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  • 1.
    Favre, Adrien
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Plant Ecol Genet, Inst Integrat Biol, Univ Str 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Leipzig, Inst Biol, Dept Mol Evolut & Plant Systemat & Herbarium LZ, Johannisallee 21-23, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Widmer, Alex
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Plant Ecol Genet, Inst Integrat Biol, Univ Str 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Plant Ecol Genet, Inst Integrat Biol, Univ Str 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Differential adaptation drives ecological speciation in campions (Silene): evidence from a multi-site transplant experiment2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 213, no 3, p. 1487-1499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the role of differential adaptation for the evolution of reproductive barriers, we conducted a multi-site transplant experiment with the dioecious sister species Silenedioica and S.latifolia and their hybrids. Crosses within species as well as reciprocal first-generation (F-1) and second-generation (F-2) interspecific hybrids were transplanted into six sites, three within each species' habitat. Survival and flowering were recorded over 4yr. At all transplant sites, the local species outperformed the foreign species, reciprocal F-1 hybrids performed intermediately and F-2 hybrids underperformed in comparison to F-1 hybrids (hybrid breakdown). Females generally had slightly higher cumulative fitness than males in both within- and between-species crosses and we thus found little evidence for Haldane's rule acting on field performance. The strength of selection against F-1 and F-2 hybrids as well as hybrid breakdown increased with increasing strength of habitat adaptation (i.e. the relative fitness difference between the local and the foreign species) across sites. Our results suggest that differential habitat adaptation led to ecologically dependent post-zygotic reproductive barriers and drives divergence and speciation in this Silene system.

  • 2. Luo, Yonghai
    et al.
    Dong, Xinwei
    Yu, Tianying
    Shi, Xuan
    Li, Zongyun
    Yang, Weicai
    Widmer, Alex
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    A Single Nucleotide Deletion in Gibberellin20-oxidase1 Causes Alpine Dwarfism in Arabidopsis2015In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 168, no 3, p. 930-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine dwarfism is widely observed in alpine plant populations and often considered a high-altitude adaptation, yet its molecular basis and ecological relevance remain unclear. In this study, we used map-based cloning and field transplant experiments to investigate dwarfism in natural Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions collected from the Swiss Alps. A loss-of-function mutation due to a single nucleotide deletion in gibberellin20-oxidase1 (GA5) was identified as the cause of dwarfism in an alpine accession. The mutated allele, ga5-184, was found in two natural Arabidopsis populations collected from one geographic region at high altitude, but was different from all other reported ga5 null alleles, suggesting that this allele has evolved locally. In field transplant experiments, the dwarf accession with ga5-184 exhibited a fitness pattern consistent with adaptation to high altitude. Across a wider array of accessions from the Swiss Alps, plant height decreased with altitude of origin, but fitness patterns in the transplant experiments were variable and general altitudinal adaptation was not evident. In general, our study provides new insights into molecular basis and possible ecological roles of alpine dwarfism, and demonstrates the importance of the GA-signaling pathway for the generation of ecologically relevant variation in higher plants.

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