industry, Interplay
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-338349 (URN)10.1108/JBIM-02-2017-0038 (DOI)000431295000008 ()
    Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Business and Socio-Political Interaction in International Service Projects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business and Socio-Political Interaction in International Service Projects
    (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses multinational enterprises (MNEs) socio-political behavior in a foreign market. In specific, the aim is to increase the understanding of how service MNEs from the ICT (information communication technology) industry, through projects oriented to improve public service in cities, deal with society and public officials in Brazil. A conceptual framework containing the four concepts cooperation, legitimacy, commitment and knowledge is applied for the analysis. Based on two case studies the paper illustrates cross border activities where MNEs from Sweden, Spain and China join effort with local actors to strengthen their competitive market position. Our results reveal that an important strategy used by service MNEs is to get involved in cooperative service project involving business and socio-political actors. Successful cooperation is partially explained by the managements’ ability to incorporate the business resources with the needs of the socio-political actors. The key implication is that extensive public-private networking is needed even when MNEs enjoy an established position in a foreign market.

    Keywords
    socio-political actors, cooperation, competitive market position, legitimacy, knowledge, commitment
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347352 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2019-11-12
    4. Cooperative Innovation Networks – Why do they emerge and how are they configured?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Innovation Networks – Why do they emerge and how are they configured?
    2018 (English)Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to examine why innovation network emerges and how it gets configured. To address that, we examine two cases of IoT (internet of things) technologies applied on public service in Brazil. By using the conceptual framework proposed by Ritala et al., (2016), we demonstrate that innovation network emerges because MNEs are under constant need for innovation and second they have limitation to pursuit and integrate complex knowledge on their own and for that reason cooperation becomes crucial. Such process is characterized by a dynamic complex process which the MNEs’ searching-acting-convincing on an opportunity require business and nonbusiness actors participation. The novelty, however, is that, the findings shows that the locus of innovation is not limited to the traditional business to business relationships but it can also arise from non-business actors such as NGOs and local government.

    Keywords
    Innovation networks, MNEs, government and NGOs, IoT (internet of things).
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347688 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-04-06
  • 5.
    Leite, Emilene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Cooperation and Competition in Business Network: An Emerging Market Perspective2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Leite, Emilene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Swedish MNCs Interacting with Socio-Political Actors in the BRIC Countries: The Effects on Business Activities: Research Proposal presented in COST–EIBA / EIASM Doctoral Think Tank2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    MNC-Host Government Relationship: The Case of Brazil2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Public-Private Cooperation for Social Innovation: The Case of MNEs Involvement  in the Development of the Smart City Concept in Brazil2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pahlberg,, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Åberg, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Exploring Coopetition: When partners start to compete: "Competitive Paper"2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Åberg, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The cooperation-competition interplay in the ICT industry2018In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 495-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Building on a business network perspective, the paper addresses the following question: Why do firms move between cooperation and competition in the context of high-tech industry? Hence, the purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the complex cooperation–competition interplay between actors in a business network.

    Design/methodology/approach: A single case study within the information and communication technology industry is undertaken and illustrates the cooperation–competition interplay in projects of technology.

    Findings: The authors discuss the implications of interdependence on relationship dynamics. The main argument is that business relationships survive despite periods of competition if interdependence is high. Thus, firms move between a state of cooperation and a state of competition within business relationships, rather than ending the relationships when starting to compete.

    Practical implications: This study suggests that managers need to pay attention to how different degrees of interdependence lead firms to be embedded in cooperative or competitive forms of relationships.

    Originality/value: The paper contributes to the ongoing debate about cooperation, competition and coopetition within international business and industrial marketing literature. An interesting aspect in the paper is the cooperation–competition interplay, which is associated with positioning. A centrally positioned actor will choose who to bring into the partnership, with positioning concomitantly changing from project to project. The willingness of being a central actor, i.e. a project leader, places traditional buyer–supplier partners in competition. Thus, cooperation and/or competition becomes contextual.

  • 11.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Åberg, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Interplay between Cooperation and Competition in Business Network: An Emerging Market Perspective: "Competitive Paper"2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Åberg, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    When Cooperation becomes Competition: Ericsson in Brazil2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    R. Leite, Emilene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Cross-Sector Partnership in Smart City Development:: The Case of Brazil2019In: Handbook of Research on Social and Organizational Dynamics in the Digital Era / [ed] Efosa C. Idemudia (Arkansas Tech University, USA), IGI Global, 2019, 1, p. 235-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is a persistent phenomenon. As cities have expanded, so has the demand for government ability to provide better infrastructure and public services. The “smart city” concept may form a response to these urban challenges. From a business point of view, incorporating digital technologies to address some of the city’s sustainability challenges is a means to create business opportunities for firms. However, a smart city project is complex, and it requires firms interaction with government and civil society. Hence, the aim of this chapter is to understand how firms manage their relationships with sociopolitical actors in projects for smart city development and how socio-political actors can be a source of competitive advantage. These questions will be answered by applying business network perspective within cross-sector partnership in the context of firms operating in Brazil. The study contributes to a foundation for a better discussion among policy makers and practitioners about promoting inter-organizational cooperation in projects with a social purpose.

  • 14.
    R. Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Bengtson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    A business network view on value creation and capture in public-private cooperation2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 73, p. 181-192Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    R. Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Bengtson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Cross-Sector Collaboration between Business and Non-Business Actors: The Case of an ICT-Project in Brazil: Book Chapter2015In: Modern Techniques for Successful IT Project Management: IGI Global Book Series / [ed] Shang Gao and Lazar Rusu, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2015, p. 265-284Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the project management literature by introducing behavioural aspects of relationships in collaborative ICT projects. Specifically, it examines the role played by business and non-business actors in successful projects regarding urban mobility in emerging economies. To accomplish this, a case study was undertaken, based on the development of a solution for public transportation in the South of Brazil. The findings suggest that, besides technological know-how, the interplay between commitment, knowledge, and opportunity development seem to have a combined impact on project outcome. The result strengthens the idea that studies analysing project management should consider not only rational dimensions of the projects, such as cost, time, quality, and scope, but also the social dimension in terms of the relationships that partners develop during and after the project.

  • 16.
    R. Leite, Emilene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pahlberg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    A Network View on Business-Political Interaction for Sustainable Development: The Cases of ICT Projects in Brazil2017In: Proceedings of the 59th annual meeting of the Academy of International Business: The Contribution of MNEs to Building Sustainable Societies, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 16 of 16
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