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  • 1.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bird, Laura
    Keenaghan, Samantha
    Diamond, Clare
    Zampieri, Eliana
    Tosodduk, Haleema
    Bremner, Andrew J.
    Cowie, Dorothy
    The developing bodily self: Posture constrains embodiment in children and adultsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For adults, the feeling of inhabiting a body (a sense of embodiment) is constrained by bottom-up multisensory information such as spatiotemporal correlations between visual and tactile sensations, and by top-down knowledge of the body such as its possible postures. However, to date it is unknown what kinds of body models children have. Here we asked whether common factors constrain embodiment in children and adults. In two experiments, we compared 6- to 7-year-olds’ and adults’ embodiment of a fake hand in the rubber hand illusion, measuring illusion-induced proprioceptive drift and questionnaire responses. In Experiment 1 (N = 120), the fake hand was either congruent with the participant’s own hand, or incongruent by 90° and, as a result, in an impossible posture with respect to the current position of their body. In Experiment 2 (N = 60), the fake hand was incongruent with the participant’s own hand by 20°, but still in a possible posture. Across both experiments, and in both children and adults, visual-proprioceptive congruency of posture, and visual-tactile spatiotemporal congruency in stroking independently yielded greater proprioceptive drift towards the rubber hand. Subjective ratings of embodiment were also higher when visual-tactile information was congruent, but were not affected by posture. Top-down knowledge of body posture therefore partially constrains embodiment in middle childhood, as in adulthood. This shows that, although childhood is a period of significant change in both bodily dimensions and sensory capabilities, 6- to 7-year-olds have sensitive, robust mechanisms for maintaining a sense of bodily self.

  • 2.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ Prospective Control during Object Manipulation in an Uncertain Environment2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Two-step actions in infancy—the TWAIN model2019In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a novel model—the TWAIN model—to describe the durations of two-step actions in a reach-to-place task in human infants. Previous research demonstrates that infants and adults plan their actions across multiple steps. They adjust, for instance, the velocity of a reaching action depending on what they intend to do with the object once it is grasped. Despite these findings and irrespective of the larger context in which the action occurs, current models (e.g., Fitts’ law) target single, isolated actions, as, for example, pointing to a goal. In the current paper, we develop and empirically test a more ecologically valid model of two-step action planning. More specifically, 61 18-month olds took part in a reach-to-place task and their reaching and placing durations were measured with a motion-capture system. Our model explained the highest amount of variance in placing duration and outperformed six previously suggested models, when using model comparison. We show that including parameters of the first action step, here the duration of the reaching action, can improve the description of the second action step, here the duration of the placing action. This move towards more ecologically valid models of action planning contributes knowledge as well as a framework for assessing human machine interactions. The TWAIN model provides an updated way to quantify motor learning by the time these abilities develop, which might help to assess performance in typically developing human children.

  • 4.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ Prospective Control during Object Manipulation2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Gottwald, Janna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Achermann, Sheila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An embodied account of early executive functions development: Prospective motor control in infancy is related to prohibition and working memory2016In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Gottwald, Janna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Achermann, Sheila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development: Prospective Motor Control in Infancy Is Related to Inhibition and Working Memory2016In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 1600-1610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasksinvolving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibitionand a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants' performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks. The current study provides evidence that motor control and executive functioning are intertwined early in life, which suggests an embodied perspective on executive-functioning development. We argue that executive functions and prospective motor control develop from a common source and a single motive: to control action. This is the first demonstration that low-level movement planning is related to higher-order executive control early in life.

  • 7.
    Gottwald, Janna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    de Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora
    Univ Padua, Dept Dev Psychol & Socializat, Padua, Italy.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekberg, Therese L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple step actions be explained by Fitts' law?2017In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 4-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place task, with difficulty of the placing action varied by goal size and goal distance. To target prospective motor control, we determined the kinematics of the prior reaching movements using a motion-tracking system. Peak velocity of the first movement unit of the reach served as indicator for prospective motor control. Both difficulty aspects (goal size and goal distance) affected prior reaching, suggesting that both these aspects of the subsequent action have an impact on the prior action. The smaller the goal size and the longer the distance to the goal, the slower infants were in the beginning of their reach toward the object. Additionally, we modeled movement times of both reaching and placing actions using a formulation of Fitts' law (as in heading). The model was significant for placement and reaching movement times. These findings suggest that 14-month-olds can plan their future actions and prospectively control their related movements with respect to future task difficulties.

  • 8.
    Gottwald, Janna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elsner, Birgit
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Potsdam, Germany..
    Pollatos, Olga
    Univ Ulm, Dept Hlth Psychol, D-89069 Ulm, Germany..
    Good is up-spatial metaphors in action observation2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive objects or actions are associated with physical highness, whereas negative objects or actions are related to physical lowness. Previous research suggests that metaphorical connection ("good is up" or "bad is down") between spatial experience and evaluation of objects is grounded in actual experience with the body. Prior studies investigated effects of spatial metaphors with respect to verticality of either static objects or self-performed actions. By presenting videos of object placements, the current three experiments combined vertically-located stimuli with observation of vertically-directed actions. As expected, participants' ratings of emotionally-neutral objects were systematically influenced by the observed vertical positioning, that is, ratings were more positive for objects that were observed being placed up as compared to down. Moreover, effects were slightly more pronounced for "bad is down," because only the observed downward, but not the upward, action led to different ratings as compared to a medium-positioned action. Last, some ratings were even affected by observing only the upward/downward action, without seeing the final vertical placement of the object. Thus, both, a combination of observing a vertically-directed action and seeing a vertically-located object, and observing a vertically-directed action alone, affected participants' evaluation of emotional valence of the involved object. The present findings expand the relevance of spatial metaphors to action observation, thereby giving new impetus to embodied-cognition research.

  • 9.
    Gottwald, Janna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants' prospective control during object manipulation in an uncertain environment2015In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 233, no 8, p. 2383-2390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how infants use visual and sensorimotor information to prospectively control their actions. We gave 14-month-olds two objects of different weight and observed how high they were lifted, using a Qualisys Motion Capture System. In one condition, the two objects were visually distinct (different color condition) in another they were visually identical (same color condition). Lifting amplitudes of the first movement unit were analyzed in order to assess prospective control. Results demonstrate that infants lifted a light object higher than a heavy object, especially when vision could be used to assess weight (different color condition). When being confronted with two visually identical objects of different weight (same color condition), infants showed a different lifting pattern than what could be observed in the different color condition, expressed by a significant interaction effect between object weight and color condition on lifting amplitude. These results indicate that (a) visual information about object weight can be used to prospectively control lifting actions and that (b) infants are able to prospectively control their lifting actions even without visual information about object weight. We argue that infants, in the absence of reliable visual information about object weight, heighten their dependence on non-visual information (tactile, sensorimotor memory) in order to estimate weight and pre-adjust their lifting actions in a prospective manner.

  • 10.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekberg, Therese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hofsten, von, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What’s next? Infants Prospectively Control their Reaching Movements Depending on the Difficulty of their Subsequent Action2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ adaptation to object weight2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Gottwald, Janna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ adaptation to object weight2014Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 12 of 12
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