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  • 1. Fridjonsdottir, Elva
    et al.
    Vallianatou, Theodosia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Svenningsson, Per
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Imaging aging effects on the catecholamine, serotonin, and histamine neurotransmitter systems in specific brain regionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Goodwin, Richard J. A.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Vallianatou, Theodosia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Webborn, Peter J. H.
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Mass Spectrometry Imaging in Drug Development2015In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 1437-1455Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fridjonsdottir, Elva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Vallianatou, Theodosia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Källbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Katan, Luay
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Sävmarker, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Mantas, Ioannis
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Sect Neurol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhang, Xiaoqun
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Sect Neurol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bezard, Erwan
    Univ Bordeaux, Inst Malad Neurodegenerat, Bordeaux, France;CNRS, Inst Malad Neurodegenerat, Bordeaux, France.
    Svenningsson, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Sect Neurol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odell, Luke R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Comprehensive mapping of neurotransmitter networks by MALDI-MS imaging2019In: Nature Methods, ISSN 1548-7091, E-ISSN 1548-7105, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 1021-1028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approach for the comprehensive mapping of neurotransmitter networks in specific brain regions. Our fluoromethylpyridinium-based reactive matrices facilitate the covalent charge-tagging of molecules containing phenolic hydroxyl and/or primary or secondary amine groups, including dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitters and their associated metabolites. These matrices improved the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI detection limit toward low-abundance neurotransmitters and facilitated the simultaneous imaging of neurotransmitters in fine structures of the brain at a lateral resolution of 10 mu m. We demonstrate strategies for the identification of unknown molecular species using the innate chemoselectivity of the reactive matrices and the unique isotopic pattern of a brominated reactive matrix. We illustrate the capabilities of the developed method on Parkinsonian brain samples from human post-mortem tissue and animal models. The direct imaging of neurotransmitter systems provides a method for exploring how various neurological diseases affect specific brain regions through neurotransmitter modulation.

  • 4.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Strittmatter, Nicole
    AstraZeneca, Drug Safety & Metab, Cambridge CB4 0WG, England..
    Nilsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kallbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Alvarsson, Alexandra
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Neurol & Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zhang, Xiaoqun
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Neurol & Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vallianatou, Theodosia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Svenningsson, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Neurol & Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Goodwin, Richard J. A.
    AstraZeneca, Drug Safety & Metab, Cambridge CB4 0WG, England..
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Simultaneous imaging of multiple neurotransmitters and neuroactive substances in the brain by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry2016In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 136, p. 129-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With neurological processes involving multiple neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, it is important to have the ability to directly map and quantify multiple signaling molecules simultaneously in a single analysis. By utilizing a molecular-specific approach, namely desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI), we demonstrated that the technique can be used to image multiple neurotransmitters and their metabolites (dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate,gamma-aminobutyric acid, adenosine) as well as neuroactive drugs (amphetamine, sibutramine, fluvoxamine) and drug metabolites in situ directly in brain tissue sections. The use of both positive and negative ionization modes increased the number of identified molecular targets. Chemical derivatization by charge-tagging the primary amines of molecules significantly increased the sensitivity, enabling the detection of low abundant neurotransmitters and other neuroactive substances previously undetectable by MSI. The sensitivity of the imaging approach of neurochemicals has a great potential in many diverse applications in fields such as neuroscience, pharmacology, drug discovery, neurochemistry, and medicine.

  • 5.
    Vallianatou, Theodosia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Advanced Mass Spectrometry Imaging in Neuropharmacology2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has emerged as a valuable approach for mapping multiple molecular species in sections of diverse tissues. It enables simultaneous detection of numerous compounds (from neurotransmitters to small proteins) in the brain at relatively high lateral resolution (>5 μm) on a routine basis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI)-MSI are the most widely applied MSI techniques in tissue distribution studies. Recent advances in MSI instruments and software allow quantitative analysis of large numbers of compounds with high mass accuracy and high mass resolving power. Thus, in studies this thesis is based upon, MSI technology was used to address several challenging aspects of neuropharmacology. Restricted passage of potentially neuroactive substances into the brain, unpredictable multi-target effects, and the complexity of the central nervous system (CNS) physiology, are major obstacles in the development of efficient drugs. The simultaneous investigation of drugs’ delivery to the brain and potential effects on several CNS pathways in specific brain regions is, therefore, highly important. In addition, localization information is required for more comprehensive insights into CNS responses to both pharmaceutical agents and biological processes such as aging.

    MSI-based analysis of the transport of two selected drugs into the brain demonstrated effects of efflux membrane proteins on their distributions in the brain. The MDR1 substrate loperamide was found to localize specifically in the choroid plexus, indicating low brain entrance. In addition, MSI uncovered drug-drug interactions at the blood-brain barrier involving MDR1 inhibition. The technology was further used to explore neurochemical alterations induced by aging and acetylcholinesterase inhibition. First, MSI revealed that the cholinergic system’s responsivity in the retrosplenial cortex, a post-cingulate cortical area highly involved in cognition, to acetylcholinesterase inhibition significantly declined with age. Subsequently, simultaneous investigation of multiple brain metabolic pathways in specific brain areas with multivariate data analysis techniques demonstrated age-induced alterations in mitochondrial function, lipid signaling, and acetylcholine metabolism. Finally, MSI unveiled age-induced alterations in levels and distributions of the monoaminergic neurotransmitters and their metabolites in particular brain areas such as the ventral pallidum, caudate putamen, hippocampus, and cortical substructures. Age- and region-specific effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibition on the neurotransmitter systems were also detected. In conclusion, the studies provided novel insights into important brain pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic phenomena using advanced MSI techniques, as described and discussed in this thesis.

    List of papers
    1. A mass spectrometry imaging approach for investigating how drug-drug interactions influence drug blood-brain barrier permeability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A mass spectrometry imaging approach for investigating how drug-drug interactions influence drug blood-brain barrier permeability
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 172, p. 808-816Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There is a high need to develop quantitative imaging methods capable of providing detailed brain localization information of several molecular species simultaneously. In addition, extensive information on the effect of the blood-brain barrier on the penetration, distribution and efficacy of neuroactive compounds is required. Thus, we have developed a mass spectrometry imaging method to visualize and quantify the brain distribution of drugs with varying blood-brain barrier permeability. With this approach, we were able to determine blood-brain barrier transport of different drugs and define the drug distribution in very small brain structures (e.g., choroid plexus) due to the high spatial resolution provided. Simultaneously, we investigated the effect of drug-drug interactions by inhibiting the membrane transporter multidrug resistance 1 protein. We propose that the described approach can serve as a valuable analytical tool during the development of neuroactive drugs, as it can provide physiologically relevant information often neglected by traditional imaging technologies.

    Keywords
    Mass spectrometry imaging, Blood-brain barrier, Drug-drug interactions, Elacridar, Loperamide, Propranolol
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-353358 (URN)10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.01.013 (DOI)000430364100067 ()29329980 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2013-3105]Swedish Research Council, 2014-6215]Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIF14-0078]AstraZenecaEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607517The Swedish Brain FoundationScience for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
    Available from: 2018-06-12 Created: 2018-06-12 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Molecular imaging identifies age-related attenuation of acetylcholine in retrosplenial cortex in response to acetylcholinesterase inhibition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular imaging identifies age-related attenuation of acetylcholine in retrosplenial cortex in response to acetylcholinesterase inhibition
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, Vol. 44, p. 2091-2098Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The neurotransmitter of the cholinergic system, acetylcholine plays a major role in the brain's cognitive function and is involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we present age-related alterations of acetylcholine levels after administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drug tacrine in normal mice. Using a quantitative, robust and molecular-specific mass spectrometry imaging method we found that tacrine administration significantly raised acetylcholine levels in most areas of sectioned mice brains, inter alia the striatum, hippocampus and cortical areas. However, acetylcholine levels in retrosplenial cortex were significantly lower in 14-month-old than in 12-week-old animals following its administration, indicating that normal aging affects the cholinergic system's responsivity. This small brain region is interconnected with an array of brain networks and is involved in numerous cognitive tasks. Simultaneous visualization of distributions of tacrine and its hydroxylated metabolites in the brain revealed a significant decrease in levels of the metabolites in the 14-month-old mice. The results highlight strengths of the imaging technique to simultaneously investigate multiple molecular species and the drug-target effects in specific regions of the brain. The proposed approach has high potential in studies of neuropathological conditions and responses to neuroactive treatments.

    Keywords
    mass spectrometry imaging, acetylcholine, retrosplenial cortex, tacrine, aging
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392312 (URN)10.1038/s41386-019-0397-5 (DOI)000490174900013 ()31009936 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2018-03320Swedish Research Council, 2018-05501EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607517The Swedish Brain FoundationSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RIF14-0078Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
    Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Imaging age-induced perturbations of mitochondrial function, neurotransmission and lipid signaling in specific brain regions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Imaging age-induced perturbations of mitochondrial function, neurotransmission and lipid signaling in specific brain regions
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392314 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-09-02
    4. Imaging aging effects on the catecholamine, serotonin, and histamine neurotransmitter systems in specific brain regions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Imaging aging effects on the catecholamine, serotonin, and histamine neurotransmitter systems in specific brain regions
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392315 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-09-02
  • 6.
    Vallianatou, Theodosia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fridjonsdottir, Elva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Källback, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Schintu, Nicoletta
    Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SE-17176, Sweden.
    Svenningsson, Per
    Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SE-17176, Sweden.
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Molecular imaging identifies age-related attenuation of acetylcholine in retrosplenial cortex in response to acetylcholinesterase inhibition2019In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, Vol. 44, p. 2091-2098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neurotransmitter of the cholinergic system, acetylcholine plays a major role in the brain's cognitive function and is involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we present age-related alterations of acetylcholine levels after administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor drug tacrine in normal mice. Using a quantitative, robust and molecular-specific mass spectrometry imaging method we found that tacrine administration significantly raised acetylcholine levels in most areas of sectioned mice brains, inter alia the striatum, hippocampus and cortical areas. However, acetylcholine levels in retrosplenial cortex were significantly lower in 14-month-old than in 12-week-old animals following its administration, indicating that normal aging affects the cholinergic system's responsivity. This small brain region is interconnected with an array of brain networks and is involved in numerous cognitive tasks. Simultaneous visualization of distributions of tacrine and its hydroxylated metabolites in the brain revealed a significant decrease in levels of the metabolites in the 14-month-old mice. The results highlight strengths of the imaging technique to simultaneously investigate multiple molecular species and the drug-target effects in specific regions of the brain. The proposed approach has high potential in studies of neuropathological conditions and responses to neuroactive treatments.

  • 7.
    Vallianatou, Theodosia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Karlgren, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Hulme, Heather
    Fridjonsdottir, Elva
    Svenningsson, Per
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Imaging age-induced perturbations of mitochondrial function, neurotransmission and lipid signaling in specific brain regionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Vallianatou, Theodosia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Strittmatter, Nicole
    AstraZeneca, IMED Biotech Unit, Pathol Sci Drug Safety & Metab, Cambridge, England.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hamm, Gregory
    AstraZeneca, IMED Biotech Unit, Pathol Sci Drug Safety & Metab, Cambridge, England.
    Pereira, Marcela
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Neurol & Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Källback, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Svenningsson, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Neurol & Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlgren, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Goodwin, Richard J. A.
    AstraZeneca, IMED Biotech Unit, Pathol Sci Drug Safety & Metab, Cambridge, England.
    Andrén, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    A mass spectrometry imaging approach for investigating how drug-drug interactions influence drug blood-brain barrier permeability2018In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 172, p. 808-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a high need to develop quantitative imaging methods capable of providing detailed brain localization information of several molecular species simultaneously. In addition, extensive information on the effect of the blood-brain barrier on the penetration, distribution and efficacy of neuroactive compounds is required. Thus, we have developed a mass spectrometry imaging method to visualize and quantify the brain distribution of drugs with varying blood-brain barrier permeability. With this approach, we were able to determine blood-brain barrier transport of different drugs and define the drug distribution in very small brain structures (e.g., choroid plexus) due to the high spatial resolution provided. Simultaneously, we investigated the effect of drug-drug interactions by inhibiting the membrane transporter multidrug resistance 1 protein. We propose that the described approach can serve as a valuable analytical tool during the development of neuroactive drugs, as it can provide physiologically relevant information often neglected by traditional imaging technologies.

1 - 8 of 8
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